Mechanistic interaction study of 5,6-Dichloro-2-[2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl]isoindoline-1,3-dione with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic and molecular docking approaches.
ABSTRACT: A synthesized and promising biologically hypoglycemic compound 5,6-Dichloro-2-[2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl]isoindoline-1,3-dione (5e) was studied for its binding to a model protein (bovine serum albumin; BSA) by spectroscopic and molecular simulation approaches. Fluorescence studies revealed that 5e quenched BSA's intrinsic fluorescence by static quenching. The experiments were performed at three different temperatures and the quenching constants and binding constants were evaluated. Stern-Volmer constant (Ksv) values decreased from 1.36?×?104 to 1.20?×?104 as the temperature increased suggesting static quenching involvement in the interaction. Decreased binding constants from 1.70?×?104 to 4.57?×?103 at higher temperatures indicated instability of the complex at rising temperatures. Site I (subdomain IIA) of BSA was found to interact with 5e. The thermodynamic results showed the binding interaction was spontaneous and enthalpy driven. The secondary structure alterations in BSA due to interaction with 5e were studied by UV-visible, synchronous fluorescence, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. The results indicate the 5e binds effectively to the BSA and thus, this study can be useful in further exploring the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 5e.
Project description:Linifanib (LNF) possess antitumor activity and acts by inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinase VEGF and PDGF. The interaction of BSA with the drug can provide valuable information regarding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics behavior of drug. In our study the spectrophotometric methods and molecular docking studies were executed to understand the interaction behavior of BSA and LNF. BSA has an intrinsic fluorescence and that fluorescence was quenched by LNF. This quenching process was studied at three different temperatures of 288, 300and 308 K. The interaction between LNF and BSA was due to static quenching because the Ksv (Stern-Volmer constant) at 288 K was higher than at 300 and 308 K. Kq (quenching rate constant) behaved in a similar fashion as the Ksv. Several other parameters like binding constants, number of binding sites and binding energy in addition to molecular docking studies were also used to evaluate the interaction process. A decrease in the binding constants was observed with increasing temperatures and the binding site number approximated unity. The decreasing binding constant indicates LNF-BSA complex stability. The site mark competition experiment confirmed the binding site for LNF was located on site II of BSA. UV-visible studies along with synchronous fluorescence confirm a small change in the conformation of BSA upon interaction with LNF. The thermodynamic analysis provided the values for free energy ?G0, ?H0 and ?S0. The ?G0 at the 288, 300 and 308 K ranged in between -21.5 to -23.3 kJ mol-1, whereas the calculated values of ?H (-55.91 kJ mol-1) and ?S0 (-111.74 J mol-1·K-1). The experimental and molecular docking results suggest that the interaction between LNF and BSA was spontaneous and they exhibited hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force between them.
Project description:Condensation of amine 1 with aldehyde 2 gives Schiff base, N-(4-((benzofuran-2-ylmethylene) amino)phenyl)acetamide 3. Schiff base on N-acylation with different substituted acid chlorides in the presence of triethylamine gives the corresponding benzamides, N-acetyl-N-(4-((benzofuran-2-ylmethylene)amino)phenyl)substitutedbenzamide (NABP) 5a-j. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR FT-IR, and mass spectral studies. Compounds 3 and 5a-j have been screened for their antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against the selected bacterial and fungal strain. Compounds 5a, 5e, 5g, and 5h were found to be more active against all tested strains. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging methods. Compounds 5i and 5j showed predominant antioxidant activities among the synthesized analogues. The interaction between NABP and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence and ultraviolet spectroscopic techniques at 298?K under imitated physiological conditions. The results revealed that NABP caused the fluorescence quenching of BSA through a static quenching procedure. The binding constants and the number of binding sites were calculated. The binding distance between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (NABP) was determined based on Forster's theory.
Project description:Interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and phosphorus heterocycles (PHs) was studied using multi-spectroscopic techniques. The results indicated the high binding affinity of PHs to BSA as it quenches the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA. The experimental data suggested the fluorescence quenching mechanism between PHs and BSA as a dynamic quenching. From the UV-vis studies, the apparent association constant (Kapp) was found to be 9.25×102, 1.27×104 and 9.01×102 L/mol for the interaction of BSA with PH-1, PH-2 and PH-3 respectively. According to the Förster's non-radiation energy transfer (FRET) theory, the binding distances between BSA and PHs were calculated. The binding distances (r) of PH-1, PH-2 and PH-3 were found to be 2.86, 3.03, and 5.12 nm, respectively, indicating energy transfer occurs between BSA and PHs. The binding constants of the PHs obtained from the fluorescence quenching data were found to be decreased with increase of temperature. The negative values of the thermodynamic parameters ?H, ?S and ?G at different temperatures revealed that the binding process is spontaneous; hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interaction were the main force to stabilize the complex. The microenvironment of the protein-binding site was studied by synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) techniques and data indicated that the conformation of BSA changed in the presence of PHs. Finally, we studied the BSA-PHs docking using Autodock and results suggest that PHs is located in the cleft between the domains of BSA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bovine serum albumin (BSA) contains high affinity binding sites for several endogenous and exogenous compounds and has been used to replace human serum albumin (HSA), as these two compounds share a similar structure. Naringin palmitate is a modified product of naringin that is produced by an acylation reaction with palmitic acid, which is considered to be an effective substance for enhancing naringin lipophilicity. In this study, the interaction of naringin palmitate with BSA was characterised by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between naringin palmitate and BSA under physiological conditions, and differences in naringin and naringin palmitate affinities for BSA were further compared and analysed. The formation of naringin palmitate-BSA was revealed by fluorescence quenching, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV ) was found to decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting that a static quenching mechanism was involved. The changes in enthalpy (?H) and entropy (?S) for the interaction were detected at -4.11 ± 0.18 kJ·mol(-1) and -76.59 ± 0.32 J·mol(-1)·K(-1), respectively, which indicated that the naringin palmitate-BSA interaction occurred mainly through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond formation. The negative free energy change (?G) values of naringin palmitate at different temperatures suggested a spontaneous interaction. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the ?-helical content of BSA decreased after interacting with naringin palmitate. Displacement studies suggested that naringin palmitate was partially bound to site I (subdomain IIA) of the BSA, which was also substantiated by the molecular docking studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:In conclusion, naringin palmitate was transported by BSA and was easily removed afterwards. As a consequence, an extension of naringin applications for use in food, cosmetic and medicinal preparations may be clinically and practically significant, especially in the design of new naringin palmitate-inspired drugs.
Project description:The effect of a naphthalimide pharmacophore coupled with diverse substituents on the interaction between naphthalimide-polyamine conjugates 1-4 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under physiological conditions (pH = 7.4). The observed spectral quenching of BSA by the compounds indicated that they could bind to BSA. Furthermore, caloric fluorescent tests revealed that the quenching mechanisms of compounds 1-3 were basically static type, but that of compound 4 was closer to a classical type. The Ksv values at room temperature for compound-BSA complexes-1-BSA, 2-BSA, 3-BSA and 4-BSA were 1.438 × 10?, 3.190 × 10?, 5.700 × 10? and 4.745 × 10?, respectively, compared with the value of MINS, 2.863 × 10? at Ex = 280 nm. The obtained quenching constant, binding constant and thermodynamic parameter suggested that the binding between compounds 1-4 with BSA protein, significantly affected by the substituted groups on the naphthalene backbone, was formed by hydrogen bonds, and other principle forces mainly consisting of charged and hydrophobic interactions. Based on results from the analysis of synchronous three-dimensional ?uorescence and CD spectra, we can conclude that the interaction between compounds 1-4 and BSA protein has little impact on the BSA conformation. Calculated results obtained from in silico molecular simulation showed that compound 1 did not prefer either enzymatic drug sites I or II over the other. However, DSII in BSA was more beneficial than DSI for the binding between compounds 2-4 and BSA protein. The binding between compounds 1-3 and BSA was hydrophobic in nature, compared with the electrostatic interaction between compound 4 and BSA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rivaroxaban is a direct inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa and is used for venous thromboembolic disorders. The rivaroxaban interaction with BSA was studied to understand its PK and PD (pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetics) properties. Multi-spectroscopic studies were used to study the interaction which included UV spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric and three dimensional spectrofluorometric studies. Further elucidation of data was done by molecular simulation studies to evaluate the interaction behavior between BSA and rivaroxaban. RESULTS:Rivaroxaban quenched the basic fluorescence of BSA molecule by the process of static quenching since rivaroxaban and BSA form a complex that results in shift of the absorption spectra of BSA molecule. A decline in the values of binding constants was detected with the increase of temperatures (298-308 K) and the binding constants were in range from 1.32 × 105 to 4.3 × 103 L mol-1 indicating the instability of the BSA and rivaroxaban complex at higher temperatures. The data of number of binding sites showed uniformity. The site marker experiments indicated site I (sub-domain IIA) as the principal site for rivaroxaban binding. The thermodynamic study experiments were carried at the temperatures of 298/303/308 K. The ?G0, ?H0 and ?S0 at these temperatures ranged between - 24.67 and - 21.27 kJ mol-1 and the values for ?H0 and ?S0 were found to be - 126 kJ mol-1 and ?S - 340 J mol-1 K-1 The negative value of ?G0 indicating spontaneous binding between the two molecules. The negative values in ?H0 and ?S0 indicated van der Waals interaction and hydrogen bonding were involved during the interaction between rivaroxaban and BSA. CONCLUSIONS:The results of molecular docking were consistent with the results obtained from spectroscopic studies in establishing the principal binding site and type of bonds between rivaroxaban and BSA.
Project description:The interaction between fosfomycin (FOS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated effectively by multi-spectroscopic techniques under physiological pH 7.4. FOS quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via static quenching. The number of binding sites n and observed binding constant KA were measured by the fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0 were calculated at different temperatures according to the van't Hoff equation. The site of binding of FOS in the protein was proposed to be Sudlow's site I based on displacement experiments using site markers viz. warfarin, ibuprofen and digitoxin. The distance r between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (FOS) molecules was obtained according to the Förster theory. The effect of FOS on the conformation of BSA was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS), circular dichroism (CD) and 3D fluorescence spectra. A molecular modeling study further confirmed the binding mode obtained by the experimental studies.
Project description:The interaction of herring sperm DNA with the 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide-spermine conjugate (NDIS) was studied by UV/vis absorption, fluorescence and CD spectroscopic methods. Compared with the 1,8-naphthalimide-spermidine conjugate (NIS), the values of KSV (quenching constant) and Kb (binding constant) of NDIS were larger, and the hypochromic effect in the UV/vis spectra and the quenching effect in the fluorescence of NDIS were more significant. The interaction mode between NDIS and DNA was mainly groove binding. The fluorescence experiments at varying temperatures showed that the binding process of NDIS and DNA was static, as both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces played a major role in the binding of NDIS and DNA. The CD spectrum indicated that NDIS caused a conformational change, like the B to A-DNA transition, and the tests using KI and NaCl and 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated that NDIS was not a classical DNA inserter. All the results demonstrated that both the polyamine side chain and the aromatic rings affect the process of NDIS binding to DNA, which is thus obviously different from that of NIS. The conclusion was confirmed by the in silico molecular docking experiments.
Project description:Sodium benzoate (SB) is widely used as a preservative in food industry, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) is a major carrier protein similar to human serum albumin (HSA), the study of the binding between the two has great significance on human health. In this paper, we systematically investigated the binding of SB and BSA under the simulated physiological conditions combining with various common analytical methods, e.g., fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra, as well as molecular docking method. The fluorescence quenching measurements were respectively carried out at 298 K, 303 K and 308 K using the Stern-Volmer method. The results reveal that ground state SB-BSA complex was formed within the binding constants from 2.02?×?104 to 7.9?×?103 M-1. Meanwhile, the negative values of ?H 0 (-?43.92 kJ mol-1) and ?S 0 (-?111.6 J mol-1 K-1) demonstrated that both the hydrogen binding interaction and van der Waals forces contributed to stabilizing the SB-BSA complex. The site marker competitive experiments show that the SB and BSA bound at site I. Furthermore, the experimental results of UV-vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence and CD spectra indicate that the binding of SB and BSA may change the conformation of BSA. In addition, the molecular docking experiment suggests that hydrogen bond was formed in the interaction between SB and BSA.
Project description:Introduction: The drug-plasma protein interaction is a fundamental issue in guessing and checking the serious drug side effects related with other drugs. The purpose of this research was to study the interaction of cephalexin with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and displacement reaction using site probes. Methods: The interaction mechanism concerning cephalexin (CPL) with BSA was investigated using various spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling method. The binding sites number, n, apparent binding constant, K, and thermodynamic parameters, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 were considered at different temperatures. To evaluate the experimental results, molecular docking modeling was calculated. Results: The distance, r=1.156 nm between BSA and CPL were found in accordance with the Forster theory of non-radiation energy transfer (FRET) indicating energy transfer occurs between BSA and CPL. According to the binding parameters and ΔG0= negative values and ΔS0= 28.275 j mol-1K-1, a static quenching process is effective in the CPL-BSA interaction spontaneously. ΔG0 for the CPL-BSA complex obtained from the docking simulation is -28.99 kj mol-1, which is close to experimental ΔG of binding, -21.349 kj mol-1 that indicates a good agreement between the results of docking methods and experimental data. Conclusion: The outcomes of spectroscopic methods revealed that the conformation of BSA changed during drug-BSA interaction. The results of FRET propose that CPL quenches the fluorescence of BSA by static quenching and FRET. The displacement study showed that phenylbutazon and ketoprofen displaced CPL, indicating that its binding site on albumin is site I and Gentamicin cannot be displaced from the binding site of CPL. All results of molecular docking method agreed with the results of experimental data.