De novo transcriptome and phytochemical analyses reveal differentially expressed genes and characteristic secondary metabolites in the original oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivar 'Tieguanyin' compared with cultivar 'Benshan'.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The two original plants of the oolong tea cultivar ('Tieguanyin') are "Wei shuo" 'Tieguanyin'-TGY (Wei) and "Wang shuo" 'Tieguanyin'-TGY (Wang). Another cultivar, 'Benshan' (BS), is similar to TGY in its aroma, taste, and genetic make-up, but it lacks the "Yin Rhyme" flavor. We aimed to identify differences in biochemical characteristics and gene expression among these tea plants. RESULTS:The results of spectrophotometric, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that TGY (Wei) and TGY (Wang) had deeper purple-colored leaves and higher contents of anthocyanin, catechins, caffeine, and limonene compared with BS. Analyses of transcriptome data revealed 12,420 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the cultivars. According to a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, the flavonoid, caffeine, and limonene metabolic pathways were highly enriched. The transcript levels of the genes involved in these three metabolic pathways were not significantly different between TGY (Wei) and TGY (Wang), except for two unigenes encoding IMPDH and SAMS, which are involved in caffeine metabolism. The comparison of TGY vs. BS revealed eight up-regulated genes (PAL, C4H, CHS, F3'H, F3H, DFR, ANS, and ANR) and two down-regulated genes (FLS and CCR) in flavonoid metabolism, four up-regulated genes (AMPD, IMPDH, SAMS, and 5'-Nase) and one down-regulated XDH gene in caffeine metabolism; and two down-regulated genes (ALDH and HIBADH) in limonene degradation. In addition, the expression levels of the transcription factor (TF) PAP1 were significantly higher in TGY than in BS. Therefore, high accumulation of flavonoids, caffeine, and limonene metabolites and the expression patterns of their related genes in TGY might be beneficial for the formation of the "Yin Rhyme" flavor. CONCLUSIONS:Transcriptomic, HPLC, and GC-MS analyses of TGY (Wei), TGY (Wang), and BS indicated that the expression levels of genes related to secondary metabolism and high contents of catechins, anthocyanin, caffeine, and limonene may contribute to the formation of the "Yin Rhyme" flavor in TGY. These findings provide new insights into the relationship between the accumulation of secondary metabolites and sensory quality, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the unique flavor "Yin Rhyme" in TGY.
Project description:<i>Camellia sinensis var. sinensis</i> cultivar Tieguanyin (TGY) is an important Oolong tea variety in China. In this study, we reported a complete chloroplast (cp) genome based on the Illumina sequencing technology and combined <i>de novo</i> and reference-guided assembly strategies. The complete cp genome of 'TGY' displayed the regular quadripartite structure: a total of 157,126?bp in length, comprising a large single-copy (LSC, 86,904?bp) region, a small single-copy (SSC, 18,532?bp) region, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 26,095?bp) regions. A lot of 132 predicted genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and eight rRNA genes. The overall GC content is 37.3%. Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree involving 18 cp genomes of the <i>Camellia</i> genus revealed a relatively independent event of local domestication among three types of cultivars. The complete cp genome of 'TGY' provides an insight into tea plants for further understanding evolutionary research on tea plants.
Project description:Tianma Gouteng Yin (TGY) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction widely used to treat symptoms associated with typical Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, the neuroprotective effects of water extract of TGY were tested on rotenone-intoxicated and human α-synuclein transgenic Drosophila PD models. In addition, the neuroprotective effect of TGY was also evaluated in the human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line treated with rotenone and the rotenone intoxicated hemi-parkinsonian rats. In rotenone-induced PD models, TGY improved survival rate, alleviated impaired locomotor function of Drosophila, mitigated the loss of dopaminergic neurons in hemi-parkinsonian rats and alleviated apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells; in α-synuclein transgenic Drosophila, TGY reduced the level of α-synuclein and prevented degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Conclusively, TGY is neuroprotective in PD models both in vivo and in vitro.
Project description:Abstract Three species of the genus Leptoneta Simon, 1872 deposited at Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China, are examined and redescribed. Two species are transferred from Leptoneta Simon, 1872 to Leptonetela Kratochvíl, 1978, and the following new combinations are proposed: Leptonetelatrispinosa (Yin, Wang & Wang, 1984), comb. nov. (??), and Leptonetelaunispinosa (Yin, Wang & Wang, 1984), comb. nov. (?). The generic placement of Leptonetamonodactyla Yin, Wang & Wang, 1984 is maintained. Detailed descriptions, illustrations, and a distribution map for all three species are provided.
Project description:Lasiochira wuzhishanensis Yin, sp. nov. is described herein from the island province of Hainan, China. It is diagnosed from a similar species, Lasiochira jianfengensis Yin, Wang & Park, 2014. Both species are sympatric in Hainan province, but the latter is also known in northern Vietnam. Lasiochira pallidiptera Yin, Wang & Park, 2014 is recorded for the first time from China. Color images of the adults and genitalia of the above three species are provided. In addition, a checklist and a geographical distribution map of all species of Lasiochira Meyrick are included.
Project description:Five species of Pireneitega spiders from China are surveyed, of which three are new to science: P. huashanensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), P. lushuiensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), P. xiyankouensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀). Two known species are redescribed: P. liansui (Bao & Yin, 2004) and P. triglochinata (Zhu & Wang, 1991). The males of P. liansui and P. triglochinata (Zhu & Wang, 1991) are described for the first time. DNA barcodes for five species are documented for future use and as proof of molecular differences between species.
Project description:Tieguanyin tea is a typical representative of oolong tea in China, and is famous for its orchid-like aroma. Fatty acids are one of the important precursors for aroma production. However, fatty acid contents and compositions in Tieguanyin largely remain undefined. In this study, we quantified the fatty acid composition in Tieguanyin and its offspring by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, and compared the effects of growth sites and harvest time on the leaf fatty acid composition. The results showed that total fatty acid contents in Tieguanyin fresh leaves were higher than its offspring. Growth sites had significant impacts on fatty acid contents. Tieguanyin grown in Anxi County showed higher total fatty acid contents, and higher ratio of total unsaturated fatty acids to total saturated fatty acids. The fresh leaves in the morning showed higher total fatty acid contents compared to samples harvested in the afternoon or evening, suggesting a dynamic fatty acid degradation during day period. During tea processing, unsaturated fatty acids including linolenic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid (18:1<sup>?9c</sup>) decreased 13.1%, 13.2% and 84.2%, respectively. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids still was above 300%. We found that Tieguanyin was a typical 18:3 plant, and the higher ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids of Tieguanyin grown in Anxi County may contribute to its characteristics aroma.
Project description:Monoterpenes are liquid hydrocarbons with applications ranging from flavor and fragrance to replacement jet fuel. Their toxicity, however, presents a major challenge for microbial synthesis. Here we evolved limonene-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and sequenced six strains across the 200-generation evolutionary time course. Mutations were found in the tricalbin proteins Tcb2p and Tcb3p. Genomic reconstruction in the parent strain showed that truncation of a single protein (tTcb3p(1-989)), but not its complete deletion, was sufficient to recover the evolved phenotype improving limonene fitness 9-fold. tTcb3p(1-989) increased tolerance toward two other monoterpenes (?-pinene and myrcene) 11- and 8-fold, respectively, and tolerance toward the biojet fuel blend AMJ-700t (10% cymene, 50% limonene, 40% farnesene) 4-fold. tTcb3p(1-989) is the first example of successful engineering of phase tolerance and creates opportunities for production of the highly toxic C10 alkenes in yeast.
Project description:MIEC-SVM is a structure-based method for predicting protein recognition specificity. Here, we present an automated MIEC-SVM pipeline providing an integrated and user-friendly workflow for construction and application of the MIEC-SVM models. This pipeline can handle standard amino acids and those with post-translational modifications (PTMs) or small molecules. Moreover, multi-threading and support to Sun Grid Engine (SGE) are implemented to significantly boost the computational efficiency.The program is available at http://wanglab.ucsd.edu/MIEC-SVM CONTACT: : firstname.lastname@example.orgSupplementary data available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Sea urchin gonads are a delicious seafood item of high commercial value. Our past studies have revealed that the gonads of the sea urchin <i>Mesocentrotus nudus</i> fed the basal frond portion of fresh <i>Saccharina</i> kelp (BS) or the sporophylls of fresh <i>Undaria</i> (SU) during May-July are of high-quality. The present study investigated the flavor and taste of BS and SU gonads in comparison with those from non-fed <i>M. nudus</i> (NF) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography (GC)-sniffing techniques, and a taste-sensing system. Data of the estimated intensity of taste (EIT) were compared with assessment of gonads from <i>M. nudus</i> collected from an <i>Eisenia</i> bed (fishing ground) and a barren in July. Gonads from both BS and SU released pleasant green, sour, and fruity aromas characteristic of butyl acetate, which are here recognized essential flavor components of high-quality gonads. The gonads of BS and SU had a strong umami taste compared to those of NF, and the <i>Eisenia</i> bed and the barren. The most marketable <i>M. nudus</i> gonads were assessed to be those with green and fruity aromas from butyl acetate, sweet aroma from benzaldehyde, umami EIT > 13.8, bitterness EIT < 3.1, and without any unpleasant sulfurous odor from sulfur-containing compounds.
Project description:?-Terpineol has been widely used in daily chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and flavor industries due to its pleasant odor with high economic value and pharmacological action. Our previous study showed that Penicillium digitatum DSM 62840 was an efficient biocatalyst for the transformation of limonene to ?-terpineol. Thus, it was meaningful to explore the genome features and the gene expression differences of strain DSM 62840 during limonene biotransformation, and the detailed bioconversion pathways. In this study, the functional genes related to limonene bioconversion were investigated using genome and transcriptome sequences analysis. The results showed that the P. digitatum DSM 62840 genome was estimated to be 29.09 Mb and it encoded 9,086 protein-encoding genes. The most annotated genes were associated to some protein metabolism and energy metabolism functions. When the threshold for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was set at twofold ratio, a total of 4,128, and 4,148 DEGs were identified in P_L_12h (limonene-treated condition) compared with P_0h (blank) and P_12h (limonene-untreated blank), respectively. Among them, the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, energy metabolism and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters were significantly altered during the biotransformation. And the reliability of these results was further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Moreover, we found that the enzyme participated in limonene biotransformation was inducible. This enzyme was located in the microsome, and it was inhibited by cytochrome P450 inhibitors. This indicated that the cytochrome P450 may be responsible for the limonene bioconversion. Several differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes were further identified, such as PDIDSM_85260 and PDIDSM_67430, which were significantly up-regulated with limonene treatment. These genes may be responsible for converting limonene to ?-terpineol. Totally, the genomic and transcriptomic data could provide valuable information in the discovery of related-genes which was involved in limonene biotransformation, pathogenicity of fungi, and investigation of metabolites and biological pathways of strain DSM 62840.