Genetic diversity patterns and domestication origin of soybean.
ABSTRACT: KEY MESSAGE:Genotyping data of a comprehensive Korean soybean collection obtained using a large SNP array were used to clarify global distribution patterns of soybean and address the evolutionary history of soybean. Understanding diversity and evolution of a crop is an essential step to implement a strategy to expand its germplasm base for crop improvement research. Accessions intensively collected from Korea, which is a small but central region in the distribution geography of soybean, were genotyped to provide sufficient data to underpin population genetic questions. After removing natural hybrids and duplicated or redundant accessions, we obtained a non-redundant set comprising 1957 domesticated and 1079 wild accessions to perform population structure analyses. Our analysis demonstrates that while wild soybean germplasm will require additional sampling from diverse indigenous areas to expand the germplasm base, the current domesticated soybean germplasm is saturated in terms of genetic diversity. We then showed that our genome-wide polymorphism map enabled us to detect genetic loci underlying flower color, seed-coat color, and domestication syndrome. A representative soybean set consisting of 194 accessions was divided into one domesticated subpopulation and four wild subpopulations that could be traced back to their geographic collection areas. Population genomics analyses suggested that the monophyletic group of domesticated soybeans was likely originated at a Japanese region. The results were further substantiated by a phylogenetic tree constructed from domestication-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in this study.
Project description:The United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection includes 18,480 domesticated soybean and 1168 wild soybean accessions introduced from 84 countries or developed in the United States. This collection was genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing greater than 50K single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Redundant accessions were identified in the collection, and distinct genetic backgrounds of soybean from different geographic origins were observed that could be a unique resource for soybean genetic improvement. We detected a dramatic reduction of genetic diversity based on linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure analyses of the wild, landrace, and North American cultivar populations and identified candidate regions associated with domestication and selection imposed by North American breeding. We constructed the first soybean haplotype block maps in the wild, landrace, and North American cultivar populations and observed that most recombination events occurred in the regions between haplotype blocks. These haplotype maps are crucial for association mapping aimed at the identification of genes controlling traits of economic importance. A case-control association test delimited potential genomic regions along seven chromosomes that most likely contain genes controlling seed weight in domesticated soybean. The resulting dataset will facilitate germplasm utilization, identification of genes controlling important traits, and will accelerate the creation of soybean varieties with improved seed yield and quality.
Project description:Efficient crop improvement depends on the application of accurate genetic information contained in diverse germplasm resources. Here we report a reference-grade genome of wild soybean accession W05, with a final assembled genome size of 1013.2?Mb and a contig N50 of 3.3?Mb. The analytical power of the W05 genome is demonstrated by several examples. First, we identify an inversion at the locus determining seed coat color during domestication. Second, a translocation event between chromosomes 11 and 13 of some genotypes is shown to interfere with the assignment of QTLs. Third, we find a region containing copy number variations of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) genes. Such findings illustrate the power of this assembly in the analysis of large structural variations in soybean germplasm collections. The wild soybean genome assembly has wide applications in comparative genomic and evolutionary studies, as well as in crop breeding and improvement programs.
Project description:Using a whole-genome-sequencing approach to explore germplasm resources can serve as an important strategy for crop improvement, especially in investigating wild accessions that may contain useful genetic resources that have been lost during the domestication process. Here we sequence and assemble a draft genome of wild soybean and construct a recombinant inbred population for genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotypic analyses to identify multiple QTLs relevant to traits of interest in agriculture. We use a combination of de novo sequencing data from this work and our previous germplasm re-sequencing data to identify a novel ion transporter gene, GmCHX1, and relate its sequence alterations to salt tolerance. Rapid gain-of-function tests show the protective effects of GmCHX1 towards salt stress. This combination of whole-genome de novo sequencing, high-density-marker QTL mapping by re-sequencing and functional analyses can serve as an effective strategy to unveil novel genomic information in wild soybean to facilitate crop improvement.
Project description:There is a considerable demand for crop improvement, especially considering the increasing growth of world population, continuing climatic fluctuations, and rapidly evolving plant pests and pathogens. Crop wild relatives hold great potential in providing beneficial alleles for crop improvement. Wild soybean, Glycine soja (Siebold & Zucc.), the wild ancestor to the domesticated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), harbors a high level of genetic variation. Research on G. soja has been largely devoted to understanding the domestication history of the soybean, while little effort has been made to explore its genetic diversity for crop improvement. High genomic diversity and expanded traits make G. soja populations an excellent source for soybean improvement. This review summarizes recent successful research examples of applying wild soybeans in dissecting the genetic basis of various traits, with a focus on abiotic/biotic stress tolerance and resistance. We also discuss the limitations of using G. soja. Perspective future research is proposed, including the application of advanced biotechnology and emerging genomic data to further utilize the wild soybean to counterbalance the rising demand for superior crops. We proposed there is an urgent need for international collaboration on germplasm collection, resource sharing, and conservation. We hope to use the wild soybean as an example to promote the exploration and use of wild resources for crop improvement in order to meet future food requirements.
Project description:There is a debate concerning mono- or poly-phyletic origins of the Near Eastern crops. In parallel, some authors claim that domestication was not possible within the natural range of the wild progenitors due to wild alleles flow into the nascent crops. Here we address both, the mono- or poly-phyletic origins and the domestications within or without the natural range of the progenitor, debates in order to understand the relationship between domesticated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and its wild progenitor (C. reticulatum Ladizinsky) with special emphasis on its domestication centre in southeastern Turkey. A set of 103 chickpea cultivars and landraces from the major growing regions alongside wild accessions (C. reticulatum, C. echinospermum P.H Davis and C. bijugum K.H. Rech) sampled across the natural distribution range in eastern Turkey were genotyped with 194 SNPs markers. The genetic affinities between and within the studied taxa were assessed. The analysis suggests a mono-phyletic origin of the cultigen, with several wild accession as likely members of the wild stock of the cultigen. Clear separation between the wild and domesticated germplasm was apparent, with negligible level of admixture. A single C. reticulatum accession shows morphological and allelic signatures of admixture, a likely result of introgression. No evidence of geneflow from the wild into domesticated germplasm was found. The traditional farming systems of southeaster Turkey are characterized by occurrence of sympatric wild progenitor-domesticated forms of chickpea (and likewise cereals and other grain legumes). Therefore, both the authentic crop landraces and the wild populations native to the area are a unique genetic resource. Our results grant support to the notion of domestication within the natural distribution range of the wild progenitor, suggesting that the Neolithic domesticators were fully capable of selecting the desired phenotypes even when facing rare wild-domesticated introgression events.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Artificial selection played an important role in the origin of modern Glycine max cultivars from the wild soybean Glycine soja. To elucidate the consequences of artificial selection accompanying the domestication and modern improvement of soybean, 25 new and 30 published whole-genome re-sequencing accessions, which represent wild, domesticated landrace, and Chinese elite soybean populations were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 5,102,244 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 707,969 insertion/deletions were identified. Among the SNPs detected, 25.5% were not described previously. We found that artificial selection during domestication led to more pronounced reduction in the genetic diversity of soybean than the switch from landraces to elite cultivars. Only a small proportion (2.99%) of the whole genomic regions appear to be affected by artificial selection for preferred agricultural traits. The selection regions were not distributed randomly or uniformly throughout the genome. Instead, clusters of selection hotspots in certain genomic regions were observed. Moreover, a set of candidate genes (4.38% of the total annotated genes) significantly affected by selection underlying soybean domestication and genetic improvement were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Given the uniqueness of the soybean germplasm sequenced, this study drew a clear picture of human-mediated evolution of the soybean genomes. The genomic resources and information provided by this study would also facilitate the discovery of genes/loci underlying agronomically important traits.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In addition to genetic variation, epigenetic variation plays an important role in determining various biological processes. The importance of natural genetic variation to crop domestication and improvement has been widely investigated. However, the contribution of epigenetic variation in crop domestication at population level has rarely been explored. RESULTS:To understand the impact of epigenetics on crop domestication, we investigate the variation of DNA methylation during soybean domestication and improvement by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 45 soybean accessions, including wild soybeans, landraces, and cultivars. Through methylomic analysis, we identify 5412 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). These DMRs exhibit characters distinct from those of genetically selected regions. In particular, they have significantly higher genetic diversity. Association analyses suggest only 22.54% of DMRs can be explained by local genetic variations. Intriguingly, genes in the DMRs that are not associated with any genetic variation are enriched in carbohydrate metabolism pathways. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides a valuable map of DNA methylation across diverse accessions and dissects the relationship between DNA methylation variation and genetic variation during soybean domestication, thus expanding our understanding of soybean domestication and improvement.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Plant domestication provides a unique model to study genome evolution. Many studies have been conducted to examine genes, genetic diversity, genome structure, and epigenome changes associated with domestication. Interestingly, domesticated accessions have significantly higher [A] and [T] values across genome-wide polymorphic sites than accessions sampled from the corresponding progenitor species. However, the relative contributions of different genomic regions to this genome divergence pattern and underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. RESULTS:Here, we investigate the genome-wide base-composition patterns by analyzing millions of SNPs segregating among 100 accessions from a teosinte-maize comparison set and among 302 accessions from a wild-domesticated soybean comparison set. We show that non-genic part of the genome has a greater contribution than genic SNPs to the [AT]-increase observed between wild and domesticated accessions in maize and soybean. The separation between wild and domesticated accessions in [AT] values is significantly enlarged in non-genic and pericentromeric regions. Motif frequency and sequence context analyses show the motifs (PyCG) related to solar-UV signature are enriched in these regions, particularly when they are methylated. Additional analysis using population-private SNPs also implicates the role of these motifs in relatively recent mutations. With base-composition across polymorphic sites as a genome phenotype, genome scans identify a set of putative candidate genes involved in UV damage repair pathways. CONCLUSIONS:The [AT]-increase is more pronounced in genomic regions that are non-genic, pericentromeric, transposable elements; methylated; and with low recombination. Our findings establish important links among UV radiation, mutation, DNA repair, methylation, and genome evolution.
Project description:Brassica oleracea cultivars include important vegetable and forage crops grown worldwide, whereas the wild counterpart occurs naturally on European sea cliffs. Domestication and selection processes have led to phenotypic and genetic divergence between domesticated plants and their wild ancestors that inhabit coastal areas and are exposed to saline conditions. Salinity is one of the most limiting factors for crop production. However, little is known about how salinity affects plants in relation to domestication of B. oleracea. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of domestication status (wild, landrace or cultivar) on the response of different B. oleracea crops to salinity, as measured by seed germination, plant growth, water content and mineral concentration parameters at the seedling stage. For this purpose, two independent pot experiments were conducted with six accessions of B. oleracea, including cabbage (group capitata) and kale (group acephala), in a growth chamber under controlled environmental conditions. In both taxonomic groups, differences in domestication status and salt stress significantly affected all major process such as germination, changes in dry matter, water relations and mineral uptake. In the acephala experiment, the domestication × salinity interaction significantly affected water content parameters and shoot Na+ allocation. At early stages of development, wild plants are more succulent than cultivated plants and have a higher capacity to maintain lower Na+ concentrations in their shoots in response to increasing levels of salinity. Different responses of domesticated and cultivated accessions in relation to these traits indicated a high level of natural variation in wild B. oleracea. Exclusion of Na+ from shoots and increasing succulence may enhance salt tolerance in B. oleracea exposed to extreme salinity in the long term. The wild germplasm can potentially be used to improve the salt tolerance of crops by the identification of useful genes and incorporation of these into salinity-sensitive cultivars.
Project description:Crop species have been deeply affected by the domestication process, and there have been many efforts to identify selection signatures at the genome level. This knowledge will help geneticists to better understand the evolution of organisms, and at the same time, help breeders to implement successful breeding strategies. Here, we focused on domestication in the Mesoamerican gene pool of Phaseolus vulgaris by sequencing 49 gene fragments from a sample of 45 P. vulgaris wild and domesticated accessions, and as controls, two accessions each of the closely related species Phaseolus coccineus and Phaseolus dumosus. An excess of nonsynonymous mutations within the domesticated germplasm was found. Our data suggest that the cost of domestication alone cannot explain fully this finding. Indeed, the significantly higher frequency of polymorphisms in the coding regions observed only in the domesticated plants (compared to noncoding regions), the fact that these mutations were mostly nonsynonymous and appear to be recently derived mutations, and the investigations into the functions of their relative genes (responses to biotic and abiotic stresses), support a scenario that involves new functional mutations selected for adaptation during domestication. Moreover, consistent with this hypothesis, selection analysis and the possibility to compare data obtained for the same genes in different studies of varying sizes, data types, and methodologies allowed us to identify four genes that were strongly selected during domestication. Each selection candidate is involved in plant resistance/tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as heat, drought, and salinity. Overall, our study suggests that domestication acted to increase functional diversity at target loci, which probably controlled traits related to expansion and adaptation to new agro-ecological growing conditions.