Dynamic membrane proteome of adipogenic and myogenic precursors in skeletal muscle highlights EPHA2 may promote myogenic differentiation through ERK signaling.
ABSTRACT: The balance of myogenic and adipogenic differentiation is crucial for skeletal muscle homeostasis. Given the vital role of membrane proteins (MBPs) in cell signal perception, membrane proteomics was conducted to delineate mechanisms regulating differentiation of adipogenic and myogenic precursors in skeletal muscle. Adipogenic and myogenic precursors with divergent differentiation potential were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of neonatal pigs by the preplate method. A total of 85 differentially expressed MBPs ( P < 0.05 and fold change ?1.2 or ?0.83) between 2 precursors were detected via isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) assay, including 67 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated in myogenic precursors. Functional enrichment analysis uncovered that myogenic and adipogenic precursors showed significant differences in cytoskeleton organization, syncytium formation, environmental information processing, and organismal systems. Furthermore, key MBPs in regulating cell differentiation were also characterized, including ITGB3, ITGAV, ITPR3, and EPHA2. Noteworthily, EPHA2 was required for myogenic differentiation, and it may promote myogenic differentiation through ERK signaling. Collectively, our study provided an insight into the distinct MBP profile between myogenic and adipogenic precursors in skeletal muscle and served as a solid basis for supporting the role of MBPs in regulating differentiation.-Zhang, X., Wang, L., Qiu, K., Xu, D., Yin, J. Dynamic membrane proteome of adipogenic and myogenic precursors in skeletal muscle highlights EPHA2 may promote myogenic differentiation through ERK signaling.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Skeletal muscle is a complex and heterogeneous tissue accounting for approximately 40% of body weight. Excessive ectopic lipid accumulation in the muscle fascicle would undermine the integrity of skeletal muscle in humans but endow muscle with marbling-related characteristics in farm animals. Therefore, the balance of myogenesis and adipogenesis is of great significance for skeletal muscle homeostasis. Significant DNA methylation occurs during myogenesis and adipogenesis; however, DNA methylation pattern of myogenic and adipogenic precursors derived from skeletal muscle remains unknown yet.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, reduced representation bisulfite sequencing was performed to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation of adipogenic and myogenic precursors derived from the skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs. Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and transcription profiles was further conducted. Based on the results of pathway enrichment analysis, myogenic precursors were transfected with CACNA2D2-overexpression plasmids to explore the function of CACNA2D2 in myogenic differentiation.<h4>Results</h4>As a result, 11,361 differentially methylated regions mainly located in intergenic region and introns were identified. Furthermore, 153 genes with different DNA methylation and gene expression level between adipogenic and myogenic precursors were characterized. Subsequently, pathway enrichment analysis revealed that DNA methylation programing was involved in the regulation of adipogenic and myogenic differentiation potential through mediating the crosstalk among pathways including focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, MAPK signaling pathway, and calcium signaling pathway. In particular, we characterized a new role of CACNA2D2 in inhibiting myogenic differentiation by suppressing JNK/MAPK signaling pathway.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study depicted a comprehensive landmark of DNA methylome of skeletal muscle-derived myogenic and adipogenic precursors, highlighted the critical role of CACNA2D2 in regulating myogenic differentiation, and illustrated the possible regulatory ways of DNA methylation on cell fate commitment and skeletal muscle homeostasis.
Project description:Mechanism controlling myo-adipogenic balance in skeletal muscle is of great significance for human skeletal muscle dysfunction and myopathies as well as livestock meat quality. In the present study, two cell subpopulations with particular potency of adipogenic or myogenic differentiation were isolated from neonatal porcine longissimus dorsi using the preplate method to detect mechanisms underlying distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells in skeletal muscle. Both cells share a common surface expression profile of CD29+CD31-CD34-CD90+CD105+, verifying their mesenchymal origin. A total of 448 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR?<?0.05 and |log2 FC|???1) between two distinct cells were identified via RNA-seq, including 358 up-regulated and 90 down-regulated genes in myogenic cells compared with adipogenic cells. The results of functional annotation and enrichment showed that 42 DEGs were implicated in cell differentiation, among them PDGFR?, ITGA3, ITGB6, MLCK and MLC acted as hubs between environment information processing and cellular process, indicating that the interaction of the two categories exerts an important role in distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells. Particularly, we are first to show that up-regulation of intracellular Ca2+-MLCK and Rho-DMPK, and subsequently elevated MLC, may contribute to the distinct commitment of myogenic and adipogenic lineages via mediating cytoskeleton dynamics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Degeneration of smooth muscles in sphincters can cause debilitating diseases such as fecal incontinence. Skeletal muscle-derived cells have been effectively used in clinics for the regeneration of the skeletal muscle sphincters, such as the external anal or urinary sphincter. However, little is known about the in vitro smooth muscle differentiation potential and in vivo regenerative potential of skeletal muscle-derived cells. METHODS:Myogenic progenitor cells (MPC) were isolated from the skeletal muscle and analyzed by flow cytometry and in vitro differentiation assays. The differentiation of MPC to smooth muscle cells (MPC-SMC) was evaluated by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, patch-clamp, collagen contraction, and microarray gene expression analysis. In vivo engraftment of MPC-SMC was monitored by transplanting reporter protein-expressing cells into the pyloric sphincter of immunodeficient mice. RESULTS:MPC derived from human skeletal muscle expressed mesenchymal surface markers and exhibit skeletal myogenic differentiation potential in vitro. In contrast, they lack hematopoietic surface marker, as well as adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation potential in vitro. Cultivation of MPC in smooth muscle differentiation medium significantly increases the fraction of alpha smooth muscle actin (aSMA) and smoothelin-positive cells, while leaving the number of desmin-positive cells unchanged. Smooth muscle-differentiated MPC (MPC-SMC) exhibit increased expression of smooth muscle-related genes, significantly enhanced numbers of CD146- and CD49a-positive cells, and in vitro contractility and express functional Cav and Kv channels. MPC to MPC-SMC differentiation was also accompanied by a reduction in their skeletal muscle differentiation potential. Upon removal of the smooth muscle differentiation medium, a major fraction of MPC-SMC remained positive for aSMA, suggesting the definitive acquisition of their phenotype. Transplantation of murine MPC-SMC into the mouse pyloric sphincter revealed engraftment of MPC-SMC based on aSMA protein expression within the host smooth muscle tissue. CONCLUSIONS:Our work confirms the ability of MPC to give rise to smooth muscle cells (MPC-SMC) with a well-defined and stable phenotype. Moreover, the engraftment of in vitro-differentiated murine MPC-SMC into the pyloric sphincter in vivo underscores the potential of this cell population as a novel cell therapeutic treatment for smooth muscle regeneration of sphincters.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging key regulators involved in a variety of biological processes such as cell differentiation and development. The balance between myogenesis and adipogenesis is crucial for skeletal muscle homeostasis in humans and meat quality in farm animals. The present study aimed to reveal the global transcriptomic profiles of adipogenic (Adi-) and myogenic (Myo-) precursors derived from porcine skeletal muscle and identify lncRNAs involved in the modulation of myogenesis homeostasis in porcine skeletal muscle.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, a total of 655 novel individual lncRNAs including differentially expressed 24 lncRNAs, and 755 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified (fold change ?2 or???0.5 and adjusted P?<?0.05). Integrated results of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis accompanied by the variation of intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> concentration highlighted Lnc-ADAMTS9 involved in the modulation of myogenesis homeostasis in porcine skeletal muscle. Although Lnc-ADAMTS9 knock-down did not alter the mRNA expression of ADAMTS9, we demonstrated that Lnc-ADAMTS9 can promote myogenic proliferation and myogenic differentiation of myogenic precursors through inhibiting the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We deciphered a comprehensive catalog of mRNAs and lncRNAs that might be involved in the regulation of myogenesis and adipogenesis homeostasis in the skeletal muscle of pigs. The Lnc-ADAMTS9 exerts an essential role in myogenesis through the ERK signaling pathway.
Project description:Skeletal muscle satellite cell-derived myoblasts are mainly responsible for postnatal muscle growth and injury-induced regeneration. However, the cellular signaling pathways that control proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts remain poorly defined. Recently, we found that JAK1/STAT1/STAT3 not only participate in myoblast proliferation but also actively prevent them from premature differentiation. Unexpectedly, we found that a related pathway consisting of JAK2, STAT2, and STAT3 is required for early myogenic differentiation. Interference of this pathway by either a small molecule inhibitor or small interfering RNA inhibits myogenic differentiation. Consistently, all three molecules are activated upon differentiation. The pro-differentiation effect of JAK2/STAT2/STAT3 is partially mediated by MyoD and MEF2. Interestingly, the expression of the IGF2 gene and the HGF gene is also regulated by JAK2/STAT2/STAT3, suggesting that this pathway could also promote differentiation by regulating signaling molecules known to be involved in myogenic differentiation. In summary, our current study reveals a novel role for the JAK2/STAT2/STAT3 pathway in myogenic differentiation.
Project description:Mesoangioblasts (MABs) are vessel-associated stem cells that express pericyte marker genes and participate in skeletal muscle regeneration. Molecular circuits that regulate the myogenic commitment of MABs are still poorly characterized. The critical role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling during proliferation and differentiation of adult myogenic precursors, such as satellite cells, has recently been established. We evaluated whether BMP signalling impacts on the myogenic potential of embryonic and adult MABs both in vitro and in vivo. Addition of BMP inhibited MAB myogenic differentiation, whereas interference with the interactions between BMPs and receptor complexes induced differentiation. Similarly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad8 in Smad1/5-null MABs or inhibition of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation with Dorsomorphin (DM) also improved myogenic differentiation, demonstrating a novel role of SMAD8. Moreover, using a transgenic mouse model of Smad8 deletion, we demonstrated that the absence of SMAD8 protein improved MAB myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, once injected into ?-Sarcoglycan (Sgca)-null muscles, DM-treated MABs were more efficacious to restore ?-sarcoglycan (?SG) protein levels and re-establish functional muscle properties. Similarly, in acute muscle damage, DM-treated MABs displayed a better myogenic potential compared with BMP-treated and untreated cells. Finally, SMADs also control the myogenic commitment of human MABs (hMABs). BMP signalling antagonists are therefore novel candidates to improve the therapeutic effects of hMABs.
Project description:Stem cell-based tissue engineering therapy is the most promising method for treating volumetric muscle loss. Human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess characteristics similar to those of embryonic stem cells. In this study, we verified the stem cell characteristics of human amniotic mesenchymal cells by the flow cytometry analysis, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Through induction with the DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine, human amniotic mesenchymal cells can undergo myogenic differentiation and express skeletal muscle cell-specific markers such as desmin and MyoD. The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway also plays an important role. After 5-azacytidine-induced human amniotic mesenchymal cells were implanted into rat tibialis anterior muscle with volumetric muscle loss, we observed increased angiogenesis and improved local tissue repair. We believe that human amniotic mesenchymal cells can serve as a potential source of cells for skeletal muscle tissue engineering.
Project description:Wnt-?-catenin signalling is essential for skeletal muscle myogenesis during development, but its role in adult human skeletal muscle remains unknown. Here we have used human primary CD56Pos satellite cell-derived myogenic progenitors obtained from healthy individuals to study the role of Wnt-?-catenin signalling in myogenic differentiation. We show that dephosphorylated ?-catenin (active-?-catenin), the central effector of the canonical Wnt cascade, is strongly upregulated at the onset of differentiation and undergoes nuclear translocation as differentiation progresses. To establish the role of Wnt signalling in regulating the differentiation process we manipulated key nodes of this pathway through a series of ?-catenin gain-of-function (GSK3 inhibition and ?-catenin overexpression) or loss-of-function experiments (dominant negative TCF4). Our data showed that manipulation of these critical pathway components led to varying degrees of disruption to the normal differentiation phenotype indicating the importance of Wnt signalling in regulating this process. We reveal an independent necessity for active-?-catenin in the fusion and differentiation of human myogenic progenitors and that dominant negative inhibition of TCF4 prevents differentiation completely. Together these data add new mechanistic insights into both Wnt signalling and adult human myogenic progenitor differentiation.
Project description:Difficulties related to the obtainment of stem/progenitor cells from skeletal muscle tissue make the search for new sources of myogenic cells highly relevant. Alveolar mucosa might be considered as a perspective candidate due to availability and high proliferative capacity of its cells. Human alveolar mucosa cells (AMC) were obtained from gingival biopsy samples collected from 10 healthy donors and cultured up to 10 passages. AMC matched the generally accepted multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells criteria and possess population doubling time, caryotype and immunophenotype stability during long-term cultivation. The single myogenic induction of primary cell cultures resulted in differentiation of AMC into multinucleated myotubes. The myogenic differentiation was associated with expression of skeletal muscle markers: skeletal myosin, skeletal actin, myogenin and MyoD1. Efficiency of myogenic differentiation in AMC cultures was similar to that in skeletal muscle cells. Furthermore, some of differentiated myotubes exhibited contractions in vitro. Our data confirms the sufficiently high myogenic potential and proliferative capacity of AMC and their ability to maintain in vitro proliferation-competent myogenic precursor cells regardless of the passage number.
Project description:MyoD and Myf5 are fundamental regulators of skeletal muscle lineage determination in the embryo, and their expression is induced in satellite cells following muscle injury. MyoD and Myf5 are also expressed by satellite cell precursors developmentally, although the relative contribution of historical and injury-induced expression to satellite cell function is unknown. We show that satellite cells lacking both MyoD and Myf5 (double knockout [dKO]) are maintained with aging in uninjured muscle. However, injured muscle fails to regenerate and dKO satellite cell progeny accumulate in damaged muscle but do not undergo muscle differentiation. dKO satellite cell progeny continue to express markers of myoblast identity, although their myogenic programming is labile, as demonstrated by dramatic morphological changes and increased propensity for non-myogenic differentiation. These data demonstrate an absolute requirement for either MyoD or Myf5 in muscle regeneration and indicate that their expression after injury stabilizes myogenic identity and confers the capacity for muscle differentiation.