Thiamine and selected thiamine antivitamins - biological activity and methods of synthesis.
ABSTRACT: Thiamine plays a very important coenzymatic and non-coenzymatic role in the regulation of basic metabolism. Thiamine diphosphate is a coenzyme of many enzymes, most of which occur in prokaryotes. Pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes as well as transketolase are the examples of thiamine-dependent enzymes present in eukaryotes, including human. Therefore, thiamine is considered as drug or diet supplement which can support the treatment of many pathologies including neurodegenerative and vascular system diseases. On the other hand, thiamine antivitamins, which can interact with thiamine-dependent enzymes impeding their native functions, thiamine transport into the cells or a thiamine diphosphate synthesis, are good propose to drug design. The development of organic chemistry in the last century allowed the synthesis of various thiamine antimetabolites such as amprolium, pyrithiamine, oxythiamine, or 3-deazathiamine. Results of biochemical and theoretical chemistry research show that affinity to thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes of these synthetic molecules exceeds the affinity of native coenzyme. Therefore, some of them have already been used in the treatment of coccidiosis (amprolium), other are extensively studied as cytostatics in the treatment of cancer or fungal infections (oxythiamine and pyrithiamine). This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the synthesis and mechanisms of action of selected thiamine antivitamins and indicates the potential of their practical use.
Project description:Accumulating evidences suggest that p53 is a key coordinator of cellular events triggered by oxidative stress often associated with the impairment in thiamine metabolism and its functions. However, there are limited data regarding the pursuant feedback between p53 transactivation and thiamine homeostasis. Impairment in thiamine metabolism can be induced experimentally via interference with the thiamine uptake and/or inhibition of the thiamin pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes using thiamine antagonists - amprolium (AM), oxythiamine (OT) or pyrithiamine (PT). We found that exposure of neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to AM, OT and PT triggered upregulation of p53 gene expression, post-translational modification of p53 via phosphorylation and activation of p53 DNA-binding activity. Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser20 was equally efficient in upregulation of thiamine transporter 1 (THTR1) by all antagonists. However, induction of the expressions of the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta (PDHB) and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) required dual phosphorylation of p53 at Ser9 and Ser20, seen in cells treated with PT and OT. Moreover, pretreatment of the cells with a decoy oligonucleotide carrying wild-type p53-response element markedly attenuated OT-induced THTR1, PDHB and OGDH gene expression suggesting an important role of p53 in transactivation of these genes. Finally, analysis of gene and metabolic networks showed that OT triggers cell apoptosis through the p53-dependent intrinsic pathway.
Project description:Membrane transporters of the bacterial pyridine nucleotide uptake (Pnu) family mediate the uptake of various B-type vitamins. For example, the PnuT transporters have specificity for vitamin B1 (thiamine). It has been hypothesized that Pnu transporters are facilitators that allow passive transport of the vitamin substrate across the membrane. Metabolic trapping by phosphorylation would then lead to accumulation of the transported substrates in the cytoplasm. However, experimental evidence for such a transport mechanism is lacking. Here, to determine the mechanism of thiamine transport, we purify PnuTSw from Shewanella woodyi and reconstitute it in liposomes to determine substrate binding and transport properties. We show that the electrochemical gradient of thiamine solely determines the direction of transport, consistent with a facilitated diffusion mechanism. Further, PnuTSw can bind and transport thiamine as well as the thiamine analogues pyrithiamine and oxythiamine, but does not recognize the phosphorylated derivatives thiamine monophosphate and thiamine pyrophosphate as substrates, consistent with a metabolic trapping mechanism. Guided by the crystal structure of the homologous nicotinamide riboside transporter PnuC, we perform mutagenesis experiments, which reveal residues involved in substrate binding and gating. The facilitated diffusion mechanism of transport used by PnuTSw contrasts sharply with the active transport mechanisms used by other bacterial thiamine transporters.
Project description:Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.
Project description:1. Aerobic or anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees of Ehrlich ascites-carcinoma cells in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate medium containing glucose and labelled thiamine results in accumulation in the cell of labelled thiamine, so that the concentration of total labelled thiamine in the cells greatly exceeds (by a factor 7) that in the medium. This concentration ratio is approximately constant for small initial external concentrations of labelled thiamine but diminishes when the latter exceed 0.4mum. 2. All the labelled thiamine in the tumour cells is present as thiamine phosphates. 3. The uptake of labelled thiamine is markedly diminished by decrease of temperature. At 9 degrees concentration ratio (cells/medium) 0.5 is observed whereas at 37 degrees the concentration ratio is 8.6. 4. The extent of phosphorylation of labelled thiamine depends on the period of incubation. 5. The influx of labelled thiamine is diminished by the presence of its analogues, pyrithiamine and Amprol, and also by the presence of thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate, which are potent inhibitors of thiamine phosphorylation in Ehrlich ascites cells. 6. Labelled thiamine phosphates leak from the cell into the medium, so that eventually all the labelled thiamine, both in the cell and medium, is converted into thiamine phosphates. However, in the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol (0.1mm) and iodoacetate (1mm) thiamine phosphorylation is diminished, the concentration ratio for labelled thiamine (cells/medium) falls to half its normal value and little or no labelled thiamine phosphates leaks into the medium. 7. In the presence of thiamine phosphates, free labelled thiamine accumulates in Ehrlich ascites cells against a concentration gradient, concentration ratios (cells/medium) greater than unity being evident. 8. The evidence supports the conclusion that thiamine is transferred into the Ehrlich ascites cell by a carrier-mediated energy-assisted process.
Project description:Riboswitches are metabolite-sensing RNAs, typically located in the non-coding portions of messenger RNAs, that control the synthesis of metabolite-related proteins. Here we describe a 2.05 angstroms crystal structure of a riboswitch domain from the Escherichia coli thiM mRNA that responds to the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). TPP is an active form of vitamin B1, an essential participant in many protein-catalysed reactions. Organisms from all three domains of life, including bacteria, plants and fungi, use TPP-sensing riboswitches to control genes responsible for importing or synthesizing thiamine and its phosphorylated derivatives, making this riboswitch class the most widely distributed member of the metabolite-sensing RNA regulatory system. The structure reveals a complex folded RNA in which one subdomain forms an intercalation pocket for the 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine moiety of TPP, whereas another subdomain forms a wider pocket that uses bivalent metal ions and water molecules to make bridging contacts to the pyrophosphate moiety of the ligand. The two pockets are positioned to function as a molecular measuring device that recognizes TPP in an extended conformation. The central thiazole moiety is not recognized by the RNA, which explains why the antimicrobial compound pyrithiamine pyrophosphate targets this riboswitch and downregulates the expression of thiamine metabolic genes. Both the natural ligand and its drug-like analogue stabilize secondary and tertiary structure elements that are harnessed by the riboswitch to modulate the synthesis of the proteins coded by the mRNA. In addition, this structure provides insight into how folded RNAs can form precision binding pockets that rival those formed by protein genetic factors.
Project description:Thiamine is critical for cellular function, as its phosphorylated and active form, thiamine diphosphate (TDP), acts as coenzyme for three key enzymes in glucose metabolism. Mutations in thiamine transporter, TDP synthesizing enzyme or carrier, including solute carrier family 19 member 3 (SLC19A3), thiamine pyrophosphokinase (TPK1) and solute carrier family 25 member 19 (SLC25A19), have been associated with developmental neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Leigh syndrome. However, little is known about how thiamine metabolism regulates neuronal morphology at the cellular level. Here, using primary rat hippocampal neuronal cultures, we showed that reducing the expression of Tpk1, Slc25a19 or Slc19a3 in individual neurons significantly reduced dendrite complexity, as measured by total dendritic branch tip number (TDBTN) and total dendritic branch length (TDBL). The specificity of the RNAi effects were verified by overexpression of RNAi resistant human constructs. Importantly, changes in both TDBTN and TDBL tightly correlated with reduction in soma size, demonstrating coordinated regulation of soma and dendrite growth by thiamine. The requirement of thiamine metabolism for coordinated somata and dendrite growth is highly consistent with the microcephaly and neurodegenerative phenotypes observed in thiamine loss-of-function diseases.
Project description:<label>BACKGROUND</label>Thiamine metabolites and activities of thiamine-dependent enzymes are impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD).<label>OBJECTIVE</label>To clarify the mechanism for the reduction of thiamine diphosphate (TDP), an active form of thiamine and critical coenzyme of glucose metabolism, in AD.<label>METHODS</label>Forty-five AD patients clinically diagnosed and 38 age- and gender-matched control subjects without dementia were voluntarily recruited. The contents of blood TDP, thiamine monophosphate (TMP), and thiamine, as well as the activities of thiamine diphosphatase (TDPase), thiamine monophosphatase (TMPase), and thiamine pyrophosphokinase (TPK), were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography.<label>RESULTS</label>Blood TDP contents of AD patients were significantly lower than those in control subjects (79.03 ± 23.24 vs. 127.60 ± 22.65 nmol/L, P<0.0001). Activities of TDPase and TMPase were significantly enhanced in AD patients than those in control subjects (TDPase: 1.24 ± 0.08 vs. 1.00 ± 0.04, P < 0.05; TMPase: 1.22 ± 0.04 vs. 1.00 ± 0.06, P < 0.01). TPK activity remained unchanged in AD as compared with that in control (0.93 ± 0.04 vs. 1.00 ± 0.04, P > 0.05). Blood TDP levels correlated negatively with TDPase activities (r = -0.2576, P = 0.0187) and positively with TPK activities (r = 0.2426, P = 0.0271) in all participants.<label>CONCLUSION</label>Enhanced TDPase and TMPase activities may contribute to the reduction of TDP level in AD patients. The results imply that an imbalance of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation related to thiamine and glucose metabolism may be a potential target for AD prevention and therapy.
Project description:In bacteria, many genes involved in the biosynthesis of cofactors such as thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) are regulated by ribo switches, regions in the 5' end of mRNAs to which the cofactor binds, thereby affecting translation and/or transcription. TPP riboswitches have now been identified in fungi, in which they alter mRNA splicing. Here, we show that addition of thiamine to cultures of the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii alters splicing of transcripts for the THI4 and THIC genes, encoding the first enzymes of the thiazole and pyrimidine branches of thiamine biosynthesis, respectively, concomitant with an increase in intracellular thiamine and TPP levels. Comparison with Volvox carteri, a related alga, revealed highly conserved regions within introns of these genes. Inspection of the sequences identified TPP riboswitch motifs, and RNA transcribed from the regions binds TPP in vitro. The THI4 riboswitch, but not the promoter region, was found to be necessary and sufficient for thiamine to repress expression of a luciferase-encoding reporter construct in vivo. The pyr1 mutant of C. reinhardtii, which is resistant to the thiamine analogue pyrithiamine, has a mutation in the THI4 riboswitch that prevents the THI4 gene from being repressed by TPP. By the use of these ribo switches, thiamine biosynthesis in C. reinhardtii can be effectively regulated at physiological concentrations of the vitamin.
Project description:The eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) population has been decreasing in the Baltic Sea for at least 30 years. Condition indices of the Baltic cod have decreased, and previous studies have suggested that this might be due to overfishing, predation, lower dissolved oxygen or changes in salinity. However, numerous studies from the Baltic Sea have demonstrated an ongoing thiamine deficiency in several animal classes, both invertebrates and vertebrates. The thiamine status of the eastern Baltic cod was investigated to determine if thiamine deficiency might be a factor in ongoing population declines. Thiamine concentrations were determined by chemical analyses of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate (combined SumT) in the liver using high performance liquid chromatography. Biochemical analyses measured the activity of the thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme transketolase to determine the proportion of apoenzymes in both liver and brain tissue. These biochemical analyses showed that 77% of the cod were thiamine deficient in the liver, of which 13% had a severe thiamine deficiency (i.e. 25% transketolase enzymes lacked thiamine diphosphate). The brain tissue of 77% of the cod showed thiamine deficiency, of which 64% showed severe thiamine deficiency. The thiamine deficiency biomarkers were investigated to find correlations to different biological parameters, such as length, weight, otolith weight, age (annuli counting) and different organ weights. The results suggested that thiamine deficiency increased with age. The SumT concentration ranged between 2.4-24 nmol/g in the liver, where the specimens with heavier otoliths had lower values of SumT (P = 0.0031). Of the cod sampled, only 2% of the specimens had a Fulton's condition factor indicating a healthy specimen, and 49% had a condition factor below 0.8, indicating poor health status. These results, showing a severe thiamine deficiency in eastern Baltic cod from the only known area where spawning presently occurs for this species, are of grave concern.
Project description:Vitamin B1 is a family of molecules, the most renowned member of which is diphosphorylated thiamine (TDP)-a coenzyme vital for the activity of key enzymes of energy metabolism. Triphosphorylated thiamine derivatives also exist within this family, specifically thiamine triphosphate (TTP) and adenosine thiamine triphosphate (ATTP). They have been investigated primarily in mammalian cells and are thought to act as metabolic messengers but have not received much attention in plants. In this study, we set out to examine for the presence of these triphosphorylated thiamine derivatives in Arabidopsis. We could find TTP in Arabidopsis under standard growth conditions, but we could not detect ATTP. Interestingly, TTP is found primarily in shoot tissue. Drivers of TTP synthesis are light intensity, the proton motive force, as well as TDP content. In plants, TTP accumulates in the organellar powerhouses, the plastids, and mitochondria. Furthermore, in contrast to other B1 vitamers, there are strong oscillations in tissue levels of TTP levels over diel periods peaking early during the light period. The elevation of TTP levels during the day appears to be coupled to a photosynthesis-driven process. We propose that TTP may signify TDP sufficiency, particularly in the organellar powerhouses, and discuss our findings in relation to its role.