Combined H5ND inactivated vaccine protects chickens against challenge by different clades of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses subtype H5 and virulent Newcastle disease virus.
ABSTRACT: Aim:The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a trivalent-inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine against challenge by different clades highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses including HPAI-H5N8 and the virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (vNDV). Materials and Methods:The vaccine studied herein is composed of reassortant AI viruses rgA/Chicken/Egypt/ME1010/2016 (clade 22.214.171.124), H5N1 rgA/Chicken/Egypt/RG-173CAL/2017 (clade 126.96.36.199), and "NDV" (LaSota NDV/CK/Egypt/11478AF/11); all used at a concentration of 108 EID50/bird and mixed with Montanide-ISA70 oil adjuvant. Two-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were immunized subcutaneously with 0.5 ml of the vaccine, and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers were monitored weekly. The intranasal challenge was conducted 4 weeks post-vaccination (PV) using 106 EID50/0.1 ml of the different virulent HPAI-H5N1 viruses representing clades 2.2.1, 188.8.131.52, 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11b-H5N8, and the vNDV. Results:The vaccine induced HI antibody titers of >6log2 against both H5N1 and NDV viruses at 2 weeks PV. Clinical protection against all HPAI H5N1 viruses and vNDV was 100%, except for HPAI H5N1 clade-2.2.1 and HPAI H5N8 clade-18.104.22.168b viruses that showed 93.3% protection. Challenged SPF chickens showed significant decreases in the virus shedding titers up to <3log10 compared to challenge control chickens. No virus shedding was detected 6 "days post-challenge" in all vaccinated challenged groups. Conclusion:Our results indicate that the trivalent H5ND vaccine provides significant clinical protection against different clades of the HPAI viruses including the newly emerging H5N8 HPAI virus. Availability of such potent multivalent oil-emulsion vaccine offers an effective tool against HPAI control in endemic countries and promises simpler vaccination programs.
Project description:Vaccination of poultry to control highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is used in several countries. HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 which is endemic in Egypt has diversified into two genetic clades. Clade 22.214.171.124 represents antigenic drift variants in vaccinated commercial poultry while clade 126.96.36.199 variants are detected in humans and backyard poultry. Little is known about H5N1 infection in vaccinated turkeys under field conditions.Here, we describe an HPAI H5N1 outbreak in a vaccinated meat-turkey flock in Egypt. Birds were vaccinated with inactivated H5N2 and H5N1 vaccines at 8 and 34 days of age, respectively. At 72nd day of age (38 days post last vaccination), turkeys exhibited mild respiratory signs, cyanosis of snood and severe congestion of the internal organs. Survivors had a reduction in feed consumption and body gain. A mortality of ~29% cumulated within 10 days after the onset of clinical signs. Laboratory diagnosis using RT-qPCRs revealed presence of H5N1 but was negative for H7 and H9 subtypes. A substantial antigenic drift against different serum samples from clade 188.8.131.52 and clade 184.108.40.206 was observed. Based on full genome sequence analysis the virus belonged to clade 220.127.116.11 but clustered with recent H5N1 viruses from 2015 in poultry in Israel, Gaza and Egypt in a novel subclade designated here 18.104.22.168a which is distinct from 2014/2015 22.214.171.124 viruses. These viruses possess 126.96.36.199 clade-specific genetic signatures and also mutations in the HA similar to those in clade 188.8.131.52 that enabled evasion from humoral immune response. Taken together, this manuscript describes a recent HPAI H5N1 outbreak in vaccinated meat-turkeys in Egypt after infection with a virus representing novel distinct 184.108.40.206a subclade.Infection with HPAIV H5N1 in commercial turkeys resulted in significant morbidity and mortality despite of vaccination using H5 vaccines. The isolated virus showed antigenic drift and clustered in a novel cluster designated here 220.127.116.11a related to viruses in poultry in Israel, Gaza and Egypt. Enforcement of biosecurity and constant update of vaccine virus strains may be helpful to protect vaccinated birds and prevent spillover infection to neighbouring countries.
Project description:Background and Aim:Mixed infections of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are considered the most distressing problem of the poultry industry. The problem arises due to the influence of a hidden virus on the replication of another suspected virus. Consequently, misdiagnosis of the real cause of disease may become a source of infection for other healthy stock by transmission and dissemination of the hidden virus. This study aimed to determine the impact of HPAIV and NDV on each other in a specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken egg (SPF-ECE) model. Materials and Methods:HPAIVs (H5N1 and H5N8) and NDVs [avirulent NDV [avNDV] and velogenic NDV [vNDV]) were inoculated into the allantois cavity of SPF-ECE with graded titers (2, 3, and 4 log10 EID50) at 24 and 48 h of incubation, followed by the collection of allantoic fluid. A quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the viral RNA copies of both viruses. Results:Obvious interference was reported on the growth of NDVs when co-inoculated with AIVs. NDV RNA titers reduction ranged from <3 to 5 log10 to complete suppression, but slight interference with the growth of AIVs occurred. H5N1 RNA titers showed <1-2 log10 reduction when co-inoculated with vNDV compared with the H5N1 control. The interference impact of H5N8 was more powerful than that of H5N1, while vNDV showed more resistance for interference than the avNDV strain. On the other hand, interference of AIVs was not observed except when vNDV was inoculated before H5N1. The interfering impact was increased after 48 h of inoculation, whereas no titer of avNDV was detectable. Conclusion:AIV strains had a powerful effect on NDV growth, regardless of which infection occurred first.
Project description:Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, especially H5N1 strains, represent a public health threat and cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including HPAI strains. Influenza VLPs contain viral hemagglutinin (HA), which can be expressed in cell culture within highly immunogenic VLPs that morphologically and antigenically resemble influenza virions, except VLPs are non-infectious. Here we describe a recombinant VLP containing HA proteins derived from three distinct clades of H5N1 viruses as an experimental, broadly protective H5 avian influenza vaccine. A baculovirus vector was configured to co-express the H5 genes from recent H5N1 HPAI isolates A/chicken/Germany/2014 (clade 18.104.22.168), A/chicken/West Java/Subang/29/2007 (clade 2.1.3) and A/chicken/Egypt/121/2012 (clade 2.2.1). Co-expression of these genes in Sf9 cells along with influenza neuraminidase (NA) and retrovirus gag genes resulted in production of triple-clade H555 VLPs that exhibited hemagglutination activity and morphologically resembled influenza virions. Vaccination of chickens with these VLPs resulted in induction of serum antibody responses and efficient protection against experimental challenges with three different viruses including the recent U.S. H5N8 HPAI isolate. We conclude that these novel triple-clade VLPs represent a feasible strategy for simultaneously evoking protective antibodies against multiple variants of H5 influenza virus.
Project description:Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and H5N8 have become endemic among domestic poultry in Egypt since 2006 and 2016, respectively. In parallel, the low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 virus has been endemic since 2010. Despite the continuous circulation of these subtypes for several years, no natural reassortant has been detected so far among the domestic poultry population in Egypt. In this study, the HPAI (H5N2) virus was isolated from a commercial duck farm, giving evidence of the emergence of the first natural reassortment event in domestic poultry in Egypt. The virus was derived as a result of genetic reassortment between avian influenza viruses of H5N8 and H9N2 subtypes circulating in Egypt. The exchange of the neuraminidase segment and high number of acquired mutations might be associated with an alteration in the biological propensities of this virus.
Project description:In Egypt, ducks kept for commercial purposes constitute the second highest poultry population, at 150 million ducks/year. Hence, ducks play an important role in the introduction and transmission of avian influenza (AI) in the Egyptian poultry population. Attempts to control outbreaks include the use of vaccines, which have varying levels of efficacy and failure. To date, the effects of vaccine efficacy has rarely been determined in ducks. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey Herpes Virus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV strain (A/Swan/Hungary/499/2006) (rHVT-H5) and a bivalent inactivated H5N1 vaccine prepared from clade 2.2.1 and 22.214.171.124 H5N1 seeds in Mulard ducks. A 0.3ml/dose subcutaneous injection of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered to one-day-old ducklings (D1) and another 0.5ml/dose subcutaneous injection of the inactivated MEFLUVAC was administered at 7 days (D7). Four separate challenge experiments were conducted at Days 21, 28, 35 and 42, in which all the vaccinated ducks were challenged with 106EID50/duck of H5N1 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1) (clade 2.2.1) via intranasal inoculation. Maternal-derived antibody regression and post-vaccination antibody immune responses were monitored weekly. Ducks vaccinated at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days with the rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC vaccines were protected against mortality (80%, 80%, 90% and 90%) and (50%, 70%, 80% and 90%) respectively, against challenges with the H5N1 HPAI virus. The amount of viral shedding and shedding rates were lower in the rHVT-H5 vaccine groups than in the MEFLUVAC groups only in the first two challenge experiments. However, the non-vaccinated groups shed significantly more of the virus than the vaccinated groups. Both rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC provide early protection, and rHVT-H5 vaccine in particular provides protection against HPAI challenge.
Project description:Aim:The objective of the present study was to prepare a trivalent inactivated vaccine of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), H5N1, and H9N2 viruses. Materials and Methods:Three monovalent and a trivalent vaccines were prepared by emulsifying inactivated NDV (LaSota strain), reassortant H5N1, and H9N2 viruses with Montanide ISA 71 oil adjuvant. Parameters used for evaluation of the efficacy of the prepared vaccines in specific pathogen-free chickens were cellular immunity assays (blastogenesis, interferon gamma, interleukin 1 [IL1], and IL6), humoral immunity by hemagglutination inhibition, protection percentage, and shedding. Results:A single immunization with trivalent vaccine-enhanced cell-mediated immunity as well as humoral immune response with 90% protection against challenges with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza H9N2 viruses with 100% protection after challenge with NDV. Conclusion:Development and evaluation of the trivalent vaccine in the study reported the success in preparation of a potent and efficacious trivalent vaccine which is a promising approach for controlling HPAI H5N1, LP H9N2, and ND viral infections.
Project description:In order to produce a dually effective vaccine against H9 and H5 avian influenza viruses that aligns with the DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) strategy, we generated a chimeric H9/H5N2 recombinant vaccine that expressed the whole HA1 region of A/CK/Korea/04163/04 (H9N2) and the HA2 region of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A/MD/Korea/W452/14 (H5N8) viruses. The chimeric H9/H5N2 virus showed in vitro and in vivo growth properties and virulence that were similar to those of the low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9 virus. An inactivated vaccine based on this chimeric virus induced serum neutralizing (SN) antibodies against both H9 and H5 viruses but induced cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody only against H9 viruses. Thus, this suggests its compatibility for use in the DIVA strategy against H5 strains. Furthermore, the chimeric H9/H5N2 recombinant vaccine protected immunized chickens against lethal challenge by HPAI H5N8 viruses and significantly attenuated virus shedding after infection by both H9N2 and HPAI H5N8 viruses. In mice, serological analyses confirmed that HA1- and HA2 stalk-specific antibody responses were induced by vaccination and that the DIVA principle could be employed through the use of an HI assay against H5 viruses. Furthermore, each HA1- and HA2 stalk-specific antibody response was sufficient to inhibit viral replication and protect the chimeric virus-immunized mice from lethal challenge with both mouse-adapted H9N2 and wild-type HPAI H5N1 viruses, although differences in vaccine efficacy against a homologous H9 virus (HA1 head domain immune-mediated protection) and a heterosubtypic H5 virus (HA2 stalk domain immune-mediated protection) were observed. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the novel chimeric H9/H5N2 recombinant virus is a low-pathogenic virus, and this chimeric vaccine is suitable for a DIVA vaccine with broad-spectrum neutralizing antibody against H5 avian influenza viruses.IMPORTANCE Current influenza virus killed vaccines predominantly induce antihemagglutinin (anti-HA) antibodies that are commonly strain specific in that the antibodies have potent neutralizing activity against homologous strains but do not cross-react with HAs of other influenza virus subtypes. In contrast, the HA2 stalk domain is relatively well conserved among subtypes, and recently, broadly neutralizing antibodies against this domain have been isolated. Therefore, in light of the need for a vaccine strain that applies the DIVA strategy utilizing an HI assay and induces broad cross-protection against H5N1 and H9N2 viruses, we generated a novel chimeric H9/H5N1 virus that expresses the entire HA1 portion from the H9N2 virus and the HA2 region of the heterosubtypic H5N8 virus. The chimeric H9/H5N2 recombinant vaccine protected immunized hosts against lethal challenge with H9N2 and HPAI H5N1 viruses with significantly attenuated virus shedding in immunized hosts. Therefore, this chimeric vaccine is suitable as a DIVA vaccine against H5 avian influenza viruses.
Project description:Since December 2014, Eurasian-origin, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses including H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 subtypes (called H5Nx viruses), which belong to the H5 clade 126.96.36.199, have been detected in U.S. wild birds. Subsequently, highly pathogenic H5N2 and H5N8 viruses have caused outbreaks in U.S. domestic poultry. Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to control influenza outbreaks and protect animal and public health. Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based influenza vaccines have been demonstrated to be efficacious and safe in poultry. Herein, we developed an NDV-based H5 vaccine (NDV-H5) that expresses a codon-optimized ectodomain of the hemagglutinin from the A/chicken/Iowa/04-20/2015 (H5N2) virus and evaluated its efficacy in chickens. Results showed that both live and inactivated NDV-H5 vaccines induced hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers against the H5N2 virus in immunized chickens after prime and booster, and both NDV-H5 vaccines completely protected chickens from lethal challenge with the highly pathogenic H5N2 A/turkey/Minnesota/9845-4/2015 virus. No clinical signs and only minimal virus shedding was observed in both vaccinated groups. In contrast, all mock-vaccinated, H5N2-infected chickens shed virus and died within 5 days post challenge. Furthermore, one dose of the live NDV-H5 vaccine also provided protection of 90% chickens immunized by coarse spraying; after exposure to H5N2 challenge, sera from vaccinated surviving chickens neutralized both highly pathogenic H5N1 and H5N8 viruses. Taken together, our results suggest that the NDV-based H5 vaccine is able to protect chickens against intercontinental highly pathogenic H5Nx viruses and can be used by mass application to protect the poultry industry.
Project description:The extensive circulation of Highly Pathogenic (HP) H5N1 Avian Influenza in Egypt in poultry since 2006 resulted in the emergence of distinct clades with the recent identification of a further clade: 188.8.131.52. The aim of this study was to characterize for the first time the antigenic profile of an extensive collection of genetically diverse Egyptian H5N1 HP viruses isolated between 2007 and 2010 applying antigenic cartography and principal component analysis to serological data. We identified that Egyptian H5N1 viruses have undergone significant antigenic diversification between 2007 and 2010 and two distinct antigenic clusters co-circulated in 2010. Such clusters correlated with 2.2.1 and 184.108.40.206 clades, showing for the first time that the new emerging clade 220.127.116.11 is antigenically distinct. This study highlights that the antigenic diversity of H5N1 HP Egyptian viruses may represent a potential challenge for the development of an effective vaccination programme for animal and human health in Egypt.
Project description:The newly emerging, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus of clade 18.104.22.168 was recently detected in wild birds and domestic poultry in Egypt in the 2016/2017 winter season. Vaccination based on commercial H5 vaccines is used as an essential control strategy in Egyptian poultry. Here, we studied the efficacy of the eight most common commercial H5 poultry vaccines in the Egyptian market and compared them with an experimental vaccine based on the Egyptian LPAI H5N8 virus that was prepared by using reverse genetics. The experimental vaccine and Re-5 commercial vaccine were able to completely protect chickens and significantly reduce virus shedding. Our results indicate that most of the commercial poultry H5 vaccines used in the present study were ineffective because the seed viruses in these vaccines are genetically distinct from the H5N8 viruses currently circulating in Egypt. Although some of the commercial vaccines protected chickens from mortality, they failed to prevent chickens from shedding the virus. Accordingly, we recommend updating and reinforcing the H5N8 prevention and control strategies in Egypt. The vaccination strategy should be reconsidered based on currently circulating viruses.