Coordination Chemistry of a Molecular Pentafoil Knot.
ABSTRACT: The binding of Zn(II) cations to a pentafoil (51) knotted ligand allows the synthesis of otherwise inaccessible metalated molecular pentafoil knots via transmetalation, affording the corresponding "first-sphere" coordination Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) pentanuclear knots in good yields (?85%). Each of the knot complexes was characterized by mass spectrometry, the diamagnetic (zinc) knot complex was characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and the zinc, cobalt, and nickel pentafoil knots afforded single crystals whose structures were determined by X-ray crystallography. Lehn-type circular helicates generally only form with tris-bipy ligand strands and Fe(II) (and, in some cases, Ni(II) and Zn(II)) salts, so such architectures become accessible for other metal cations only through the use of knotted ligands. The different metalated knots all exhibit "second-sphere" coordination of a single chloride ion within the central cavity of the knot through CH···Cl- hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. The chloride binding affinities were determined in MeCN by isothermal titration calorimetry, and the strength of binding was shown to vary over 3 orders of magnitude for the different metal-ion-knotted-ligand second-sphere coordination complexes.
Project description:We investigate the self-assembly dynamics of an imine-based pentafoil knot and related pentameric circular helicates, each derived from a common bis(formylpyridine)bipyridyl building block, iron(II) chloride, and either monoamines or a diamine. The mixing of circular helicates derived from different amines led to the complete exchange of the N-alkyl residues on the periphery of the metallo-supramolecular scaffolds over 4 days in DMSO at 60 °C. Under similar conditions, deuterium-labeled and nonlabeled building blocks showed full dialdehyde building block exchange over 13 days for open circular helicates but was much slower for the analogous closed-loop pentafoil knot (>60 days). Although both knots and open circular helicates self-assemble under thermodynamic control given sufficiently long reaction times, this is significantly longer than the time taken to afford the maximum product yield (2 days). Highly effective error correction occurs during the synthesis of imine-based pentafoil molecular knots and pentameric circular helicates despite, in practice, the systems not operating under full thermodynamic control.
Project description:A (FeII)6-coordinated triply interlocked ("Star of David") catenane (612 link) and a (FeII)5-coordinated pentafoil (51) knot are found to selectively transport anions across phospholipid bilayers. Allostery, topology, and building block stoichiometry all play important roles in the efficacy of the ionophoric activity. Multiple FeII cation coordination by the interlocked molecules is crucial: the demetalated catenane exhibits no anion binding in solution nor any transmembrane ion transport properties. However, the topologically trivial, Lehn-type cyclic hexameric FeII helicates-which have similar anion binding affinities to the metalated Star of David catenane in solution-also display no ion transport properties. The unanticipated difference in behavior between the open- and closed-loop structures may arise from conformational restrictions in the linking groups that likely enhances the rigidity of the channel-forming topologically complex molecules. The (FeII)6-coordinated Star of David catenane, derived from a hexameric cyclic helicate, is 2 orders of magnitude more potent in terms of ion transport than the (FeII)5-coordinated pentafoil knot, derived from a cyclic pentamer of the same building block. The reduced efficacy is reminiscent of multisubunit protein ion channels assembled with incorrect monomer stoichiometries.
Project description:How knotted proteins fold has remained controversial since the identification of deeply knotted proteins nearly two decades ago. Both computational and experimental approaches have been used to investigate protein knot formation. Motivated by the computer simulations of Bölinger et al. [Bölinger D, et al. (2010) PLoS Comput Biol 6:e1000731] for the folding of the [Formula: see text]-knotted ?-haloacid dehalogenase (DehI) protein, we introduce a topological description of knot folding that could describe pathways for the formation of all currently known protein knot types and predicts knot types that might be identified in the future. We analyze fingerprint data from crystal structures of protein knots as evidence that particular protein knots may fold according to specific pathways from our theory. Our results confirm Taylor's twisted hairpin theory of knot folding for the [Formula: see text]-knotted proteins and the [Formula: see text]-knotted ketol-acid reductoisomerases and present alternative folding mechanisms for the [Formula: see text]-knotted phytochromes and the [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-knotted proteins.
Project description:Knotted proteins are more commonly observed in recent years due to the enormously growing number of structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Studies show that the knot regions contribute to both ligand binding and enzyme activity in proteins such as the chromophore-binding domain of phytochrome, ketol-acid reductoisomerase or SpoU methyltransferase. However, there are still many misidentified knots published in the literature due to the absence of a convenient web tool available to the general biologists. Here, we present the first web server to detect the knots in proteins as well as provide information on knotted proteins in PDB-the protein KNOT (pKNOT) web server. In pKNOT, users can either input PDB ID or upload protein coordinates in the PDB format. The pKNOT web server will detect the knots in the protein using the Taylor's smoothing algorithm. All the detected knots can be visually inspected using a Java-based 3D graphics viewer. We believe that the pKNOT web server will be useful to both biologists in general and structural biologists in particular.
Project description:This work explores the impact of knots, knot depth and motif of the threading terminus in protein folding properties (kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism) via extensive Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models. A knotted backbone has no effect on protein thermodynamic stability but it may affect key aspects of folding kinetics. In this regard, we found clear evidence for a functional advantage of knots: knots enhance kinetic stability because a knotted protein unfolds at a distinctively slower rate than its unknotted counterpart. However, an increase in knot deepness does not necessarily lead to more effective changes in folding properties. In this regard, a terminus with a non-trivial conformation (e.g. hairpin) can have a more dramatic effect in enhancing kinetic stability than knot depth. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the probability of the denatured ensemble to keep knotted is higher for proteins with deeper knots, indicating that knot depth plays a role in determining the topology of the denatured state. Refolding simulations starting from denatured knotted conformations show that not every knot is able to nucleate folding and further indicate that the formation of the knotting loop is a key event in the folding of knotted trefoils. They also show that there are specific native contacts within the knotted core that are crucial to keep a native knotting loop in denatured conformations which otherwise have no detectable structure. The study of the knotting mechanism reveals that the threading of the knotting loop generally occurs towards late folding in conformations that exhibit a significant degree of structural consolidation.
Project description:We report on multicomponent self-sorting to form open circular helicates of different sizes from a primary monoamine, Fe(II) ions, and dialdehyde ligand strands that differ in length and structure by only two oxygen atoms. The corresponding closed circular helicates that are formed from a diamine--a molecular Solomon link and a pentafoil knot--also self-sort, but up to two of the Solomon-link-forming ligand strands can be accommodated within the pentafoil knot structure and are either incorporated or omitted depending on the stage that the components are mixed.
Project description:The polypeptide backbones of a few proteins are tied in a knot. The biophysical effects and potential biological roles of knots are not well understood. Here, we test the consequences of protein knotting by taking a monomeric protein, carbonic anhydrase II, whose native structure contains a shallow knot, and polymerizing it end-to-end to form a deeply and multiply knotted polymeric filament. Thermal stability experiments show that the polymer is stabilized against loss of structure and aggregation by the presence of deep knots.
Project description:Abstract The computer artificial intelligence system AlphaFold has recently predicted previously unknown three‐dimensional structures of thousands of proteins. Focusing on the subset with high‐confidence scores, we algorithmically analyze these predictions for cases where the protein backbone exhibits rare topological complexity, that is, knotting. Amongst others, we discovered a 71‐knot, the most topologically complex knot ever found in a protein, as well several six‐crossing composite knots comprised of two methyltransferase or carbonic anhydrase domains, each containing a simple trefoil knot. These deeply embedded composite knots occur evidently by gene duplication and interconnection of knotted dimers. Finally, we report two new five‐crossing knots including the first 51‐knot. Our list of analyzed structures forms the basis for future experimental studies to confirm these novel‐knotted topologies and to explore their complex folding mechanisms.
Project description:Knots have attracted scientists in mathematics, physics, biology, and engineering. Long flexible thin strings easily knot and tangle as experienced in our daily life. Similarly, long polymer chains inevitably tend to get trapped into knots. Little is known about their formation or function in proteins despite >1,000 knotted proteins identified in nature. However, these protein knots are not mathematical knots with their backbone polypeptide chains because of their open termini, and the presence of a "knot" depends on the algorithm used to create path closure. Furthermore, it is generally not possible to control the topology of the unfolded states of proteins, therefore making it challenging to characterize functional and physicochemical properties of knotting in any polymer. Covalently linking the amino and carboxyl termini of the deeply trefoil-knotted YibK from <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> allowed us to create the truly backbone knotted protein by enzymatic peptide ligation. Moreover, we produced and investigated backbone cyclized YibK without any knotted structure. Thus, we could directly probe the effect of the backbone knot and the decrease in conformational entropy on protein folding. The backbone cyclization did not perturb the native structure and its cofactor binding affinity, but it substantially increased the thermal stability and reduced the aggregation propensity. The enhanced stability of a backbone knotted YibK could be mainly originated from an increased ruggedness of its free energy landscape and the destabilization of the denatured state by backbone cyclization with little contribution from a knot structure. Despite the heterogeneity in the side-chain compositions, the chemically unfolded cyclized YibK exhibited several macroscopic physico-chemical attributes that agree with theoretical predictions derived from polymer physics.
Project description:Structures that contain a knot formed by the path of the polypeptide backbone represent some of the most complex topologies observed in proteins. How or why these topological knots arise remains unclear. By developing a method to experimentally trap and detect knots in nonnative polypeptide chains, we find that two knotted methyltransferases, YibK and YbeA, can exist in a trefoil-knot conformation even in their chemically unfolded states. The unique denatured-state topology of these molecules explains their ability to efficiently fold to their native knotted structures in vitro and offers insights into the potential role of knots in proteins. Furthermore, the high prevalence of the denatured-state knots identified here suggests that they are either difficult to untie or that threading of any untied molecules is rapid and spontaneous. The occurrence of such knotted topologies in unfolded polypeptide chains raises the possibility that they could play an important, and as yet unexplored, role in folding and misfolding processes in vivo.