Energy drink consumption in a pluri-ethnic population of adolescents in the Pacific.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Energy drinks are very popular among teenagers but may cause health problems. Energy drink consumption is partly associated with energy drink perception, but little is known about this in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the relationships between energy drink consumption, energy drink perception, weight status and sociodemographic characteristics in a school-going sample of Pacific adolescents. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study carried out in the schools during school hours between July 2015 and April 2016. SETTING:Sociodemographic characteristics, weight status, energy drink perception, and quantity of energy drinks consumed were obtained. Chi-square tests of independence, independent t tests, multivariate logistic regressions and multiple linear regressions were used. SUBJECTS:A representative sample of 678 New Caledonian adolescents (11-16 years). RESULTS:We found that one third of New Caledonian adolescents consume energy drinks. Boys are more likely to drink them than girls and Polynesians drink significantly more than European and Melanesian adolescents. Higher energy drink consumption in the New Caledonian adolescents is associated with good or neutral perceptions of the energy drink impact on health. Moreover, sex (being male) significantly influences the total energy drink consumption per week. Energy drink consumers have a tendency toward better perceptions of energy drinks than non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS:Nutritional education targeting energy drink consumers should take these results into account by providing (community-based) educational programs, especially for adolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds, boys, or those living in rural areas.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To describe the social determinants and development in energy drink consumption among Norwegian adolescents in 2017, 2018 and 2019.<h4>Design</h4>Cross-sectional, online, annual, nationwide surveys (Ungdata).<h4>Setting</h4>Responses collected online from January 2017 to December 2019.<h4>Participants</h4>Lower and upper secondary school students (n=297 102) aged 12-19 years who responded in 2017, 2018 and 2019.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Frequency of energy drink consumption.<h4>Results</h4>Over the 3-year period, 66.4% of the men and 41.8% of the women had consumed energy drink once a week or more. The proportion of female high consumers (consuming energy drink more than four times a week) increased from 3.3% to 4.9% between 2017 and 2019; for male, the increase was from 9.8% to 11.5%. In females, the proportion of high consumers increased with 24% (relative risk; CI) (1.24; 1.09 to 1.41) from 2017 to 2018 and 46% (1.46; 1.31 to 1.62) from 2017 to 2019. The corresponding increases in males were 10% (1.10; 1.01 to 1.20) from 2017 to 2018 and 12% (1.12; 1.05 to 1.19) from 2017 to 2019. Any energy drink consumption as well as high energy drink consumption were independently associated with school level, less central residency, low socioeconomic status, physical inactivity and high leisure screen time.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We found an increase in high consumers among both boys and girls between 2017 and 2019. The observed increase in energy drink consumption among adolescents can explain some of the increased sales of energy drink in Norway.
Project description:It is well known that reducing consumption of sugar is a global public health priority. Beverages were the primary source of total sugar intake from processed foods. However, there are few studies investigating the trend of beverage consumption among children and adolescents in Korea. We examined the overall trend in beverage consumption among 11,996 participants aged 10-18 years who were enrolled in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (1998-2018). Further, we examined the effect of beverage types on beverage consumption-related demographic factors and obesity among 6121 participants using the recent 24 h dietary recall data (2010-2018) that captured the consumption of fruit and vegetable juices, soft drinks, milk and milk-based products and alcoholic beverages. Demographic characteristics, including sex, age, body mass index, household income level and residential area, were considered. Consumers' overall beverage intake and the percentage of energy derived from fruit and vegetable juices and soft drinks steadily increased from 1998 to 2016-2018 (p-trend < 0.0001); in contrast, dairy product consumption declined since 2010-2012. The main sources of beverage-based calories were fruit and vegetable juices (107.5 kcal/day), soft drinks (145.2 kcal/day), dairy products (181.8 kcal/day) and alcoholic beverages (103.5 kcal/day). Also, Korean adolescents aged 16-18 years consumed more soft drinks, fewer dairy products and higher alcoholic drinks than other age groups; particularly, boys consumed more energy from beverages (p < 0.0001). The odds ratios of obesity prevalence tended to be higher for soft drink consumption than for other beverages but this was not significant. The consumption of fruit and vegetable juices and milk and milk products showed a marginal association with a reduced risk of obesity prevalence. Since beverage consumption has increased steadily among Korean children and adolescents, appropriate interventions are needed. In the future, data from a larger sample of Korean children and adolescents are necessary to identify significant differences and longitudinal studies are necessary to examine the causalities.
Project description:Our objective was to describe the fluid and energy consumption of beverages in a large sample of European adolescents.We used data from 2741 European adolescents residing in 8 countries participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). We averaged two 24-h recalls, collected using the HELENA-dietary assessment tool. By gender and age subgroup (12.5-14.9 years and 15-17.5 years), we examined per capita and per consumer fluid (milliliters (ml)) and energy (kilojoules (kJ)) intake from beverages and percentage consuming 10 different beverage groups.Mean beverage consumption was 1611?ml/day in boys and 1316?ml/day in girls. Energy intake from beverages was about 1966?kJ/day and 1289?kJ/day in European boys and girls, respectively, with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, including soft drinks, fruit drinks and powders/concentrates) contributing to daily energy intake more than other groups of beverages. Boys and older adolescents consumed the most amount of per capita total energy from beverages. Among all age and gender subgroups, SSBs, sweetened milk (including chocolate milk and flavored yogurt drinks all with added sugar), low-fat milk and fruit juice provided the highest amount of per capita energy. Water was consumed by the largest percentage of adolescents followed by SSBs, fruit juice and sweetened milk. Among consumers, water provided the greatest fluid intake and sweetened milk accounted for the largest amount of energy intake followed by SSBs. Patterns of energy intake from each beverage varied between countries.European adolescents consume an average of 1455?ml/day of beverages, with the largest proportion of consumers and the largest fluid amount coming from water. Beverages provide 1609?kJ/day, of which 30.4%, 20.7% and 18.1% comes from SSBs, sweetened milk and fruit juice, respectively.
Project description:Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 -66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks.
Project description:The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI.We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption.Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms.Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed.Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers.TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol mixed with energy drinks further increase the odds of TBI among adolescents. These associations warrant further investigation.
Project description:Consumption of sugary drinks is associated with the development of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases among children and adolescents. In addition to high added sugar content, many sugary drinks also contain caffeine. However, whether the combination of sugar and caffeine uniquely influences children's sugary drink intake is presently unknown. This study aimed to evaluate contextual factors surrounding children's sugary drink consumption and investigate reasons for sugary drink intake among children and adolescents, with a specific focus on caffeinated sodas and sweet tea. We also evaluated how sugary drink consumption makes children feel and how they anticipated that they would respond if sugary drinks were restricted. Focus group discussions (n = 9, 2-8 participants per group) were conducted with 37 predominantly AfricanAmerican children and adolescents, ages 8-14 years, who consumed ≥1 caffeine-containing sugary drink(s) daily, based on parental report. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were independently coded by two coders, after which emergent themes were identified. Reported reasons for sugary drink consumption encompassed five themes: 1) perceived need (e.g., satisfy cravings, quench thirst); 2) physical and cognitive benefits (e.g., provide energy, improve attention); 3) emotional and interpersonal benefits (e.g., relieve anger, facilitate socializing); 4) sensory properties (e.g., taste, carbonation); and, 5) external cues (e.g., family/peer modeling, availability). Negative consequences resulting from excess intake were also reported, including gastrointestinal symptoms, headaches, fatigue, hyperactivity, and chronic disease. Perceived physical, cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal benefits encourage sugary drink consumption and exacerbate well-described challenges of sugary drink reduction, including their palatability, accessibility, and affordability. Findings also suggest that incorporation of strategies to enhance physical, cognitive, and emotional health may hold promise in reducing sugary drink consumption among children and adolescents.
Project description:To date no study has examined time trends in adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and energy drinks, or modelled change in inequalities over time. The present study aimed to fill this gap by identifying historical trends among secondary school students in Wales, United Kingdom. The present study includes 11-16 year olds who completed the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey and the Welsh School Health Research Network (SHRN) survey between 1998 to 2017. Multinomial regression models were employed alongside tests for interaction effects. A total of 176,094 student responses were assessed. From 1998 to 2017, the prevalence of daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption decreased (57% to 18%) while weekly consumption has remained constant since 2006 (49% to 52%). From 2013 to 2017, daily consumption of energy drinks remained stable (6%) while weekly consumption reports steadily decreased (23% to 15%). Boys, older children and those from a low socioeconomic group reported higher consumption rates of sugar-sweetened beverages and energy drinks. Consumption according to socioeconomic group was the only characteristic to show a statistically significant change over time, revealing a widening disparity between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption rates of those from low and high socioeconomic groups. Findings indicate a positive shift in overall consumption rates of both sugar-sweetened beverages and energy drinks. Adolescents from a low socioeconomic group however were consistently shown to report unfavourable sugar-sweetened beverages consumption when compared to peers from high socioeconomic group. Given the established longer term impacts of sugar-sweetened beverage and energy drink consumption on adolescent health outcomes, urgent policy action is required to reduce overall consumption rates, with close attention to equity of impact throughout policy design and evaluation plans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Energy drink consumption has increased dramatically among young Canadians, with anecdotal evidence of adverse health effects. There is a lack of population-based studies to examine the prevalence of adverse events from energy drinks, particularly among young people. The current study sought to assess adverse events from energy drinks among a population-based sample of youth and young adults in Canada. METHODS:An online survey was conducted in 2015 with a national sample of youth (aged 12-17 yr) and young adults (aged 18-24 yr) recruited from a consumer panel. Respondents reported prior consumption of energy drinks as well as adverse outcomes, concurrent activities associated with the outcomes and whether medical attention was sought or considered. Adverse events from coffee were also assessed for comparison. Weighted analyses are reported. RESULTS:Of the 2055 respondents, 1516 (73.8%) reported having ever consumed an energy drink, and 1741 (84.7%) reported having ever consumed coffee (unweighted). Overall, 55.4% of respondents who had ever consumed an energy drink reported that they had experienced at least 1 adverse event, including fast heartbeat (24.7%), difficulty sleeping (24.1%), headache (18.3%), nausea/vomiting/diarrhea (5.1%), chest pain (3.6%) and seizures (0.2%); 3.1% had sought or had considered seeking medical help for an adverse event. The prevalence of reported adverse events was significantly greater among energy drink consumers than among coffee consumers (36.0%) (odds ratio [OR] 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-2.56]), as was the proportion who reported seeking or considering seeking medical help for adverse events (3.1% v. 1.4%) (OR 2.18 [95% CI 1.39-3.41]). INTERPRETATION:More than half of youth and young adults who had consumed energy drinks reported adverse outcomes, some serious enough to warrant seeking medical help. The adverse outcomes were consistent with the physiologic effects of caffeine but were significantly more prevalent than with other sources of caffeine such as coffee, consistent with data from national adverse event databases.
Project description:Energy drink consumption is increasing worldwide, especially among young adults, and has been associated with physical and mental health problems. In two experiments, we tested the prediction that energy drink consumption is in part driven by biased cognitive processing (attentional and approach biases), with a view to modifying these to reduce consumption. Young adults (18-25 years) who regularly consume energy drinks completed the dot probe (Exp.1; N = 116) or approach-avoidance task (Exp.2; N = 110) to measure attentional and approach bias for energy drink cues, respectively. They then underwent a cognitive bias modification protocol where they were trained to direct their attention away from pictures of energy drink cans (Exp.1), or to push a joystick away from themselves in response to these pictures (Exp.2). Following a post-training assessment of attentional (Exp.1) or approach bias (Exp.2), energy drink consumption was measured by an ostensible taste test. Regular energy drink consumers showed both an attentional and an approach bias for energy drink cues. Cognitive bias modification successfully reduced both biases. However, neither attentional nor approach bias modification significantly reduced energy drink intake. The results lend some support to incentive sensitisation theory which emphasises the role of biased decision-making processes related to addictive behaviours.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Energy drink (ED) consumption is increasing all over the world. We sought to describe the consumption of EDs among adolescents in Norway, and to explore the determinants of daily and high consumption. METHODS:Population-based cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 31,091 secondary school students in grade 8-13 aged 12-19 years. School grade, residency, socioeconomic status (SES), physical activity and leisure screen time were included in multiple regression analyses, in order to investigate their associations with daily and high (≥four times weekly) ED consumption. RESULTS:52.3% of the respondents were ED consumers and 3.5% were high consumers. Boys consumed twice as much ED as girls (boys: 36.3 ml/day, girls: 18.5 ml/day, geometric means), and the proportion of male high consumers was 3.7-times higher than that of females. The adjusted odd ratio (OR) of upper secondary school (grades 11-13, ages 15-19) students being high ED consumers were higher than for lower secondary school (grades 8-10, ages 12-15) students (OR 1.1(confidence interval (CI):1.0-1.3)), as well as higher for rural than urban residents (OR 1.3 (CI: 1.1-1.5)). Gradients for the increased ORs of being a high ED consumer were found for decreased SES, decreased frequency of physical activity and increased daily leisure screen time. CONCLUSIONS:More than half of the respondents reported that they were ED consumers. Daily and high consumption were independently associated with male gender, physical inactivity, high leisure screen time, low socioeconomic status and rural residency.