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De novo transcriptome and phytochemical analyses reveal differentially expressed genes and characteristic secondary metabolites in the original oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivar 'Tieguanyin' compared with cultivar 'Benshan'.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The two original plants of the oolong tea cultivar ('Tieguanyin') are "Wei shuo" 'Tieguanyin'-TGY (Wei) and "Wang shuo" 'Tieguanyin'-TGY (Wang). Another cultivar, 'Benshan' (BS), is similar to TGY in its aroma, taste, and genetic make-up, but it lacks the "Yin Rhyme" flavor. We aimed to identify differences in biochemical characteristics and gene expression among these tea plants. RESULTS:The results of spectrophotometric, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that TGY (Wei) and TGY (Wang) had deeper purple-colored leaves and higher contents of anthocyanin, catechins, caffeine, and limonene compared with BS. Analyses of transcriptome data revealed 12,420 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the cultivars. According to a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, the flavonoid, caffeine, and limonene metabolic pathways were highly enriched. The transcript levels of the genes involved in these three metabolic pathways were not significantly different between TGY (Wei) and TGY (Wang), except for two unigenes encoding IMPDH and SAMS, which are involved in caffeine metabolism. The comparison of TGY vs. BS revealed eight up-regulated genes (PAL, C4H, CHS, F3'H, F3H, DFR, ANS, and ANR) and two down-regulated genes (FLS and CCR) in flavonoid metabolism, four up-regulated genes (AMPD, IMPDH, SAMS, and 5'-Nase) and one down-regulated XDH gene in caffeine metabolism; and two down-regulated genes (ALDH and HIBADH) in limonene degradation. In addition, the expression levels of the transcription factor (TF) PAP1 were significantly higher in TGY than in BS. Therefore, high accumulation of flavonoids, caffeine, and limonene metabolites and the expression patterns of their related genes in TGY might be beneficial for the formation of the "Yin Rhyme" flavor. CONCLUSIONS:Transcriptomic, HPLC, and GC-MS analyses of TGY (Wei), TGY (Wang), and BS indicated that the expression levels of genes related to secondary metabolism and high contents of catechins, anthocyanin, caffeine, and limonene may contribute to the formation of the "Yin Rhyme" flavor in TGY. These findings provide new insights into the relationship between the accumulation of secondary metabolites and sensory quality, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the unique flavor "Yin Rhyme" in TGY.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC6446291 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01


REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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