Weekly alternate intensive regimen FIrB/FOx in metastatic colorectal cancer patients: an update from clinical practice.
ABSTRACT: Background:Several trials evaluated the role of intensive regimens, made of triplet chemotherapies plus bevacizumab, as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We previously reported, in a Phase II prospective study, the efficacy and the tolerability of FIrB/FOx regimen, reporting interesting results in terms of received dose intensities (rDIs) and safety. Methods:We reported a retrospective update of 85 patients treated with FIrB/FOx, an intensive regimen of 5-fluorouracil, bevacizumab, and weekly alternate irinotecan and oxaliplatin, to confirm its feasibility in "real life". Subgroup analyses were performed, particularly among patients treated with standard and modified FIrB/FOx (based on age, performance status, and/or comorbidities). Results:Overall, 3-month objective response rate (ORR) and 6-month ORR were 75.9% and 55.3%, respectively. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS) were 14.4 and 34.9 months, respectively. Among the patients treated with standard and modified regimens, 3-month ORR, PFS, and OS were 75.8% and 76% (P=1.0000), 14.4 and 14.4 months (P=0.8589), and 37.8 and 26.6 months (P=0.7746), respectively. Among the K/NRAS wild-type and K/NRAS mutant patients, 3-month ORR, PFS, and OS were 95.2% and 74.5% (P=0.0526), 15.3 and 14.4 months (P=0.8753), and 37.8 and 51.4 months (P=0.8527), respectively. The rDIs were ?80% of full doses both in the standard and in the modified regimens subgroups. Cumulative G3/4 toxicities were neutropenia (14.1%), diarrhea (17.6%), asthenia (9.4%), vomiting (5.6%), and hypertension (16.5%). Conclusion:This update shows that intensive regimens such as FIrB/FOx are also feasible options for first-line treatment of mCRC patients in the "real-life" setting.
Project description:Importance:Progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 6 months has been proposed as a potential surrogate for overall survival (OS) rate at 12 months for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) trials but requires further assessment for validation. Objective:To validate 6-month PFS and objective response rate (ORR) as estimators of 12-month OS in the ICI arms of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Data Sources:Electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched for ICI RCTs published between January 2000 and June 2019. Study Selection:Eligible studies were phase 2 and phase 3 ICI RCTs in advanced solid cancers that reported ORR, PFS, and OS. A total of 99 articles (from 60 studies) of 2502 articles were selected by consensus. Data Extraction and Synthesis:Data were screened and extracted independently. Estimation models for 12-month OS and to assess correlation coefficient between end points were developed using linear regression. Data were extracted in July 2019, and analyses were conducted in September 2019. This study is reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. Main Outcomes and Measures:Validation of previously reported 6-month PFS and ORR estimation models for 12-month OS using contemporary RCTs. Calibration of 6-month PFS and ORR model-estimated vs observed 12-month OS in ICI arms were assessed by correlation coefficient (r) and weighted Brier scores. Secondary analyses were performed for subgroups (ie, ICI-only, ICI-combination, line of therapy, programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 selected, and unselected). Results:Data from 60 RCTs with 74 experimental ICI arms were used. The development data set included 25 arms from studies published January 2000 to January 2017. The estimation model for 12-month OS using 6-month PFS was: (1.06?×?PFS6)?+?0.16?+?(0.04?×?melanoma)?-?(0.03?×?NSCLC)?+?(0?×?other tumors), in which PFS6 indicates 6-month PFS and NSCLC indicates non-small cell lung cancer. The estimation model for 12-month OS using ORR was (0.15?×?ORR)?+?0.52?+?(0?×?melanoma)?-?(0.02?×?NSCLC)?-?(0.01?×?other tumors). A total of 49 arms from studies published after January 2017 to June 2019 formed the validation data set. When the models were applied on the validation data set, calibration between the 6-month PFS model estimated vs observed 12-month OS was good (r?=?0.89; Brier score, 0.008), but poor for the ORR model (r?=?0.47; Brier score, 0.03). Findings were similar across all subgroups. Conclusions and Relevance:The findings of this study suggest that the estimation model using 6-month PFS could reliably estimate 12-month OS in ICI trials. This study could assist in better selection and prioritization of ICI agents for testing in RCTs based on phase 2 single-arm RCT results.
Project description:Importance:Checkpoint inhibitors have a unique mechanism of action that differs from chemotherapy or targeted therapies. The validity of objective response rate (ORR) as a surrogate for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in checkpoint-inhibitor trials is uncertain. Objective:To determine the types of primary end points used in phase 2 checkpoint-inhibitor trials, and to assess the strength of associations for ORR with PFS and OS. Data Sources:Trials listed in electronic databases from 2000 to 2017 (PREMEDLINE, MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials). Study Selection:Advanced solid cancers in phase 2 and phase 3 trials. Data Extraction and Synthesis:Correlations between ORR odds ratios and hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS and OS were examined for randomized comparisons. Within checkpoint-inhibitor treatment arms, correlations for ORR with 6-month PFS and 12-month OS rates were examined. All analyses were weighted by trial size. Multivariable models to predict 6-month PFS and 12-month OS rates from ORR were developed and their performance validated in an independent sample of trials. Main Outcomes and Measures:Correlation coefficient (r) of ORR with PFS and OS. Results:Of 87 phase 2 trials identified, ORR was the most common (52 [60%]) primary end point. Twenty randomized clinical trials with 25 treatment comparisons were identified. Checkpoint-inhibitor therapy was associated with pooled ORR of 24% (95% CI, 18%-31%). For randomized comparisons, r between ORR odds ratio and PFS HR was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.35-0.89), ORR odds ratio and OS HR was 0.57 (95% CI, 0.23-0.89), and between PFS HR and OS HR was 0.42 (95% CI, 0.04-0.81). Within the checkpoint-inhibitor arms, r correlation coefficients between ORR with 6-month PFS, ORR with 12-month OS, and 6-month PFS with 12-month OS were 0.37 (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.95), 0.08 (95% CI, -0.17 to 0.70), and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.57-0.92), respectively. In validation, when 6-month PFS was used to predict 12-month OS, there was a good calibration between actual and predicted 12-month OS. When ORR was used to predict 6-month PFS and 12-month OS rates, respectively, the actual vs predicted rates calibrated poorly. Conclusions and Relevance:In checkpoint-inhibitor trials, ORR correlated poorly with OS. For future phase 2 studies, 6-month PFS rate is recommended as an end point.
Project description:As the survival of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) continues to improve, patients are increasingly being treated with multiple regimens. However, outcome after each line remains poorly characterized in the modern era. To address this knowledge gap, we retrospectively studied 404 consecutive MCL patients who were managed between 2000 and 2014 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Histologic diagnosis was centrally confirmed, and patients were followed longitudinally from diagnosis throughout their disease course. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier method. The median OS and PFS after first-line treatment were 9.7 and 4.0 years, respectively. After second-line therapy, the median OS and PFS were 41.1 and 14.0 months, third line were 25.2 and 6.5 months, and fourth line were 14.4 and 5.0 months. In patients less than 65 years, stem cell transplant (SCT)-based frontline regimens were associated with improved PFS compared with non-SCT regimens (median PFS: 86.2 versus 40.0 months; P?<?0.01), with a trend toward longer OS (median OS: 165.0 versus 120.0 months; P?=?0.06). Early treatment failure after first-line regimens was associated with worse OS (5.9 versus 2.5 years; P?<?0.01). Our study should facilitate establishing proper endpoints for future clinical trials using novel treatment approaches.
Project description:Background:A proportion of patients with synchronous oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have poor survival, and currently no standard treatment is available, which poses a great challenge to physicians. This study aimed to assess and compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of brachytherapy with iodine-125 seeds and systemic chemotherapy versus systemic chemotherapy alone for synchronous extracranial oligometastatic NSCLC. Materials and Methods:After a systematic retrospective review of the case database between 1st Mar 2014 and 30th Mar 2018, data were obtained on 69 NSCLC patients with extracranial oligometastatic NSCLC. Among them, 32 patients received brachytherapy with iodine-125 seeds combined with systemic chemotherapy (group A), and the remaining 37 patients received chemotherapy alone (group B). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and complications. Results:The demographic and clinical characteristics were not significantly different between the groups (all p>0.05). The overall 3-month ORR was significantly higher in group A (65.6% vs 37.8%, p=0.030) than in group B. With a median follow-up time of 23 months, the PFS and OS were 11.6 (95% CI: 7.0-16.2) months vs 6.3 (95% CI: 3.4-9.2) months (p=0.036) and 17.6 (95% CI: 13.9-21.3) months vs 11.2 (95% CI: 7.7-14.7) months (p=0.042) in groups A and B, respectively. Furthermore, in Cox regression analysis, local brachytherapy was an independent prognostic factor for both PFS (HR=0.416, 95% CI: 0.246-0.702, p=0.001) and OS (HR=0.375, 95% CI: 0.216-0.653, p=0.001). Severe complications were not observed in either of the groups. Conclusion:The combination of brachytherapy with iodine-125 seeds and systemic chemotherapy is superior to chemotherapy alone for synchronous extracranial oligometastatic NSCLC.
Project description:Purpose Both temozolomide (TMZ) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are active in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). This phase II, randomized, double-blind study evaluated whether addition of the PARP inhibitor veliparib to TMZ improves 4-month progression-free survival (PFS). Patients and Methods A total of 104 patients with recurrent SCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 to oral veliparib or placebo 40 mg twice daily, days 1 to 7, and oral TMZ 150 to 200 mg/m2/day, days 1 to 5, of a 28-day cycle until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. Response was determined by imaging at weeks 4 and 8, and every 8 weeks thereafter. Improvement in PFS at 4 months was the primary end point. Secondary objectives included overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety and tolerability of veliparib with TMZ. Exploratory objectives included PARP-1 and SLFN11 immunohistochemical expression, MGMT promoter methylation, and circulating tumor cell quantification. Results No significant difference in 4-month PFS was noted between TMZ/veliparib (36%) and TMZ/placebo (27%; P = .19); median OS was also not improved significantly with TMZ/veliparib (8.2 months; 95% CI, 6.4 to 12.2 months; v 7.0 months; 95% CI, 5.3 to 9.5 months; P = .50). However, ORR was significantly higher in patients receiving TMZ/veliparib compared with TMZ/placebo (39% v 14%; P = .016). Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia more commonly occurred with TMZ/veliparib: 50% versus 9% and 31% versus 7%, respectively. Significantly prolonged PFS (5.7 v 3.6 months; P = .009) and OS (12.2 v 7.5 months; P = .014) were observed in patients with SLFN11-positive tumors treated with TMZ/veliparib. Conclusion Four-month PFS and median OS did not differ between the two arms, whereas a significant improvement in ORR was observed with TMZ/veliparib. SLFN11 expression was associated with improved PFS and OS in patients receiving TMZ/veliparib, suggesting a promising biomarker of PARP-inhibitor sensitivity in SCLC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Currently, the standard treatment for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiation therapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide. However, disease recurs in almost all patients, and the optimal salvage treatment for recurrent GBM remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published clinical trials to assess the efficacy and toxicities of angiogenesis inhibitors alone as salvage treatment in these patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Trials published between 1994 and 2015 were identified by an electronic search of public databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library). Demographic data, treatment regimens, objective response rate (ORR), median progression-free survival (PFS), median overall survival (OS), 6-months PFS rate, 1-year OS and grade 3/4 toxicities were extracted. We also compared the main outcomes of interest between bevacizumab and other angiogenesis inhibitors. All analyses were performed using Comprehensive Meta Analysis software (Version 2.0).<h4>Results</h4>A total of 842 patients were included for analysis: 343 patients were treated with bevacizumab, 386 with other angiogenesis inhibitors and 81 with thalidomide. The pooled ORR, 6-months PFS, and 1-year OS for recurrent GBM patients receiving angiogenesis inhibitors was 20.1%, 19.5% and 29.3%, respectively. The use of single agent bevacizumab in recurrent GBM significantly improved ORR and 6-months PFS when compared to other angiogenesis inhibitors [relative risk (RR) 2.93, 95% CI 1.38-6.21; p = 0.025; and RR 2.36 95% CI 1.46-3.82; p<0.001, respectively], while no significant difference in 1-year OS was found between the two groups (p = 0.07). when compared to thalidomide, bevacizumab treatment in recurrent GBM significantly improved ORR (RR 6.8, 95%CI: 2.64-17.6, p<0.001), but not for 6-months PFS (p = 0.07) and 1-year OS (p = 0.31). As for grade 3/4 toxicities, the common toxicity was hypertension with pooled incidence of 12.1%, while high-grade thromboembolic events (2.2%), hemorrhage (5.1%) and GI perforation (2.8%) associated with angiogenesis inhibitors were relatively low.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In comparison with other angiogenesis inhibitors and thalidomide, the use of single agent bevacizumab as salvage treatment for recurrent GBM patients improve ORR and 6-months PFS, but not for 1-year OS.
Project description:Novel intermediate end points may be useful to detect signals of early activity and prioritize new therapies to treat patients with advanced malignant neoplasms, including metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC).To explore milestone rate, a proposed intermediate end point for immunotherapy trials.Trials submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration with more than 150 patients and in which the intention-to-treat population was assessed were identified.An initial meta-analysis identified 14 randomized clinical trials for treatment of mNSCLC with active controls submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2013. An additional 11 randomized clinical trials submitted from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2016 were included.Two investigators abstracted data and pooled data to compare trial-level milestone ratios with conventional end points.Trial-level milestone ratios for milestone rates were calculated for overall response rate (ORR) within 6 months, 9-month progression-free survival (PFS), 9-month overall survival (OS), and 12-month OS. A weighted linear regression model evaluated associations between milestone ratios and hazard ratios (HRs). Experimental and control arms of trials testing immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and other trials were pooled to compare Kaplan-Meier survival estimates in the 3 therapeutic classes.A total of 20?013 unique patients (65.4% male and 34.6% female; mean age, 60 [range, 18-92] years) with advanced lung cancer were identified in 25 unique trials. A moderate association was observed between 12-month OS milestone ratio and OS HR (R2?=?0.80; 95% CI, 0.63-0.91) and 9-month OS milestone ratio and OS HR (R2?=?0.67; 95% CI, 0.49-0.82). No associations were observed between 9-month PFS milestone ratio and OS HR (R2?=?0.19; 95% CI, 0.03-0.49) or 6-month ORR and OS HR (R2?=?0.05; 95% CI, 0.0001-0.31). The aggregated Kaplan-Meier analysis of immunotherapy trials vs chemotherapy revealed an OS HR of 0.69 (95% CI, 0.63-0.75) and PFS HR of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.76-0.89). Targeted therapy trials vs chemotherapy had an OS HR of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.80-1.19) and PFS HR of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.42-0.56).This analysis of milestone rates suggests a moderate association between OS milestones at 12 or 9 months and OS HR but not 9-month PFS or 6-month ORR milestones and OS HR. Although OS at 12 months had the strongest association with OS HR, it may not be the optimal time for future trials, which will increasingly have immunotherapy as the control, deploy new biomarker-enrichment strategies, and likely enroll patients with longer survival. Milestone rates may be useful as a complementary tool to summarize or interpret trial results or as a secondary end point in exploratory studies.
Project description:Bevacizumab combined with modified FOLFOX6 is a standard regimen for colorectal cancer. The present study was to determine the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab-modified FOLFOX6 regimen in heavily pretreated patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu)-negative MBC.Bevacizumab, 5 mg/kg every two weeks or 7.5 mg/kg every three weeks, was administered with modified FOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, 5-FU 400 mg/m2 on day 1, followed by 5-FU 2400 mg/m2 intravenous infusion over 46 hours every 2 weeks) to patients who failed at least 1 chemotherapy regimen in the metastatic setting. The primary objective was progression free survival (PFS). Secondary objectives included objective response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), overall survival (OS), safety, and the change of tumor size and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status.69 patients were enrolled. The median PFS was 6.8 months (95% CI, 5.0 to 8.5 months), ORR was 50.0% and median OS was 10.5 months (95% CI, 7.9 to 13.1 months). Patients showing objective responses had a 4.2-month median PFS gain and 5.7-month median OS gain compared with those who did not (P < 0.05). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurring in more than one patient were neutropenia (53/69, 76.8%), leukopenia (36/69, 52.2%), thrombocytopenia (13/69, 18.8%), anemia (3/69, 4.3%) and hypertension (3/69, 4.3%).Adding bevacizumab to modified FOLFOX6 does have significant anti-tumor activity and good safety profile in heavily pretreated HER2/neu-negative MBC patients. Further trials are required to confirm whether the high ORR can translate into a long-term PFS and even OS benefit.www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01658033.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study aimed to assess the effect of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PTX) chemotherapy regimens in elderly patients (?70 years old) with advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS:The clinical records of elderly patients aged ?70 years with advanced squamous NSCLC were reviewed retrospectively. All of these patients received nab-PTX, with or without combination of chemotherapy in Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute between 1 July 2012 and 30 June 2017. We analyzed the toxicity profiles, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR). RESULTS:Totally, 52 elderly patients with squamous NSCLC were included in the analysis. For all patients, the ORR was 34.6%, the DCR was 80.8%, median PFS was 5.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-7.8 months), and median OS was 14.3 months (95% CI: 11.0-17.8 months). Combination with chemotherapy significantly prolonged OS (19.3 vs 11.2 months, P = .016), despite a nonsignificant improvement in PFS (7.1 vs 4.2 months, P = .060) vs monotherapy. For patients who received nab-PTX as first-line treatment, the median PFS and OS were 6.7 months and 17.2 months, respectively, and the median OS in combination therapy subgroup was significantly higher than that in monotherapy group (20.3 vs 11.2 months, P = .013). Meanwhile, the median PFS and OS of patients with nab-PTX as second- or later-line treatment were 4.4 months and 13.3 months, respectively, but no survival benefit was achieved by the combination chemotherapy when compared with single-agent chemotherapy. Hematologic toxicities were the most common adverse events (AEs), which include grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (13.7%), thrombocytopenia (4.1%), and anemia (6.8%). The main nonhematologic toxicities were peripheral sensory neuropathy (39.7%), followed by anorexia and nausea/vomiting. CONCLUSION:In elderly advanced squamous NSCLC patients, the treatment of nab-PTX was effective and well tolerated.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and bevacizumab plus chemotherapy were effective for EGFR-mutant patients. However, the appropriated treatment orders remained controvertible. We investigated the efficacy of treatment orders between bevacizumab plus chemotherapy and EGFR-TKIs for EGFR-mutant patients with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma.This study involved 40 EGFR-mutant patients with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma who were treated with bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel (Bev + CP) and EGFR-TKIs in different treatment orders or gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) in first-line setting. Seventeen patients were treated with Bev + CP and 10 cases with GP in first-line treatment. Thirteen patients received EGFR-TKIs after first-line Bev + CP regimen, while 13 patients were treated with first-line EGFR-TKIs. Progression-free survival (PFS), the response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated.Median PFS of Bev + CP treatment was significantly longer in first-line than non-first-line settings (11.7 vs. 5.6 months, P = 0.003). Median OS was 37.8 months for EGFR-mutant patients with first-line Bev + CP followed by second-line EGFR-TKIs and 31.0 months for those with first-line EGFR-TKIs and non-first-line Bev + CP, respectively (P = 0.509). Median PFS was 11.7 (95% CI 10.6-12.8) months for Bev + CP group and 4.7 (95% CI 4.4-5.0) months for GP group with the hazard ratio of 0.17 (P = 0.001). ORR was 70.6 and 50.0% in the two groups, respectively (P = 0.415). However, there was no significant difference in median OS (33.7 vs 27.8 months, P = 0.293).First-line Bev + CP followed by EGFR-TKIs might possibly provide favorable prognosis for EGFR-mutant patients. Bev + CP regimen significantly prolonged PFS in first-line than non-first-line settings. These findings warrant further investigations.