Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Promotes Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Stabilization in Sonic Hedgehog-Driven Cerebellar Progenitor Cell Proliferation.
ABSTRACT: Cerebellar development is a highly regulated process involving numerous factors acting with high specificity, both temporally and by location. Part of this process involves extensive proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs) induced by Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling, but downstream effectors of mitogenic signaling are still being elucidated. Using primary CGNP cultures, a well-established model for SHH-driven proliferation, we show that SHH-treated CGNPs feature high levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), which is known to promote glycolysis, stemness, and angiogenesis. In CGNPs cultured under normoxic conditions, HIF1α is posttranslationally stabilized in a manner dependent upon reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADPH oxidase (NOX), both of which are also upregulated in these cells. Inhibition of NOX activity resulted in HIF1α destabilization and reduced levels of cyclin D2, a marker of CGNP proliferation. As CGNPs are the putative cells of origin for the SHH subtype of medulloblastoma and aberrant SHH signaling is implicated in other neoplasms, these studies may also have future relevance in the context of cancer. Taken together, our findings suggest that a better understanding of nonhypoxic HIF1α stabilization through NOX-induced ROS generation can provide insights into normal cell proliferation in cerebellar development and SHH-driven cell proliferation in cancers with aberrant SHH signaling.
Project description:Cerebellar development requires regulated proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (CGNPs). Inadequate CGNP proliferation causes cerebellar hypoplasia whereas excessive CGNP proliferation can cause medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Although sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling is known to activate CGNP proliferation, the mechanisms downregulating proliferation are less defined. We investigated CGNP regulation by GSK-3, which downregulates proliferation in the forebrain, gut and breast by suppressing mitogenic WNT signaling in mouse. In striking contrast to these systems, we found that co-deleting Gsk3a and Gsk3b blocked CGNP proliferation, causing severe cerebellar hypoplasia. The GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR-98014 similarly downregulated SHH-driven proliferation. Transcriptomic analysis showed activated WNT signaling and upregulated Cdkn1a in Gsk3a/b -deleted CGNPs. Ctnnb co-deletion increased CGNP proliferation and rescued cerebellar hypoproliferation in Gsk3a/b mutants, demonstrating physiological control of CGNPs by GSK-3, mediated through WNT. SHH-driven medulloblastomas similarly required GSK-3, as co-deleting Gsk3a/b blocked tumor growth in medulloblastoma-prone SmoM2 mice. These data show that a GSK-3/WNT axis modulates the developmental proliferation of CGNPs and the pathological growth of SHH-driven medulloblastoma. The requirement for GSK-3 in SHH-driven proliferation suggests that GSK-3 may be targeted for SHH-driven medulloblastoma therapy.
Project description:Cerebellar development entails rapid peri-natal proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs), proposed cells-of-origin for certain medulloblastomas. CGNPs require insulin-like growth factor (IGF) for survival and sonic hedgehog (Shh)-implicated in medulloblastoma-for proliferation. The IGF-responsive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) drives proliferation-associated protein synthesis. We asked whether Shh signaling regulates mTOR targets to promote CGNP proliferation despite constitutive IGF signaling under proliferative and differentiation-promoting conditions. Surprisingly, Shh promoted eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) expression, but inhibited S6 kinase (S6K). In vivo, S6K activity specifically marked the CGNP population transitioning from proliferation-competent to post-mitotic. Indeed, eIF4E was required for CGNP proliferation, while S6K activation drove cell cycle exit. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition rescued S6K activity. Moreover, Shh upregulated the PP2A B56? subunit, which targets S6K for inactivation and was required for CGNP proliferation. These findings reveal unique developmental functions for eIF4E and S6 kinase wherein their activity is specifically uncoupled by mitogenic Shh signaling.
Project description:Neuronal-glial relationships play a critical role in the maintenance of central nervous system architecture and neuronal specification. A deeper understanding of these relationships can elucidate cellular cross-talk capable of sustaining proper development of neural tissues. In the cerebellum, cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs) proliferate in response to Purkinje neuron-derived Sonic hedgehog (Shh) before ultimately exiting the cell cycle and migrating radially along Bergmann glial fibers. However, the function of Bergmann glia in CGNP proliferation remains not well defined. Interestingly, the Hh pathway is also activated in Bergmann glia, but the role of Shh signaling in these cells is unknown. In this study, we show that specific ablation of Shh signaling using the tamoxifen-inducible TNCYFP-CreER line to eliminate Shh pathway activator Smoothened in Bergmann glia is sufficient to cause severe cerebellar hypoplasia and a significant reduction in CGNP proliferation. TNCYFP-CreER; SmoF/- (SmoCKO) mice demonstrate an obvious reduction in cerebellar size within two days of ablation of Shh signaling. Mutant cerebella have severely reduced proliferation and increased differentiation of CGNPs due to a significant decrease in Shh activity and concomitant activation of Wnt signaling in SmoCKO CGNPs, suggesting that this pathway is involved in cross-talk with the Shh pathway in regulating CGNP proliferation. In addition, Purkinje cells are ectopically located, their dendrites stunted, and the Bergmann glial network disorganized. Collectively, these data demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for Bergmann glial Shh signaling activity in the proliferation of CGNPs and proper maintenance of cerebellar architecture.
Project description:Precise regulation of neuroprogenitor cell proliferation and differentiation is required for successful brain development, but the factors that contribute to this are only incompletely understood. The transcription factor ATF5 promotes proliferation of cerebral cortical neuroprogenitor cells and its down regulation permits their differentiation. Here, we examine the expression and regulation of ATF5 in cerebellar granule neuron progenitor cells (CGNPs) as well as the role of ATF5 in the transition of CGNPs to postmitotic cerebellar granule neurons (GCNs). We find that ATF5 is expressed by proliferating CGNPs in both the embryonic and postnatal cerebellar external granule layer (EGL) and in the rhombic lip, the embryonic structure from which the EGL arises. In contrast, ATF5 is undetectable in postmitotic GCNs. In highly enriched dissociated cultures of CGNPs and CGNs, ATF5 is expressed only in CGNPs. Constitutive ATF5 expression in CGNPs does not affect their proliferation or exit from the cell cycle. In contrast, in presence of sonic hedgehog (Shh), a mitogen for CGNPs, constitutively expressed ATF5 promotes CGNP proliferation and delays their cell cycle exit and differentiation. Conversely, ATF5 loss-of-function conferred by a dominant-negative form of ATF5 significantly diminishes Shh-stimulated CGNP proliferation and promotes differentiation. In parallel with its stimulation of CGNP proliferation, Shh enhances ATF5 expression by what appeared to be a posttranscriptional mechanism involving protein stabilization. These findings indicate a reciprocal interaction between ATF5 and Shh in which Shh stimulates ATF5 expression and in which ATF5 contributes to Shh-stimulated CGNP expansion.
Project description:Development of the cerebellum occurs postnatally and is marked by a rapid proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs). CGNPs are the cells of origin for SHH-driven medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Here, we investigated the role of ERK, JNK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases in CGNP proliferation. We found high levels of p38? in proliferating CGNPs. Concomitantly, members of the p38 pathway, such as ASK1, MKK3 and ATF-2, were also elevated. Inhibition of the Shh pathway or CGNP proliferation blunts p38? levels, irrespective of Shh treatment. Strikingly, p38? levels were high in vivo in the external granule layer of the postnatal cerebellum, Shh-dependent mouse medulloblastomas and human medulloblastomas of the SHH subtype. Finally, knocking down p38? by short hairpin RNA-carrying lentiviruses as well as the pharmacologically inhibiting of its kinase activity caused a marked decrease in CGNP proliferation, underscoring its requirement for Shh-dependent proliferation in CGNPs. The inhibition of p38? also caused a decrease in Gli1 and N-myc transcript levels, consistent with reduced proliferation. These findings suggest p38 inhibition as a potential way to increase the efficacy of treatments available for malignancies associated with deregulated SHH signaling, such as basal cell carcinoma and medulloblastoma.
Project description:Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling are essential for development of many tissues and are implicated in medulloblastoma, the most common solid pediatric malignancy. Cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs), proposed cells-of-origin for specific classes of medulloblastomas, require SHH and IGF signaling for proliferation and survival during development of the cerebellum. We asked whether SHH regulates IGF pathway components in proliferating CGNPs. We report that SHH-treated CGNPs showed increased levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein, which was also present in the germinal layer of the developing mouse cerebellum and in mouse SHH-induced medulloblastomas. Previous roles for IRS1, an oncogenic protein that is essential for IGF-mediated proliferation in other cell types, have not been described in SHH-mediated CGNP proliferation. We found that IRS1 overexpression can maintain CGNP proliferation in the absence of SHH. Furthermore, lentivirus-mediated knock down experiments have shown that IRS1 activity is required for CGNP proliferation in slice explants and dissociated cultures. Contrary to traditional models for SHH signaling that focus on gene transcription, SHH stimulation does not regulate Irs1 transcription but rather stabilizes IRS1 protein by interfering with mTOR-dependent IRS1 turnover and possibly affects Irs1 mRNA translation. Thus, we have identified IRS1 as a novel effector of SHH mitogenic signaling that may serve as a future target for medulloblastoma therapies. Our findings also indicate a previously unreported interaction between the SHH and mTOR pathways, and provide an example of a non-classical means for SHH-mediated protein regulation during development.
Project description:Development of the cerebellum, a brain region regulating posture and coordination, occurs post-natally and is marked by rapid proliferation of granule neuron precursors (CGNPs), stimulated by mitogenic Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. ?-Arrestin (?Arr) proteins play important roles downstream of Smoothened, the Shh signal transducer. However, whether Shh regulates ?Arrs and what role they play in Shh-driven CGNP proliferation remains to be determined. Here, we report that Shh induces ?Arr1 accumulation and localization to the nucleus, where it participates in enhancing expression of the cyclin dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p27, whose accumulation eventually drives CGNP cell cycle exit. ?Arr1 knockdown enhances CGNP proliferation and reduces p27 expression. Thus, Shh-mediated ?Arr1 induction represents a novel negative feedback loop within the Shh mitogenic pathway, such that ongoing Shh signaling, while required for CGNPs to proliferate, also sets up a cell-intrinsic clock programming their ultimate exit from the cell cycle.
Project description:Deregulation of the Rb/E2F tumor suppressor complex and aberrantion of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling are documented across the spectrum of human malignancies. Exaggerated de novo lipid synthesis is also found in certain highly proliferative, aggressive tumors. Here, we show that in Shh-driven medulloblastomas, Rb is inactivated and E2F1 is upregulated, promoting lipogenesis. Extensive lipid accumulation and elevated levels of the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN) mark those tumors. In primary cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs), proposed Shh-associated medulloblastoma cells-of-origin, Shh signaling triggers E2F1 and FASN expression, whereas suppressing fatty acid oxidation (FAO), in a smoothened-dependent manner. In the developing cerebellum, E2F1 and FASN co-localize in proliferating CGNPs. in vivo and in vitro, E2F1 is required for FASN expression and CGNP proliferation, and E2F1 knockdown impairs Shh-mediated FAO inhibition. Pharmacological blockade of Rb inactivation and/or lipogenesis inhibits CGNP proliferation, drives medulloblastoma cell death and extends survival of medulloblastoma-bearing animals In vivo. These findings identify a novel mechanism through which Shh signaling links cell cycle progression to lipid synthesis, through E2F1-dependent regulation of lipogenic enzymes. These findings pertinent to the etiology of tumor metabolism also underscore the key role of the Shh?E2F1?FASN axis in regulating de novo lipid synthesis in cancers, and as such its value as a global therapeutic target in hedgehog-dependent and/or Rb-inactivated tumors.
Project description:Postnatal proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs), proposed cells of origin for the SHH-associated subgroup of medulloblastoma, is driven by Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in the developing cerebellum. Shh induces the oncogene Yes-associated protein (YAP), which drives IGF2 expression in CGNPs and mouse Shh-associated medulloblastomas. To determine how IGF2 expression is regulated downstream of YAP, we carried out an unbiased screen for transcriptional regulators bound to IGF2 promoters. We report that Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1), an onco-protein regulating transcription and translation, binds to IGF2 promoter P3. We observed that YB-1 is upregulated across human medulloblastoma subclasses as well as in other varieties of pediatric brain tumors. Utilizing the cerebellar progenitor model for the Shh subgroup of medulloblastoma in mice, we show for the first time that YB-1 is induced by Shh in CGNPs. Its expression is YAP-dependent and it is required for IGF2 expression in CGNPs. Finally, both gain-of function and loss-of-function experiments reveal that YB-1 activity is required for sustaining CGNP and medulloblastoma cell (MBC) proliferation. Collectively, our findings describe a novel role for YB-1 in driving proliferation in the developing cerebellum and MBCs and they identify the SHH:YAP:YB1:IGF2 axis as a powerful target for therapeutic intervention in medulloblastomas.
Project description:Proliferation of cerebellar granular neuronal precursors (CGNPs) is mediated by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), which activates the Patched and Smoothened (Smo) receptor complex. Although its protein sequence suggests that Smo is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), the evidence that this receptor utilizes heterotrimeric G proteins as downstream effectors is controversial. In Drosophila, G?(i) is required for Hedgehog (Hh) activity, but the involvement of heterotrimeric G proteins in vertebrate Shh signaling has not yet been established. Here, we show that Shh-induced proliferation of rat CGNPs is enhanced strongly by the expression of the active forms of G?(i/o) proteins (G?(i1), G?(i2), G?(i3), and G?(o)) but not by members of another class (G?(12)) of heterotrimeric G proteins. Additionally, the mRNAs of these different G?(i) members display specific expression patterns in the developing cerebellum; only G?(i2) and G?(i3) are substantially expressed in the outer external granular layer, where CGNPs proliferate. Consistent with this, Shh-induced proliferation of CGNPs is reduced significantly by knockdowns of G?(i2) and G?(i3) but not by silencing of other members of the G?(i/o) class. Finally, our results demonstrate that G?(i2) and G?(i3) locate to the primary cilium when expressed in CGNP cultures. In summary, we conclude that the proliferative effects of Shh on CGNPs are mediated by the combined activity of G?(i2) and G?(i3) proteins.