MiR-34b/c-5p and the neurokinin-1 receptor regulate breast cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:MiR-34 is a tumour suppressor in breast cancer. Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), which is the predicted target of the miR-34 family, is overexpressed in many cancers. This study investigated the correlation and clinical significance of miR-34 and NK1R in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Western blotting, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and luciferase assays were conducted to analyse the regulation of NK1R by miR-34 in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T47D, SK-BR-3 and HEK-293 T cells. MiR-34b/c-5p, full-length NK1R (NK1R-FL) and truncated NK1R (NK1R-Tr) expression in fifty patients were quantified by qRT-PCR and correlated with their clinicopathological parameters. CCK-8 assays, colony formation assays and flow cytometry were used to measure cell proliferation and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells transfected with miR-34b/c-5p or NK1R-siRNA and before treatment with or without Substance P (SP), an endogenous peptide agonists of NK1R. The effect of NK1R antagonist aprepitant was also investigated. In vivo xenograft models were used to further verify the regulation of NK1R by miR-34b/c-5p. RESULTS:Expression levels of miR-34b/c-5p and NK1R-Tr, but not NK1R-FL, were associated with enhanced malignant potential, such as tumour stage and Ki67 expression. The overexpression of miR-34b/c-5p or NK1R silencing potently suppressed cell proliferation and induced G2/M phase arrest and the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The NK1R antagonist aprepitant had similar effects. In vivo studies confirmed that miR-34b/c-5p overexpression or NK1R silencing reduced the tumorigenicity of breast cancer. In addition, SP rescued the effects of miR-34b/c-5p overexpression or NK1R silencing on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo assays. CONCLUSIONS:MiR-34b/c-5p and NK1R contribute to breast cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and are potential targets for breast cancer therapeutics.
Project description:Bone metastasis of breast cancer makes patients suffer from pain, fractures, spinal cord compression, and hypercalcemia, and is almost incurable. Although the mechanisms of bone metastasis in breast cancers have been studied intensively, novel specific target will be helpful to the development of new therapeutic strategy of breast cancer. Herein, we focused on the microRNA of tumor cell-derived exosomes to investigate the communication between the bone microenvironment and tumor cells. The expression of miR-20a-5p in the primary murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), MCF-10A, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, as well as the cell-derived exosomes were assessed by qRT-PCR. Transwell assays were used to evaluate the effects of miR-20a-5p on tumor cell migration and invasion. The expression of exosomes marker including CD63and TSG101 was detected by Western Blot. Cell cycle distribution of BMMs was analyzed by flow cytometry. 3-UTR luciferase reporter assays were used to validate the putative binding between miR-20a-5p and SRCIN1. MiR-20a-5p was highly expressed in breast tumor tissues and the exosomes of MDA-MB-231 cells. MiR-20a-5p promoted migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells, and the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclasts. MDA-MB-231 cell-derived exosomes transferred miR-20a-5p to BMMs and facilitated the osteoclastogenesis via targeting SRCIN1. The present work provides evidence that miR-20a-5p transferred from breast cancer cell-derived exosomes promotes the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclasts by targeting SRCIN1, providing scientific foundations for the development of exosome or miR-20a-5p targeted therapeutic intervention in breast cancer progression.
Project description:MicroRNAs are biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Anacardic acid (AnAc) is a dietary phenolic lipid that inhibits both MCF-7 estrogen receptor ? (ER?) positive and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell proliferation with IC50s of 13.5 and 35 ?M, respectively. To identify potential mediators of AnAc action in breast cancer, we profiled the genome-wide microRNA transcriptome (microRNAome) in these two cell lines altered by the AnAc 24:1n5 congener. Whole genome expression profiling (RNA-seq) and subsequent network analysis in MetaCore Gene Ontology (GO) algorithm was used to characterize the biological pathways altered by AnAc. In MCF-7 cells, 69 AnAc-responsive miRNAs were identified, e.g., increased let-7a and reduced miR-584. Fewer, i.e., 37 AnAc-responsive miRNAs were identified in MDA-MB-231 cells, e.g., decreased miR-23b and increased miR-1257. Only two miRNAs were increased by AnAc in both cell lines: miR-612 and miR-20b; however, opposite miRNA arm preference was noted: miR-20b-3p and miR-20b-5p were upregulated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively. miR-20b-5p target EFNB2 transcript levels were reduced by AnAc in MDA-MB-231 cells. AnAc reduced miR-378g that targets VIM (vimentin) and VIM mRNA transcript expression was increased in AnAc-treated MCF-7 cells, suggesting a reciprocal relationship. The top three enriched GO terms for AnAc-treated MCF-7 cells were B cell receptor signaling pathway and ribosomal large subunit biogenesis and S-adenosylmethionine metabolic process for AnAc-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. The pathways modulated by these AnAc-regulated miRNAs suggest that key nodal molecules, e.g., Cyclin D1, MYC, c-FOS, PPAR?, and SIN3, are targets of AnAc activity.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Detection of their expression may lead to identifying novel markers for breast cancer.We profiled miRNA expression in three breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-468) and then focused on one miRNA, miR-339-5p, for its role in regulation of tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion and target gene expression. We then analyzed miR-339-5p expression in benign and cancerous breast tissue specimens.A number of miRNAs were differentially expressed in these cancer cell lines. Real-time PCR indicated that miR-339-5p expression was downregulated in the aggressive cell lines MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and in breast cancer tissues compared with benign tissues. Transfection of miR-339-5p oligonucleotides reduced cancer cell growth only slightly but significantly decreased tumor cell migration and invasion capacity compared with controls. Real-time PCR analysis showed that BCL-6, a potential target gene of miR-339-5p, was downregulated in MDA-MB-231 cells by miR-339-5p transfection. Furthermore, the reduced miR-339-5p expression was associated with an increase in metastasis to lymph nodes and with high clinical stages. Kaplan-Meier analyses found that the patients with miR-339-5p expression had better overall and relapse-free survivals compared with those without miR-339-5p expression. Cox proportional hazards analyses showed that miR-339-5p expression was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer patients.MiR-339-5p may play an important role in breast cancer progression, suggesting that miR-339-5p should be further evaluated as a biomarker for predicting the survival of breast cancer patients.
Project description:Increasing evidence has revealed that miR-199a-5p is actively involved in tumor invasion and metastasis as well as in the decline of breast cancer tissues. In this research, overexpression of miR-199a-5p weakened motility and invasion of breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Upregulation of Ets-1 increased breast cancer cell invasion, but the mechanism by which miR-199a-5p modulates activation of Ets-1 in breast cancer was not clarified. We investigated the relationship between miR-199a-5p and Ets-1 on the basis of 158 primary breast cancer case specimens, and the results showed that Ets-1 expression was inversely correlated with endogenous miR-199a-5p. Overexpression of miR-199a-5p reduced the mRNA and protein levels of Ets-1 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas anti-miR-199a-5p elevated Ets-1. siRNA-mediated Ets-1 knockdown phenocopied the inhibition invasion of miR-199a-5p in vitro. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-199a-5p directly targeted 3'-UTR of Ets-1 mRNA. This research revealed that miR-199a-5p could descend the levels of ?1 integrin by targeting 3'-UTR of Ets-1 to alleviate the invasion of breast cancer via FAK/Src/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Our results provide insight into the regulation of ?1 integrin through miR-199a-5p-mediated Ets-1 silence and will help in designing new therapeutic strategies to inhibit signal pathways induced by miR-199a-5p in breast cancer invasion.
Project description:The miR-34 family of microRNAs consisting of miR-34a, miR-34b and miR-34c are tumour suppressors. The annotated human miR-34b-5p has one additional base at the 5’ end of the common miR-34 family seed sequence, compared to miR-34a-5p and miR-34c-5p. This extra base results in a shift of the seed sequence, which would affect the target gene repertoire and have functional consequences. During our studies of miR-34 functions, we investigated the precise sequence of mature miR-34b-5p in human cells by deep sequencing. We found that a miR-34b-5p without the extra base was the predominant form in both non-malignant and malignant cells derived from several human tissues, indicating that the miR-34b annotation is misleading. We evaluated the functional implications of the seed shift, by comparing the effect of mimics representing the alternative miR-34b-5p sequences in MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast to the annotated miR-34b, the endogenously expressed miR-34b displayed tumour suppressive characteristics in vitro similarly to miR-34c. These data demonstrate the importance of determining the precise sequence of a mature microRNA before exploring miRNA functions. Overall design: Investigation of miR-34 family functions.
Project description:Accumulating evidences have revealed that dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) involve in the tumorigenesis, progression and even lead to poor prognosis of various carcinomas, including breast cancer. MiRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b) and miRNA-93-5p (miR-93) levels were confirmed to be significantly upregulated in breast cancer clinical samples (n=36) and metastatic cell line (MDA-MB-231) compared with those in the paired adjacent tissues and normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). Moreover, further research stated that the capability of migration, invasion and proliferation changed along with the altered expression of miR-106b and miR-93 in breast cancer. PTEN, the tumor-suppressor gene, was discovered to be reduced in breast cancer tissues or MDA-MB-231 cells with high levels of miR-106b and miR-93, which were inversely expressed in PTEN overexpression tissues or cells. Based on the investigation, miR-106b and miR-93 induced the migration, invasion and proliferation and simultaneously enhanced the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway of MCF-7 cells, which could be blocked by upregulation of PTEN. Furthermore, suppression of PTEN reversed the function induced by anti-miR-106b and anti-miR-93 in MDA-MB-231 cells, indicating that PTEN was directly targeted by these miRNAs and acted as the potential therapeutic target for breast cancer therapy. In short, reductive PTEN mediated by miR-106b and miR-93 promoted cell progression through PI3K/Akt pathway in breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is known to be deregulated in cervical carcinomas. However, no data is available about the miRNA expression pattern for the minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of uterine cervix. We sought to detect deregulated miRNAs in MDA in an attempt to find the most dependable miRNA or their combinations to understand their tumorigenesis pathway and to identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. We also investigated the association between those miRNAs and their target genes, especially Notch1 and Notch2. METHODS: We evaluated miRNA expression profiles via miRNA microarray and validated them using.real-time PCR assays with 24 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of MDA and 11 normal proliferative endocervical tissues as control. Expression for Notch1 and 2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: MiRNA-135a-3p, 192-5p, 194-5p, and 494 were up-regulated, whereas miR-34b-5p, 204-5p, 299-5p, 424-5p, and 136-3p were down-regulated in MDA compared with normal proliferative endocervical tissues (all P<0.05). Considering the second-order Akaike Information Criterion consisting of likelihood ratio and number of parameters, miR-34b-5p showed the best discrimination power among the nine candidate miRNAs. A combined panel of miR-34b-5p and 194-5p was the best fit model to discriminate between MDA and control, revealing 100% sensitivity and specificity. Notch1 and Notch2, respective target genes of miR-34b-5p and miR-204-5p, were more frequently expressed in MDA than in control (63% vs. 18%; 52% vs. 18%, respectively, P<0.05). MiR-34b-5p expression level was higher in Notch1-negative samples compared with Notch1-positive ones (P<0.05). Down-regulated miR-494 was associated with poor patient survival (P=0.036). CONCLUSIONS: MDA showed distinctive expression profiles of miRNAs, Notch1, and Notch2 from normal proliferative endocervical tissues. In particular, miR-34b-5p and 194-5p might be used as diagnostic biomarkers and miR-494 as a prognostic predictor for MDA. The miR-34b-5p/Notch1 pathway as well as Notch2 might be important oncogenic contributors to MDA.
Project description:Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are novel regulatory molecules in breast cancer development. LncRNA LUCAT1 is a potential tumor promoter in human cancers. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of LUCAT1 in human breast cancer tissues and cells. Methods A total of 31 breast cancer patients who underwent tumor resection, but without chemo- or radiotherapy or acute lung/heart/kidney diseases, provided tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Bioinformatic analysis, qRT-PCR, and luciferase reporter assay were carried out during the study. Results qRT-PCR analysis indicated that, compared with the adjacent tissues and MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells, LUCAT1 was markedly up-regulated in the breast cancer tissues and five BC cell lines, including MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-435, SKBR3, and MCF-7. The knockdown of LUCAT1, through the transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to LUCAT1, resulted in inhibition of proliferation in breast cancer cells. The expression levels of miR-181a-5p were decreased in the breast cancer tissues and five BC cell lines. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay suggested the interaction between miR-181a-5p and LUCAT1. In addition, the effects of LUCAT1 on promoting cell proliferation were attenuated by overexpression of miR-181a-5p through the transfection of miR-181a-5p mimic. Moreover, bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-181a-5p targeted the 3?-UTR region of KLF6 and KLF15 mRNA, which were two tumor suppressor genes. LUCAT1/miR-181a-5p axis regulated the expression of KLF6 and KLF15 both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions Our data indicate that LUCAT1/miR-181a-5p axis can serve as a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer.
Project description:Acquisition of resistance to docetaxel (Doc) is one of the most important problems in treatment of breast cancer patients, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. In present study, Doc-resistant MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231/Doc and MCF-7/Doc) were successfully established in vitro by gradually increasing Doc concentration on the basis of parental MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines (MDA-MB-231/S and MCF-7/S). The potential miRNAs relevant to the Doc resistance were screened by miRNA microarray. We selected 5 upregulated miRNAs (has-miR-3646, has-miR-3658, has-miR-4438, has-miR-1246, and has-miR-574-3p) from the results of microarray for RT-qPCR validation. The results showed that expression level of miR-3646 in MDA-MB-231/Doc cells was significantly higher than in MDA-MB-231/S cells. Compared to MCF-7/S cells, miR-3646 expression was up-regulated in MCF-7/Doc cells. Further studies revealed that transfection of miR-3646 mimics into MDA-MB-231/S or MCF-7/S cells remarkably increased their drug resistance, in contrast, transfection of miR-3646 inhibitors into MDA-MB-231/Doc or MCF-7/Doc cells resulted in significant reduction of the drug resistance. By the pathway enrichment analyses for miR-3646, we found that GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling pathway was a significant pathway, in which GSK-3? was an essential member. RT-qPCR and Western blot results demonstrated that miR-3646 could regulate GSK-3? mRNA and protein expressions. Furthermore, a marked increase of both nuclear and cytoplasmic ?-catenin expressions (with phosphorylated-?-catenin decrease) was observed in MDA-MB-231/Doc cells compared with MDA-MB-231/S cells, and their expression were positively related to miR-3646 and negatively correlated with GSK-3?. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-3646-mediated Doc resistance of breast cancer cells maybe, at least in part, through suppressing expression of GSK-3? and resultantly activating GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Project description:Docetaxel is commonly used as an effective chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer treatment, but the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of miR-129-3p in breast cancer cell resistance to docetaxel. MiR-129 and miR-129-3p inhibitor were transfected into breast cancer cells to investigate their effects on chemoresistance to docetaxel. The function of miR-129-3p was evaluated by apoptosis, cell proliferation, and cell cycle assays. We found that miR-129-3p was up-regulated in MDA-MB-231/Doc cells, concurrent with CP110 down-regulation, compared to the parental MDA-MB-231 cells. In vitro drug sensitivity assays demonstrated that miR-129-3p inhibition sensitized MDA-MB-231/Doc and MCF-7 cells to docetaxel, whereas miR-129 overexpression enhanced MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell resistance to docetaxel. Ectopic miR-129 expression reduced CP110 expression and the luciferase activity of a CP110 3' untranslated region-based reporter construct in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that CP110 is a direct miR-129-3p target. We demonstrated that restoration of CP110 expression in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells by miR-129 overexpression rendered the cells sensitive to docetaxel. In a nude xenograft model, miR-129 up-regulation significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 cells' response to docetaxel. Our findings suggest that miR-129-3p down-regulation potentially sensitizes breast cancer cells to docetaxel treatment.