Adamantyl thioureas as soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: A series of inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) containing one or two thiourea groups has been developed. Inhibition potency of the described compounds ranges from 50??M to 7.2?nM. 1,7-(Heptamethylene)bis[(adamant-1-yl)thiourea] (6f) was found to be the most potent sEH inhibitor, among the thioureas tested. The inhibitory activity of the thioureas against the human sEH is closer to the value of activity against rat sEH rather than murine sEH. While being less active, thioureas are up to 7-fold more soluble than ureas, which makes them more bioavailable and thus promising as sEH inhibitors.
Project description:A series of inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) containing two urea groups has been developed. Inhibition potency of the described compounds ranges from 2.0 ?M to 0.4 nM. 1,6-(Hexamethylene)bis[(adamant-1-yl)urea] (3b) was found to be a potent slow tight binding inhibitor (IC50=0.5 nM) with a strong binding to sEH (Ki=3.1 nM) and a moderately long residence time on the enzyme (koff=1.05 × 10(-3) s(-1); t1/2=11 min).
Project description:Adamantyl ureas are good soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors; however they have limited solubility and rapid metabolism, thus limiting their usefulness in some therapeutic indications. Herein, we test the hypothesis that nodal substitution on the adamantane will help solubilize and stabilize the compounds. A series of compounds containing adamantane derivatives and isoxazole functional groups were developed. Overall, the presence of methyl on the nodal positions of adamantane yields higher water solubility than previously reported urea-based sEH inhibitors while maintaining high inhibition potency. However, it did not improve microsomal stability.
Project description:The catalytic activity of different supported bifunctional thioureas on sulfonylpolystyrene resins has been studied in the nitro-Michael addition of different nucleophiles to trans-?-nitrostyrene derivatives. The activity of the catalysts depends on the length of the tether linking the chiral thiourea to the polymer. The best results were obtained with the thiourea derived from (L)-valine and 1,6-hexanediamine. The catalysts can be used in only 2 mol % loading, and reused for at least four cycles in neat conditions. The ball milling promoted additions also worked very well.
Project description:Out of the prominent global ailments, tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide due to infectious disease. Development of new drugs that shorten the current tuberculosis treatment time and have activity against drug resistant strains is of utmost importance. Towards these goals we have focused our efforts on developing novel anti-TB compounds with the general structure of 1-adamantyl-3-phenyl urea. This series is active against Mycobacteria and previous lead compounds were found to inhibit the membrane transporter MmpL3, the protein responsible for mycolic acid transport across the plasma membrane. However, these compounds suffered from poor in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles and they have a similar structure/SAR to inhibitors of human soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzymes. Therefore, in this study the further optimization of this compound class was driven by three factors: (1) to increase selectivity for anti-TB activity over human sEH activity, (2) to optimize PK profiles including solubility and (3) to maintain target inhibition. A new series of 1-adamantyl-3-heteroaryl ureas was designed and synthesized replacing the phenyl substituent of the original series with pyridines, pyrimidines, triazines, oxazoles, isoxazoles, oxadiazoles and pyrazoles. This study produced lead isoxazole, oxadiazole and pyrazole substituted adamantyl ureas with improved in vitro PK profiles, increased selectivity and good anti-TB potencies with sub ?g/mL minimum inhibitory concentrations.
Project description:A series of conformationally restricted inhibitors of human soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been developed. Inhibition potency of the described compounds ranges from 4.2 microM to 1.1 nM against recombinant sEH. N-(1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-(adamant-1-yl) urea (5a) was found to be a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 7.0 nM) that was also orally bioavailable in canines.
Project description:The three-component reactions of aldehydes, electron deficient alkynes and ureas/thioureas have been smoothly performed to yield a class of unprecedented 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones and thiones (DHPMs). The reactions are initiated by the key transformation of an enamine-type activation involving the addition of a secondary amine to an alkyne, which enables the subsequent incorporation of aldehydes and ureas/thioureas. This protocol tolerates a broad range of aryl- or alkylaldehydes, N-substituted and unsubstituted ureas/thioureas and alkynes to yield the corresponding DHPMs with specific regioselectivity.
Project description:We have prepared different polymeric chiral bifunctional thioureas and squaramides by modification of the very well-known polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM), specifically PIM-1 and PIM-CO-1, to be used as recoverable organocatalysts. The installation of the chiral structures into the polymers has been done in two or three steps in high yields. The catalytic activity of the resulting materials has been proved in the stereoselective nitro-Michael addition and in a cascade process, which allows the synthesis of enantioenriched 4H-chromene derivatives. Squaramide <b>II</b> and thiourea <b>III</b> have been used in six cycles maintaining their activity.
Project description:We describe here three urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors from the root of the plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana. The concentration of these ureas in the root was quantified by LC-MS/MS, showing that 1, 3-bis (4-methoxybenzyl) urea (MMU) is the most abundant (42.3 ?g/g dry root weight). All of the ureas were chemically synthesized, and their inhibitory activity toward recombinant human and recombinant rat sEH was measured. The most potent compound, MMU, showed an IC50 of 92 nM via fluorescent assay and a Ki of 54 nM via radioactivity-based assay on human sEH. MMU effectively reduced inflammatory pain in a rat nociceptive pain assay. These compounds are among the most potent sEH inhibitors derived from natural sources. Moreover, inhibition of sEH by these compounds may mechanistically explain some of the therapeutic effects of P. brazzeana.
Project description:Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are potential drugs for several diseases. Adamantyl ureas are excellent sEH inhibitors but have limited metabolic stability. Herein, we report the effect of replacing the adamantane group by alternative polycyclic hydrocarbons on sEH inhibition, solubility, permeability and metabolic stability. Compounds bearing smaller or larger polycyclic hydrocarbons than adamantane yielded all good inhibition potency of the human sEH (0.4???IC50???21.7?nM), indicating that sEH is able to accommodate inhibitors of very different size. Human liver microsomal stability of diamantane containing inhibitors is lower than that of their corresponding adamantane counterparts.
Project description:A series of N,N'-disubstituted ureas having a conformationally restricted cis- or trans-1,4-cyclohexane alpha to the urea were prepared and tested as soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors. This series of compounds showed low nanomolar to picomolar activities against recombinant human sEH. Both isomers showed similar potencies, but the trans isomers were more metabolically stable in human hepatic microsomes. Furthermore, these new potent inhibitors show a greater metabolic stability in vivo than previously described sEH inhibitors. We demonstrated that trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid 13g (t-AUCB, IC50 = 1.3 +/- 0.05 nM) had excellent oral bioavailability (98%, n = 2) and blood area under the curve in dogs and was effective in vivo to treat hypotension in lipopolysaccharide challenged murine models.