The chemical composition of a new "mica sandwich" foraminiferal species from the East Coast of Korea: Capsammina crassa sp. nov.
ABSTRACT: We describe a new agglutinated monothalamous foraminiferal species, Capsammina crassa sp. nov., based on integrated observations of the test morphology and the chemical characteristics of materials composing the test. The new species was found at a depth of <60 m on the East coast of Korea. The test morphology is typical of the genus Capsammina, comprising two or more mica plates with a ring of finely agglutinated mineral grains sandwiched between them and surrounding the cell body. There is no distinct test aperture. Elemental analyses of the agglutinated grains revealed 15 different types of mineral grains of which quartz is the most abundant. The surface areas of grains exposed on fractured surfaces ranged from 1.6 to 7,700 ?m2 and the large plate-like grains forming the upper and lower surfaces measured about 420-2,350 ?m in maximum width. The new species is morphologically similar to C. patelliformis, however, the differences in size, distribution area and depth support that these two species are distinct. This discovery is the first record of the genus Capsammina from the North Pacific. Therefore, it extends the biodiversity and geographical distribution of the genus Capsammina, which has been reported only from the bathyal NE Atlantic. Our finding also suggests the possibility of additional discovery of monothalamous foraminifera from around Korea.
Project description:Benthic foraminifera, and certainly symbiont-bearing (large) benthic foraminifera are generally considered to have large geographic ranges in combination with significant ecomorphological variation. With the advance of molecular phylogenetic approaches, supported or preceded by detailed morphological studies, it was demonstrated that this view needs to be reevaluated. In this paper I evaluate the morphology of five Marginopora populations from around the Coral Sea by microCT-scanning. I argue that ecomorphological and ontogenetic variation is smaller than geographic variation in morphology. This forms the basis for the description of three new species, M. santoensis nov. spec., M. charlottensis nov. spec., M. orpheusensis nov. spec. Quantitative morphological variation between M. rossi, M. orpheusensis nov. spec. and M. charlottensis nov. spec. is overlapping, but each species has unique morphological characters supporting recognition as new species. Support to distinguish the deep living (M. rossi, M. charlottensis nov. spec., M. orpheusensis nov. spec.) and shallow living (M. vertebralis) Marginopora populations as separate species is strong, but not enough molecular phylogenetic data are available to test the three new deep-living species on the Great Barrier Reef hypothesis. However, detailed understanding of ecophenotypic variation in M. santoensis nov. spec. supports the conclusion that it is unlikely that ecophenotypic variation can explain the morphological variation between the three species. I argue that the number of species in this genus is underestimated, and that there are at least five species in the Coral Sea area alone.
Project description:Chienhsun Chen and Hui-Ling Lin (2017) Coral reefs in the South China Sea are threatened by environmental changes and anthropogenic disruptions. Foraminifera, a group of unicellular shelled protists, has been considered a reliable indicator of water quality and reef health. However, this indicator has not yet been used to study coral reefs in the South China Sea. In this study of foraminifera in the lagoon of Dongsha Atoll, both the assemblage diversity and the functional group composition were investigated. The FORAM index (FI), a numerical indicator based on functional group composition, was used to evaluate the condition of the coral reef of the Atoll lagoon. A typical assumption is that FI = 4 is the minimum index value corresponding to a suitable environment for the growth of calcifying organisms. Environments with FI values between 2 and 4 are unsuitable to marginal for recovery of coral communities after a mortality event. Data were recorded regarding a total of 287 foraminiferal species. Approximately 68% of the tests belonged to the porcelaneous taxa; the Quinqueloculina, Triloculina, and Pseudomassilina species were well represented. Hyaline foraminifera were less abundant than porcelaneous foraminifera; the agglutinated foraminifera were the least abundant. Multivariate analyses revealed four clustering groups. The functional groups were classified according to FI's definition; the heterotrophic group was the most abundant, accounting for 82% of foraminiferal abundance. The symbiont-bearing group was the second most abundant, with a relative abundance of 12%; and the stress-tolerant group was the least abundant. Two samples had FI values slightly higher than 4; Amphisorus and Calcarina were dominant, but the other symbiont-bearing foraminifera had lower values. These high FI values can be associated with seagrass meadows or relict shells in an altered environment. Eighty percent of the sediment samples had FI values lower than 4, indicating that most of the benthic habitats in the Dongsha lagoon are not suitable for coral growth and reef recovery. The present findings provide an alternative evaluation method based on foraminiferal assemblages for future studies on the environmental changes of coral reefs.
Project description:The genus Phaeophyscia Moberg, which belongs to the family Physciaceae, includes about 50 species, with 17 species reported in South Korea. This genus is characterized by a foliose thallus, Physcia/Pachysporaria-type ascospores, a paraplectenchymatous-type lower cortex, and lacking atranorin. In this study, about 650 specimens of Phaeophyscia aligned with the atranorin-absent groups collected from South Korea were re-examined. The taxonomy of these groups in South Korea requires revision based on the analyses of the morphology, chemistry, and molecular phylogeny. We infer that (1) each genus of the main foliose groups of Physciaceae forms a monophyletic clade, which also supports the separation of Phaeophyscia species with a prosoplectenchymatous lower cortex into the genus Physciella; (2) three atranorin-lacking genera were confirmed in South Korea: Hyperphyscia, Phaeophyscia, and Physciella, including a new combination named Physciella poeltii (Frey) D. Liu and J.S. Hur, and three new records from South Korea of Phaeophyscia hunana, P. leana, and P. sonorae; and (3) four species should be excluded from the lichen flora of South Korea: Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Phaeophyscia endococcina, Phaeophyscia erythrocardia, and Phaeophyscia imbricata.
Project description:The species of the genus Chlorociboria Seaver are very common on the forest floor, and can be easily distinguished by small and numerous blue-green fruitbody, especially the blue substrate dyed with xylindein produced by this group. This genus has rather high species diversity in the Southern Hemisphere, while a little attention was paid to this group in East Asia area. During a field survey in South Korea, several Chlorociboria specimens were collected. Based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses, three species of Chlorociboria were reported, including one new record in South Korea and one new record in Jeju Island. The key to the species of Chlorociboria from South Korea is provided.
Project description:Korean species of the genus Cymodusa Holmgren (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae) are reviewed. Four species of Cymodusa (Cymodusa) are reported from Korea, including one newly recorded species, Cymodusa aenigma Dbar (1985), and three new species, Cymodusa koreana sp. n., Cymodusa yeungnamensis sp. n. and Cymodusa geolimi sp. n. This genus is reported for the first time from Korea. Descriptions with photographs of new species, line drawings of propodeum and metasomal tergites of the Palaearctic species of the "australis" group and a key to the Korean Cymodusa species are provided.
Project description:Four new species of the genus Lathrolestes Förster, 1869 are discovered from South Korea: Lathrolestes redimiculus Reshchikov & Lee, sp. n., Lathrolestes sexmaculatus Reshchikov & Lee, sp. n., Lathrolestes taebaeksanensis Reshchikov & Lee, sp. n., and Lathrolestes ungnyeo Reshchikov & Lee, sp. n. This is the first record of the genus from South Korea.
Project description:The present study was aimed to evaluate the differences among anti-nutritional factors in relation to mineral absorption and protein digestibility of Easy-to-cook (ETC) and Hard-to-cook (HTC) grains from different kidney bean (KB) accessions.HTC grains showed lower a* (redness to yellowness) and b* (greenness to blueness) values and L* value than ETC grains. HTC grains had significantly higher Ca and Zn and lower Cu, Mn and Fe than ETC grains. ETC and HTC grains showed significant variation in mineral, total phenolic content (TPC), tannin and phytic acid content. TPC and tannin content were significantly higher for HTC grains, on the contrary phytic acid content was lower than counterpart ETC grains. Protein and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) also varied significantly between HTC and ETC grains and was found to be lower for HTC grains. Majority of phenolic compounds (PCs) were present in bound state in both ETC and HTC grains. Moreover, HTC grains showed higher amount of chlorogenic acid and catechin content than ETC grains in bound form. ETC and HTC grains from dark color accessions showed higher catechin content.
Project description:An improved analytical method compared with conventional ones was developed for simultaneous determination of 13 mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetylnivalenol, aflatoxin B?, aflatoxin B?, aflatoxin G?, aflatoxin G?, fumonisin B?, fumonisin B?, T-2, HT-2, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A) in cereal grains by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) after a single immunoaffinity column clean-up. The method showed a good linearity, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in mycotoxin determination by LC/MS/MS. The levels of 13 mycotoxins in 5 types of commercial grains (brown rice, maize, millet, sorghum, and mixed cereal) from South Korea were determined in a total of 507 cereal grains. Mycotoxins produced from Fusarium sp. (fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone) were more frequently (more than 5%) and concurrently detected in all cereal grains along with higher mean levels (4.3-161.0 ng/g) in positive samples than other toxins such as aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (less than 9% and below 5.2 ng/g in positive samples) from other fungal species.
Project description:Old World species of the genus Seticornuta Morley are reviewed. Seven species of this genus were recorded worldwide, but only one species, Seticornutaalbopilosa (Cameron), was known from the Old World. Here, we report one new species, Seticornutakoreana sp. n., from South Korea, and redescribe the other known Old World species, Seticornutaalbopilosa, with photographs.
Project description:Gymnopus is a cosmopolitan genus of agaric fungi and consists of ~300 species. In Korea, Gymnopus represents common saprobic mushrooms, and 12 species have been reported in Korea. Several Gymnopus specimens were collected in Korea between 2008 and 2015. To identify them exactly, phylogenetic analysis was performed by means of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal-DNA sequences from the collected Gymnopus specimens. Among them, G. iocephalus, G. polygrammus, and G. subnudus have not been reported in Korea. A phylogenetic tree and images are provided.