The atypical thiol-disulfide exchange protein ?-DsbA2 from Wolbachia pipientis is a homotrimeric disulfide isomerase.
ABSTRACT: Disulfide-bond-forming (DSB) oxidative folding enzymes are master regulators of virulence that are localized to the periplasm of many Gram-negative bacteria. The archetypal DSB machinery from Escherichia coli K-12 consists of a dithiol-oxidizing redox-relay pair (DsbA/B), a disulfide-isomerizing redox-relay pair (DsbC/D) and the specialist reducing enzymes DsbE and DsbG that also interact with DsbD. By contrast, the Gram-negative bacterium Wolbachia pipientis encodes just three DSB enzymes. Two of these, ?-DsbA1 and ?-DsbB, form a redox-relay pair analogous to DsbA/B from E. coli. The third enzyme, ?-DsbA2, incorporates a DsbA-like sequence but does not interact with ?-DsbB. In comparison to other DsbA enzymes, ?-DsbA2 has ?50 extra N-terminal residues (excluding the signal peptide). The crystal structure of ?-DsbA2?N, an N-terminally truncated form in which these ?50 residues are removed, confirms the DsbA-like nature of this domain. However, ?-DsbA2 does not have DsbA-like activity: it is structurally and functionally different as a consequence of its N-terminal residues. Firstly, ?-DsbA2 is a powerful disulfide isomerase and a poor dithiol oxidase: i.e. its role is to shuffle rather than to introduce disulfide bonds. Moreover, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of ?-DsbA2 reveals a homotrimeric arrangement that differs from those of the other characterized bacterial disulfide isomerases DsbC from Escherichia coli (homodimeric) and ScsC from Proteus mirabilis (PmScsC; homotrimeric with a shape-shifter peptide). ?-DsbA2 lacks the shape-shifter motif and SAXS data suggest that it is less flexible than PmScsC. These results allow conclusions to be drawn about the factors that are required for functionally equivalent disulfide isomerase enzymatic activity across structurally diverse protein architectures.
Project description:The α-proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis infects more than 65% of insect species worldwide and manipulates the host reproductive machinery to enable its own survival. It can live in mutualistic relationships with hosts that cause human disease, including mosquitoes that carry the Dengue virus. Like many other bacteria, Wolbachia contains disulfide bond forming (Dsb) proteins that introduce disulfide bonds into secreted effector proteins. The genome of the Wolbachia strain wMel encodes two DsbA-like proteins sharing just 21% sequence identity to each other, α-DsbA1 and α-DsbA2, and an integral membrane protein, α-DsbB. α-DsbA1 and α-DsbA2 both have a Cys-X-X-Cys active site that, by analogy with Escherichia coli DsbA, would need to be oxidized to the disulfide form to serve as a disulfide bond donor toward substrate proteins. Here we show that the integral membrane protein α-DsbB oxidizes α-DsbA1, but not α-DsbA2. The interaction between α-DsbA1 and α-DsbB is very specific, involving four essential cysteines located in the two periplasmic loops of α-DsbB. In the electron flow cascade, oxidation of α-DsbA1 by α-DsbB is initiated by an oxidizing quinone cofactor that interacts with the cysteine pair in the first periplasmic loop. Oxidizing power is transferred to the second cysteine pair, which directly interacts with α-DsbA1. This reaction is inhibited by a non-catalytic disulfide present in α-DsbA1, conserved in other α-proteobacterial DsbAs but not in γ-proteobacterial DsbAs. This is the first characterization of the integral membrane protein α-DsbB from Wolbachia and reveals that the non-catalytic cysteines of α-DsbA1 regulate the redox relay system in cooperation with α-DsbB.
Project description:The Dsb family of enzymes catalyzes disulfide bond formation in the gram-negative periplasm, which is required for folding and assembly of many secreted proteins. Pertussis toxin is arguably the most complex toxin known: it is assembled from six subunits encoded by five genes (for subunits S1 to S5), with 11 intramolecular disulfide bonds. To examine the role of the Dsb enzymes in assembly and secretion of pertussis toxin, we identified and mutated the Bordetella pertussis dsbA, dsbB, and dsbC homologues. Mutations in dsbA or dsbB resulted in decreased levels of S1 (the A subunit) and S2 (a B-subunit protein), demonstrating that DsbA and DsbB are required for toxin assembly. Mutations in dsbC did not impair assembly of periplasmic toxin but resulted in decreased toxin secretion, suggesting a defect in the formation of the Ptl secretion complex.
Project description:Disulfide bond formation occurs in secreted proteins in Escherichia coli when the disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA, a soluble periplasmic protein, nonspecifically transfers a disulfide to a substrate protein. The catalytic disulfide of DsbA is regenerated by the inner-membrane protein DsbB. To help identify the specificity determinants in DsbB and to understand the nature of the kinetic barrier preventing direct oxidation of newly secreted proteins by DsbB, we imposed selective pressure to find novel mutations in DsbB that would function to bypass the need for the disulfide carrier DsbA. We found a series of mutations localized to a short horizontal alpha-helix anchored near the outer surface of the inner membrane of DsbB that eliminated the need for DsbA. These mutations changed hydrophobic residues into nonhydrophobic residues. We hypothesize that these mutations may act by decreasing the affinity of this alpha-helix to the membrane. The DsbB mutants were dependent on the disulfide oxidoreductase DsbC, a soluble periplasmic thiol-disulfide isomerase, for complementation. DsbB is not normally able to oxidize DsbC, possibly due to a steric clash that occurs between DsbC and the membrane adjacent to DsbB. DsbC must be in the reduced form to function as an isomerase. In contrast, DsbA must remain oxidized to function as an oxidizing thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase. The lack of interaction that normally exists between DsbB and DsbC appears to provide a means to separate the DsbA-DsbB oxidation pathway and the DsbC-DsbD isomerization pathway. Our mutants in DsbB may act by redirecting oxidant flow to take place through the isomerization pathway.
Project description:In the Escherichia coli periplasm, the formation of protein disulfide bonds is catalyzed by DsbA and DsbC. DsbA is a monomer that is maintained in a fully oxidized state by the membrane enzyme DsbB, whereas DsbC is a dimer that is kept reduced by a second membrane protein, DsbD. Although the catalytic regions of DsbA and DsbC are composed of structurally homologous thioredoxin motif domains, DsbA serves only as an oxidase in vivo, whereas DsbC catalyzes disulfide reduction and isomerization and also exhibits significant chaperone activity. To reconcile the distinct catalytic activities of DsbC and DsbA, we constructed a series of chimeras comprising of the dimerization domain of DsbC, with or without the adjacent alpha-helical linker region, fused either to the first, second, third, or fifth residue of intact DsbA or to thioredoxin. The chimeras fully substituted for DsbC in disulfide-bond rearrangement and also were able to restore protein oxidation in a dsbA background. Remarkably, the chimeras could serve as a single catalyst for both disulfide-bond formation and rearrangement, thus reconciling the kinetically competing DsbB-DsbA and DsbD-DsbC pathways. This property appeared to depend on the orientation of the DsbA active-site cysteines with respect to the DsbC dimerization domain. In vitro, the chimeras had high chaperone activity and significant reductase activity but only 15-22% of the disulfide-isomerization activity of DsbC, suggesting that rearrangement of nonnative disulfides may be mediated primarily by cycles of random reduction and reoxidation.
Project description:There are two distinct pathways for disulfide formation in prokaryotes. The DsbA-DsbB pathway introduces disulfide bonds de novo, while the DsbC-DsbD pathway functions to isomerize disulfides. One of the key questions in disulfide biology is how the isomerase pathway is kept separate from the oxidase pathway in vivo. Cross-talk between these two systems would be mutually destructive. To force communication between these two systems we have selected dsbC mutants that complement a dsbA null mutation. In these mutants, DsbC is present as a monomer as compared with dimeric wild-type DsbC. Based on these findings we rationally designed DsbC mutants in the dimerization domain. All of these mutants are able to rescue the dsbA null phenotype. Rescue depends on the presence of DsbB, the native re-oxidant of DsbA, both in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that dimerization acts to protect DsbC's active sites from DsbB-mediated oxidation. These results explain how oxidative and reductive pathways can co-exist in the periplasm of Escherichia coli.
Project description:In Escherichia coli, DsbA introduces disulphide bonds into secreted proteins. DsbA is recycled by DsbB, which generates disulphides from quinone reduction. DsbA is not known to have any proofreading activity and can form incorrect disulphides in proteins with multiple cysteines. These incorrect disulphides are thought to be corrected by a protein disulphide isomerase, DsbC, which is kept in the reduced and active configuration by DsbD. The DsbC/DsbD isomerization pathway is considered to be isolated from the DsbA/DsbB pathway. We show that the DsbC and DsbA pathways are more intimately connected than previously thought. dsbA(-)dsbC(-) mutants have a number of phenotypes not exhibited by either dsbA(-), dsbC(-) or dsbA(-)dsbD(-) mutations: they exhibit an increased permeability of the outer membrane, are resistant to the lambdoid phage Phi80, and are unable to assemble the maltoporin LamB. Using differential two-dimensional liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, we estimated the abundance of about 130 secreted proteins in various dsb(-) strains. dsbA(-)dsbC(-) mutants exhibit unique changes at the protein level that are not exhibited by dsbA(-)dsbD(-) mutants. Our data indicate that DsbC can assist DsbA in a DsbD-independent manner to oxidatively fold envelope proteins. The view that DsbC's function is limited to the disulphide isomerization pathway should therefore be reinterpreted.
Project description:We identified and characterized an Erwinia chrysanthemi gene able to complement an Escherichia coli dsbA mutation that prevents disulfide bond formation in periplasmic proteins. This gene, dsbC, codes for a 24 kDa periplasmic protein that contains a characteristic active site sequence of disulfide isomerases, Phe-X-X-X-X-Cys-X-X-Cys. Besides the active site, DsbC has no homology with DsbA, thioredoxin or eukaryotic protein disulfide isomerase and it could define a new subfamily of disulfide isomerases. Purified DsbC protein is able to catalyse insulin oxidation in a dithiothreitol dependent manner. The E.coli gene xprA codes for a protein functionally equivalent to DsbC. The in vivo function of DsbC seems to be the formation of disulfide bonds in proteins. The presence of XprA could explain the residual disulfide isomerase activity existing in dsbA mutants. Re-oxidation of XprA does not seem to occur through DsbB, the protein that probably re-oxidizes DsbA.
Project description:Previous studies have established that DsbA and DsbC, periplasmic proteins of Escherichia coli, are two key players involved in disulfide bond formation. A search for extragenic mutations able to compensate for the lack of dsbA function in vivo led us to the identification of a new gene, designated dsbD. Lack of DsbD protein leads to some, but not all, of the phenotypic defects observed with other dsb mutations, such as hypersensitivity to dithiothreitol and to benzylpenicillin. In addition, unlike the rest of the dsb genes, dsbD is essential for bacterial growth at temperatures above 42 degrees C. Cloning of the wild-type gene and sequencing and overexpression of the protein show that dsbD is part of an operon and encodes an inner membrane protein. A 138 amino acid subdomain of the protein was purified and shown to possess an oxido-reductase activity in vitro. Expressing this subdomain in the periplasmic space helped restore the phenotypic defects associated with a dsbD null mutation. Interestingly, this domain shares 45% identity with the portion of the eukaryotic protein disulfide isomerase carrying the active site. We further show that in dsbD mutant bacteria the dithiol active sites of DsbA and DsbC proteins are mostly oxidized, as compared with wild-type bacteria. Our results argue that DsbD generates a reducing source in the periplasm, which is required for maintaining proper redox conditions. The finding that overexpression of DsbD leads to a Dsb- phenotype, very similar to that exhibited by dsbA null mutants, is in good agreement with such a model.
Project description:The disulfide bond forming DsbA enzymes and their DsbB interaction partners are attractive targets for development of antivirulence drugs because both are essential for virulence factor assembly in Gram-negative pathogens. Here we characterize PmDsbA from Proteus mirabilis, a bacterial pathogen increasingly associated with multidrug resistance. PmDsbA exhibits the characteristic properties of a DsbA, including an oxidizing potential, destabilizing disulfide, acidic active site cysteine, and dithiol oxidase catalytic activity. We evaluated a peptide, PWATCDS, derived from the partner protein DsbB and showed by thermal shift and isothermal titration calorimetry that it binds to PmDsbA. The crystal structures of PmDsbA, and the active site variant PmDsbAC30S were determined to high resolution. Analysis of these structures allows categorization of PmDsbA into the DsbA class exemplified by the archetypal Escherichia coli DsbA enzyme. We also present a crystal structure of PmDsbAC30S in complex with the peptide PWATCDS. The structure shows that the peptide binds non-covalently to the active site CXXC motif, the cis-Pro loop, and the hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site of the enzyme. This high-resolution structural data provides a critical advance for future structure-based design of non-covalent peptidomimetic inhibitors. Such inhibitors would represent an entirely new antibacterial class that work by switching off the DSB virulence assembly machinery.
Project description:The Escherichia coli disulfide isomerase, DsbC is a V-shaped homodimer with each monomer comprising a dimerization region that forms part of a putative peptide-binding pocket and a thioredoxin catalytic domain. Disulfide isomerases from prokaryotes and eukaryotes exhibit little sequence homology but display very similar structural organization with two thioredoxin domains facing each other on top of the dimerization/peptide-binding region. To aid the understanding of the mechanistic significance of thioredoxin domain dimerization and of the peptide-binding cleft of DsbC, we constructed a series of protein chimeras comprising unrelated protein dimerization domains fused to thioredoxin superfamily enzymes. Chimeras consisting of the dimerization domain and the alpha-helical linker of the bacterial proline cis/trans isomerase FkpA and the periplasmic oxidase DsbA gave rise to enzymes that catalyzed the folding of multidisulfide substrate proteins in vivo with comparable efficiency to E. coli DsbC. In addition, expression of FkpA-DsbAs conferred modest resistance to CuCl2, a phenotype that depends on disulfide bond isomerization. Selection for resistance to elevated CuCl2 concentrations led to the isolation of FkpA-DsbA mutants containing a single amino acid substitution that changed the active site of the DsbA domain from CPHC into CPYC, increasing the similarity to the DsbC active site (CGYC). Unlike DsbC, which is resistant to oxidation by DsbB-DsbA and does not normally catalyze disulfide bond formation under physiological conditions, the FkpA-DsbA chimeras functioned both as oxidases and isomerases. The engineering of these efficient artificial isomerases delineates the key features of catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization and enhances our understanding of its evolution.