Trust in scientists and rates of noncompliance with a fisheries rule in the Brazilian Pantanal.
ABSTRACT: Natural resource rules exist to control resources and the people that interact with them. These rules often fail because people do not comply with them. Decisions to comply with natural resource rules often are based on attitudes about legitimacy of rules and the perceived risks of breaking rules. Trust in agencies promulgating rules in part may determine perceptions of legitimacy of the rule, and in turn depends on individuals' trust in different agency actors. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between fishing rule noncompliance and trust in scientists, a key group within management agencies. We interviewed 41 individuals in one rural fishing community in the Brazilian Pantanal from April to August, 2016, to assess (1) noncompliance rates, (2) noncompliance-related attitudes, and (3) the relationship between trust in scientists and noncompliance decisions in the region. We found that among study participants, noncompliance was common and overt. Trust in scientists performing research in the region was the best predictor of noncompliance rate with a fishing rule (nonparametric rank correlation ? = -0.717; Probit model pseudo-R2 = 0.241). Baseline data from this research may help inform future interventions to minimize IUU fishing and protect the Pantanal fishery. Although our results are specific to one community in the Pantanal, trust in scientists is potentially an important factor for compliance decisions in similar situations around the world. These results build not only on compliance theory but also speak to the important role that many scientists play in rural areas where they conduct their research.
Project description:We have the capacity to follow arbitrary stimulus-response rules, meaning simple policies that guide our behavior. Rule identity is broadly encoded across decision-making circuits, but there are less data on how rules shape the computations that lead to choices. One idea is that rules could simplify these computations. When we follow a rule, there is no need to encode or compute information that is irrelevant to the current rule, which could reduce the metabolic or energetic demands of decision-making. However, it is not clear if the brain can actually take advantage of this computational simplicity. To test this idea, we recorded from neurons in 3 regions linked to decision-making, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), ventral striatum (VS), and dorsal striatum (DS), while macaques performed a rule-based decision-making task. Rule-based decisions were identified via modeling rules as the latent causes of decisions. This left us with a set of physically identical choices that maximized reward and information, but could not be explained by simple stimulus-response rules. Contrasting rule-based choices with these residual choices revealed that following rules (1) decreased the energetic cost of decision-making; and (2) expanded rule-relevant coding dimensions and compressed rule-irrelevant ones. Together, these results suggest that we use rules, in part, because they reduce the costs of decision-making through a distributed representational warping in decision-making circuits.
Project description:The effectiveness of marine protected areas depends largely on whether people comply with the rules. We quantified temporal changes in benthic composition, reef fish biomass, and fishing effort among marine park zones (including no-take areas) to assess levels of compliance following the 2005 rezoning of the government-controlled Karimunjawa National Park (KNP), Indonesia. Four years after the rezoning awareness of fishing regulations was high amongst local fishers, ranging from 79.5±7.9 (SE) % for spatial restrictions to 97.7±1.2% for bans on the use of poisons. Despite this high awareness and strong compliance with gear restrictions, compliance with spatial restrictions was weak. In the four years following the rezoning reef fish biomass declined across all zones within KNP, with >50% reduction within the no-take Core and Protection Zones. These declines were primarily driven by decreases in the biomass of groups targeted by local fishers; planktivores, herbivores, piscivores, and invertivores. These declines in fish biomass were not driven by changes in habitat quality; coral cover increased in all zones, possibly as a result of a shift in fishing gears from those which can damage reefs (i.e., nets) to those which cause little direct damage (i.e., handlines and spears). Direct observations of fishing activities in 2009 revealed there was limited variation in fishing effort between zones in which fishing was allowed or prohibited. The apparent willingness of the KNP communities to comply with gear restrictions, but not spatial restrictions is difficult to explain and highlights the complexities of the social and economic dynamics that influence the ecological success of marine protected areas. Clearly the increased and high awareness of fishery restrictions following the rezoning is a positive step. The challenge now is to understand and foster the conditions that may facilitate compliance with spatial restrictions within KNP and marine parks worldwide.
Project description:<h4>Motivation</h4>Disease state prediction from biomarker profiling studies is an important problem because more accurate classification models will potentially lead to the discovery of better, more discriminative markers. Data mining methods are routinely applied to such analyses of biomedical datasets generated from high-throughput 'omic' technologies applied to clinical samples from tissues or bodily fluids. Past work has demonstrated that rule models can be successfully applied to this problem, since they can produce understandable models that facilitate review of discriminative biomarkers by biomedical scientists. While many rule-based methods produce rules that make predictions under uncertainty, they typically do not quantify the uncertainty in the validity of the rule itself. This article describes an approach that uses a Bayesian score to evaluate rule models.<h4>Results</h4>We have combined the expressiveness of rules with the mathematical rigor of Bayesian networks (BNs) to develop and evaluate a Bayesian rule learning (BRL) system. This system utilizes a novel variant of the K2 algorithm for building BNs from the training data to provide probabilistic scores for IF-antecedent-THEN-consequent rules using heuristic best-first search. We then apply rule-based inference to evaluate the learned models during 10-fold cross-validation performed two times. The BRL system is evaluated on 24 published 'omic' datasets, and on average it performs on par or better than other readily available rule learning methods. Moreover, BRL produces models that contain on average 70% fewer variables, which means that the biomarker panels for disease prediction contain fewer markers for further verification and validation by bench scientists.
Project description:Non-compliance with fishing regulations can undermine management effectiveness. Previous bivariate approaches were unable to untangle the complex mix of factors that may influence fishers' compliance decisions, including enforcement, moral norms, perceived legitimacy of regulations and the behaviour of others. We compared seven multivariate behavioural models of fisher compliance decisions using structural equation modeling. An online survey of over 300 recreational fishers tested the ability of each model to best predict their compliance with two fishing regulations (daily and size limits). The best fitting model for both regulations was composed solely of psycho-social factors, with social norms having the greatest influence on fishers' compliance behaviour. Fishers' attitude also directly affected compliance with size limit, but to a lesser extent. On the basis of these findings, we suggest behavioural interventions to target social norms instead of increasing enforcement for the focal regulations in the recreational blue cod fishery in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. These interventions could include articles in local newspapers and fishing magazines highlighting the extent of regulation compliance as well as using respected local fishers to emphasize the benefits of compliance through public meetings or letters to the editor. Our methodological approach can be broadly applied by natural resource managers as an effective tool to identify drivers of compliance that can then guide the design of interventions to decrease illegal resource use.
Project description:Decisions are often governed by rules on adequate social behaviour. Recent research suggests that the right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC) is involved in the implementation of internal fairness rules (norms), by controlling the impulse to act selfishly. A drawback of these studies is that the assumed norms and impulses have to be deduced from behaviour and that norm-following and pro-sociality are indistinguishable. Here, we directly confronted participants with a rule that demanded to make advantageous or disadvantageous monetary allocations for themselves or another person. To disentangle its functional role in rule-following and pro-sociality, we divergently manipulated the rLPFC by applying cathodal or anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Cathodal tDCS increased participants' rule-following, even of rules that demanded to lose money or hurt another person financially. In contrast, anodal tDCS led participants to specifically violate more often those rules that were at odds with what participants chose freely. Brain stimulation over the rLPFC thus did not simply increase or decrease selfishness. Instead, by disentangling rule-following and pro-sociality, our results point to a broader role of the rLPFC in integrating the costs and benefits of rules in order to align decisions with internal goals, ultimately enabling to flexibly adapt social behaviour.
Project description:Rule acquisition is one of the main purposes in the analysis of formal decision contexts. Up to now, there have been several types of rules in formal decision contexts such as decision rules, decision implications, and granular rules, which can be viewed as ∧-rules since all of them have the following form: "if conditions 1,2,…, and m hold, then decisions hold." In order to enrich the existing rule acquisition theory in formal decision contexts, this study puts forward two new types of rules which are called ∨-rules and ∨-∧ mixed rules based on formal, object-oriented, and property-oriented concept lattices. Moreover, a comparison of ∨-rules, ∨-∧ mixed rules, and ∧-rules is made from the perspectives of inclusion and inference relationships. Finally, some real examples and numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed rule acquisition algorithms with the existing one in terms of the running efficiency.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Implementing an accredited quality and patient safety management system is inevitable for hospitals. Even in the case of an obligatory rule system, different approaches to implement such a system can be used: coercive (based on monitoring and threats of punishment) and catalytic (based on dialogue and suggestion). This study takes these different approaches as a starting point to explore whether and how implementation actions are linked to compliance. By doing so, this study aims to contribute to the knowledge on how to increase compliance with obligatory rules and regulations. METHODS:The internal audit system (the 'tracer system') of a large Dutch academic hospital is used as a case to investigate different implementation approaches and their effect on compliance. This case allowed us to use a multi-actor and multi-method approach for data collection. Internal audits (N?=?16) were observed, audit reports were analyzed, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with both the internal auditors (N?=?23) and the ward leaders (N?=?14) responsible for compliance. Framework analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS:Although all auditors use catalytic enforcement actions, these do not lead to (intended) compliance of all ward leaders. Rather, the catalytic actions contribute to (intended) compliance of ward leaders that are motivated, whereas they do not for the ward leaders that are not motivated. For the motivated ward leaders, catalytic enforcement actions contribute to (intended) compliance by increasing ward leaders' knowledge of the rules and how to comply with them. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that the effectiveness of implementation actions depends not only on the actions themselves, but also on the pre-existing motivation to comply. These findings imply that there is not one 'best' approach to the implementation of obligatory rules. Rather, the most effective approach depends on the willingness to comply with rules and regulations.
Project description:Policy makers and regulators are constantly required to make decisions despite the existence of substantial uncertainty regarding the outcomes of their proposed decisions. Understanding stakeholder views is an essential part of addressing this uncertainty, which provides insight into the possible social reactions and tolerance of unpredictable risks. In the field of nanotechnology, large uncertainties exist regarding the real and perceived risks this technology may have on society. Better evidence is needed to confront this issue.We undertook a computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey of the Australian public and a parallel survey of those involved in nanotechnology from the academic, business and government sectors. Analysis included comparisons of proportions and logistic regression techniques. We explored perceptions of nanotechnology risks both to health and in a range of products. We examined views on four trust actors.The general public's perception of risk was significantly higher than that expressed by other stakeholders. The public bestows less trust in certain trust actors than do academics or government officers, giving its greatest trust to scientists. Higher levels of public trust were generally associated with lower perceptions of risk. Nanotechnology in food and cosmetics/sunscreens were considered riskier applications irrespective of stakeholder, while familiarity with nanotechnology was associated with a reduced risk perception.Policy makers should consider the disparities in risk and trust perceptions between the public and influential stakeholders, placing greater emphasis on risk communication and the uncertainties of risk assessment in these areas of higher concern. Scientists being the highest trusted group are well placed to communicate the risks of nanotechnologies to the public.
Project description:A wide array of authorities-from religious leaders to government ministers-call upon citizens to take preventative measures against Covid-19. Which authorities can most effectively gain public compliance, and which measures will the public take up? Moreover, do people comply with authorities out of respect for their legitimacy, due to their expertise, or for fear of sanctioning? Answers to these questions are important for development practitioners, who need to understand how different partnerships might affect health behavior, and for scholars interested in understanding authority, legitimacy, and compliance. We explore these questions using a conjoint experiment embedded in a telephone survey of 641 Malawians. Individuals in our sample are more likely to say that they will comply with precautionary measures when the costs are low and expected benefits are high. Respondents view both traditional authorities and hospital heads as legitimately issuing directives and having the ability to monitor and sanction non-compliance, but appear to comply more with hospital heads and to do so out of respect for their expertise. These results emphasize how <i>who</i> issues directives affects whether individuals comply and provides insights as to why they do so. The findings also reflect individuals' cost-benefit calculations when considering precautionary measures, highlighting the importance of steps that can reduce costs (e.g., food security or income measures) or accurately reflect risks (e.g., information signaling the prevalence of Covid-19). The study not only helps to address the Coronavirus crisis but also has important implications for broader questions of authority and compliance.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To evaluate patients' sense of responsibility to healthcare providers and to determine its predictors using on a national sample in China.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in China with a stratified cluster sample of patients treated in 77 hospitals between July 2014 and April 2015. Patients' sense of responsibility to healthcare providers was measured with four questions assessing patients' perceptions regarding their responsibilities to respect doctors, respect nurses, coordinate with health professionals, and comply with hospital rules. Predictors included patient sociodemographic characteristics and their past hospitalization experience.<h4>Results</h4>Small proportions of respondents reported that they perceived having no responsibility to respect doctors (8.9%), respect nurses (7.9%), comply with hospital rules (6.7%), or coordinate with health professionals (6.3%). Multivariate regression analyses showed that the strongest predictor of patients' sense of responsibility to healthcare providers was patinets' trust in health professionals, followed by patients' education level. Familiarity with healthcare professionals and past hospitalization frequency were inversely associated with patients' sense of responsibility to healthcare providers.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although only a small proportion of the patients reported feeling no or low sense of responsibility to healthcare providers, the lack of respect and collaboration from these patients can negatively affect patient-provider relationships. Healthcare administrators need to communicate clearly with the patients and the public about the role of patients and the limitations of medicine in order to instill a sense of patients' responsibility.