Exosomes from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells: a new therapeutic paradigm.
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to hold great potential for the treatment of several diseases. Their therapeutic effects are largely mediated by paracrine factors including exosomes, which are nanometer-sized membrane-bound vesicles with functions as mediators of cell-cell communication. MSC-derived exosomes contain cytokines and growth factors, signaling lipids, mRNAs, and regulatory miRNAs. Increasing evidence suggests that MSC-derived exosomes might represent a novel cell-free therapy with compelling advantages over parent MSCs such as no risk of tumor formation and lower immunogenicity. This paper reviews the characteristics of MSC exosomes and their fate after in vivo administration, and highlights the therapeutic potential of MSC-derived exosomes in liver, kidney, cardiovascular and neurological disease. Particularly, we summarize the recent clinical trials performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MSC exosomes. Overall, this paper provides a general overview of MSC-exosomes as a new cell-free therapeutic paradigm.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to have a great potential in the treatment of several diseases due to their differentiation and immunomodulatory capabilities and their ability to be easily cultured and manipulated. Recent investigations revealed that their therapeutic effect is largely mediated by the secretion of paracrine factors including exosomes. Exosomes reflect biophysical features of MSCs and are considered more effective than MSCs themselves. Alternative approaches based on MSC-derived exosomes can offer appreciable promise in overcoming the limitations and practical challenges observed in cell-based therapy. Furthermore, MSC-derived exosomes may provide a potent therapeutic strategy for various diseases and are promising candidates for cell-based and cell-free regenerative medicine. This review briefly summarizes the development of MSCs as a treatment for human diseases as well as describes our current knowledge about exosomes: their biogenesis and molecular composition, and how they exert their effects on target cells. Particularly, the therapeutic potential of MSC-derived exosomes in experimental models and recent clinical trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy are summarized in this study. Overall, this paper provides a current overview of exosomes as a new cell-free therapeutic agent.
Project description:Recently, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) due to their pro-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic, and immunoregulatory competencies along with fewer ethical issues are presented as a rational strategy for regenerative medicine. Current reports have signified that the pleiotropic effects of MSCs are not related to their differentiation potentials, but rather are exerted through the release of soluble paracrine molecules. Being nano-sized, non-toxic, biocompatible, barely immunogenic, and owning targeting capability and organotropism, exosomes are considered nanocarriers for their possible use in diagnosis and therapy. Exosomes convey functional molecules such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and micro-RNAs (miRNAs), proteins (e.g., chemokine and cytokine), and lipids from MSCs to the target cells. They participate in intercellular interaction procedures and enable the repair of damaged or diseased tissues and organs. Findings have evidenced that exosomes alone are liable for the beneficial influences of MSCs in a myriad of experimental models, suggesting that MSC- exosomes can be utilized to establish a novel cell-free therapeutic strategy for the treatment of varied human disorders, encompassing myocardial infarction (MI), CNS-related disorders, musculoskeletal disorders (e.g. arthritis), kidney diseases, liver diseases, lung diseases, as well as cutaneous wounds. Importantly, compared with MSCs, MSC- exosomes serve more steady entities and reduced safety risks concerning the injection of live cells, such as microvasculature occlusion risk. In the current review, we will discuss the therapeutic potential of MSC- exosomes as an innovative approach in the context of regenerative medicine and highlight the recent knowledge on MSC- exosomes in translational medicine, focusing on in vivo researches.
Project description:Identification of the immunomodulatory and regenerative properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have made them an attractive alternative therapeutic option for diseases with no effective treatment options. Numerous clinical trials have followed; however, issues such as infusional toxicity and cellular rejection have been reported. To address these problems associated with cell-based therapy, MSC exosome therapy was developed and has shown promising clinical outcomes. MSC exosomes are nanosized vesicles secreted from MSCs and represent a non-cellular therapeutic agent. MSC exosomes retain therapeutic features of the cells from which they originated including genetic material, lipids, and proteins. Similar to MSCs, exosomes can induce cell differentiation, immunoregulation, angiogenesis, and tumor suppression. MSC exosomes have therefore been employed in several experimental models and clinical studies. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of MSC-derived exosomes and summarize currently ongoing clinical trials according to disease type. In addition, we propose several functional enhancement strategies for the effective clinical application of MSC exosome therapy.
Project description:Exosomes as a unique subtype of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) have attracted increasing interest in recent years in the fields of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) research. Studies have confirmed that exosomes derived from MSCs preserve immunosuppressive phenotype and can mimic therapeutic benefits of their parent cells. This review briefly summarizes most recent findings on the potential of exosomes as an alternative of therapeutic MSCs, focusing on the role of MSCs and their secreted exosomes in regulation of immune cells, preclinical and clinical evidence of therapeutic outcomes of MSC exosomes, and the biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile of systemically administered exosomes. It is appreciated that exosomes from MSCs of different sources have variable contents including inflammatory mediators, tropic factors, signaling molecules, and nucleic acids (DNA, mRNA, microRNA and long non-coding RNA). Diverse functions of exosomes derived from different sources are expected. More importantly, exosomes isolated in vitro may not mirror that from in vivo, where donor MSCs are exposed to specific disease or injury-related conditions. Simulating in vivo microenvironment by pretreatment of MSCs with relevant chemical mediators may lead to their secretion of therapeutically more efficient exosomes/sEVs. However, we know very little about the key molecules involved and the differences between exosomes released under different conditions. These issues would be of tremendous interest to preclinical research that pursues exosome biology-underlain therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs. Further studies are expected to demonstrate the superiority of MSC-derived exsomes/sEVs as a pharmaceutical entity with regard to efficacy, safety, and practicability.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown chondroprotective effects in clinical models of osteoarthritis (OA). However, effects of MSC-derived exosomes on OA remain unclear. The study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of exosomes from human bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) in alleviating OA. The anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery were performed on the knee joints of a rat OA model, followed by intra-articular injection of BM-MSCs or their exosomes. In addition, BM-MSC-derived exosomes were administrated to primary human chondrocytes to observe the functional and molecular alterations. Both of BM-MSCs and BM-MSC-derived exosomes alleviated cartilage destruction and subchondral bone remodelling in OA rat model. Administration of BM-MSCs and exosomes could reduce joint damage and restore the trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular number and connectivity density of OA rats. In addition, in vitro assays showed that BM-MSCs-exosomes could maintain the chondrocyte phenotype by increasing collagen type II synthesis and inhibiting IL-1β-induced senescence and apoptosis. Furthermore, exosomal lncRNA MEG-3 also reduced the senescence and apoptosis of chondrocytes induced by IL-1β, indicating that lncRNA MEG-3 might partially account the anti-OA effects of BM-MSC exosomes. The exosomes from BM-MSCs exerted beneficial therapeutic effects on OA by reducing the senescence and apoptosis of chondrocytes, suggesting that MSC-derived exosomes might provide a candidate therapy for OA treatment.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells with marked potential for regenerative medicine because of their strong immunosuppressive and regenerative abilities. The therapeutic effects of MSCs are based in part on their secretion of biologically active factors in extracellular vesicles known as exosomes. Exosomes have a diameter of 30-100 nm and mediate intercellular communication and material exchange. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos) have potential for cell-free therapy for diseases of, for instance, the kidney, liver, heart, nervous system, and musculoskeletal system. Hence, MSC-Exos are an alternative to MSC-based therapy for regenerative medicine. We review MSC-Exos and their therapeutic potential for a variety of diseases and injuries.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Radiotherapy to cancer patients is inevitably accompanied by normal tissue injury, and the bone is one of the most commonly damaged tissues. Damage to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) induced by radiation is thought to be a major cause of radiation-induced bone loss. Exosomes exhibit great therapeutic potential in the treatment of osteoporosis, but whether exosomes are involved in radiation-induced bone loss has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of exosomes derived from BM-MSCs in restoring recipient BM-MSC function and alleviating radiation-induced bone loss. METHODS:BM-MSC-derived exosomes were intravenously injected to rats immediately after irradiation. After 28?days, the left tibiae were harvested for micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis. The effects of exosomes on antioxidant capacity, DNA damage repair, proliferation, and cell senescence of recipient BM-MSCs were determined. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation assays were used to detect the effects of exosomes on the differentiation potential of recipient BM-MSCs, and related genes were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. ?-Catenin expression was detected at histological and cytological levels. RESULTS:BM-MSC-derived exosomes can attenuate radiation-induced bone loss in a rat model that is similar to mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Exosome-treated BM-MSCs exhibit reduced oxidative stress, accelerated DNA damage repair, and reduced proliferation inhibition and cell senescence-associate protein expression compared with BM-MSCs that exclusively received irradiation. Following irradiation, exosomes promote ?-catenin expression in BM-MSCs and restore the balance between adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that BM-MSC-derived exosomes take effects by restoring the function of recipient BM-MSCs. Therefore, exosomes may represent a promising cell-free therapeutic approach for the treatment of radiation-induced bone loss.
Project description:Recently, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and their widespread biomedical applications have attracted great consideration from the scientific community around the world. However, reports have shown that the main populations of the transplanted MSCs are trapped in the liver, spleen, and lung upon administration, highlighting the importance of the development of cell-free therapies. Concerning rising evidence suggesting that the beneficial effects of MSC therapy are closely linked to MSC-released components, predominantly MSC-derived exosomes, the development of an MSC-based cell-free approach is of paramount importance. The exosomes are nano-sized (30-100 nm) lipid bilayer membrane vesicles, which are typically released by MSCs and are found in different body fluids. They include various bioactive molecules, such as messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNAs, proteins, and bioactive lipids, thus showing pronounced therapeutic competence for tissues recovery through the maintenance of their endogenous stem cells, the enhancement of regenerative phenotypic traits, inhibition of apoptosis concomitant with immune modulation, and stimulation of the angiogenesis. Conversely, the specific roles of MSC exosomes in the treatment of various tumors remain challenging. The development and clinical application of novel MSC-based cell-free strategies can be supported by better understanding their mechanisms, classifying the subpopulation of exosomes, enhancing the conditions of cell culture and isolation, and increasing the production of exosomes along with engineering exosomes to deliver drugs and therapeutic molecules to the target sites. In the current review, we deliver a brief overview of MSC-derived exosome biogenesis, composition, and isolation methods and discuss recent investigation regarding the therapeutic potential of MSC exosomes in regenerative medicine accompanied by their double-edged sword role in cancer.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) based therapies are currently being evaluated as a putative therapeutic in numerous human clinical trials. Recent reports have established that exosomes mediate much of the therapeutic properties of MSCs. Exosomes are nanovesicles which mediate intercellular communication, transmitting signals between cells which regulate a diverse range of biological processes. MSC-derived exosomes are packaged with numerous types of proteins and RNAs, however, their metabolomic and lipidomic profiles to date have not been well characterized. We previously reported that MSCs, in response to priming culture conditions that mimic the in vivo microenvironmental niche, substantially modulate cellular signaling and significantly increase the secretion of exosomes. Here we report that MSCs exposed to such priming conditions undergo glycolytic reprogramming, which homogenizes MSCs' metabolomic profile. In addition, we establish that exosomes derive from primed MSCs are packaged with numerous metabolites that have been directly associated with immunomodulation, including M2 macrophage polarization and regulatory T lymphocyte induction.
Project description:Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue homeostasis through direct cell-to-cell interaction, as well as secretion of soluble factors. Exosomes are the sort of soluble biological mediators that obtained from MSCs cultured media in vitro. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-DEs) which produced under physiological or pathological conditions are central mediators of intercellular communications by conveying proteins, lipids, mRNAs, siRNA, ribosomal RNAs and miRNAs to the neighbor or distant cells. MSC-DEs have been tested in various disease models, and the results have revealed that their functions are similar to those of MSCs. They have the supportive functions in organisms such as repairing tissue damages, suppressing inflammatory responses, and modulating the immune system. MSC-DEs are of great interest in the scope of regenerative medicine because of their unique capacity to the regeneration of the damaged tissues, and the present paper aims to introduce MSC-DEs as a novel hope in cell-free therapy.