Perdeuteration, large crystal growth and neutron data collection of Leishmania mexicana triose-phosphate isomerase E65Q variant.
ABSTRACT: Triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyses the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Two catalytic mechanisms have been proposed based on two reaction-intermediate analogues, 2-phosphoglycolate (2PG) and phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH), that have been used as mimics of the cis-enediol(ate) intermediate in several studies of TIM. The protonation states that are critical for the mechanistic interpretation of these structures are generally not visible in the X-ray structures. To resolve these questions, it is necessary to determine the hydrogen positions using neutron crystallography. Neutron crystallography requires large crystals and benefits from replacing all hydrogens with deuterium. Leishmania mexicana triose-phosphate isomerase was therefore perdeuterated and large crystals with 2PG and PGH were produced. Neutron diffraction data collected from two crystals with different volumes highlighted the importance of crystal volume, as smaller crystals required longer exposures and resulted in overall worse statistics.
Project description:MonoTIM is a stable monomeric variant of the dimeric trypanosomal enzyme triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) with less, but significant, catalytic activity. It is known that in TIM, three residues, Lys 13 (loop 1), His 95 (loop 4), and Glu 167 (loop 6) are the crucial catalytic residues. In the wild-type TIM dimer, loop 1 and loop 4 are very rigid because of tight interactions with residues of the other subunit. Previous structural studies indicate that Lys 13 and His 95 have much increased conformational flexibility in monoTIM. Using site-directed mutagenesis, it is shown here that Lys 13 and His 95 are nevertheless essential for optimal catalysis by monoTIM: monoTIM-K13A is completely inactive, although it can still bind substrate analogues, and monoTIM-H95A is 50 times less active. The best inhibitors of wild-type TIM are phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) and 2-phosphoglycolate (2PG), with KI values of 8 microM and 26 microM, respectively. The affinity of the monoTIM active site for PGH has been reduced approximately 60-fold, whereas for 2PG, only a twofold weakening of affinity is observed. The mode of binding, as determined by protein crystallographic analysis of these substrate analogues, shows that, in particular, 2PG interacts with Lys 13 and His 95 in a way similar but not identical to that observed for the wild-type enzyme. This crystallographic analysis also shows that Glu 167 has the same interactions with the substrate analogues as in the wild type. The data presented suggest that, despite the absence of the second subunit, monoTIM catalyzes the interconversion of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate via the same mechanism as in the wild type.
Project description:Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyses the interconversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxy-acetone phosphate. This simple reaction involves the shuttling of protons mediated by protolysable side chains. The catalytic power of TIM is thought to stem from its ability to facilitate the deprotonation of a carbon next to a carbonyl group to generate an enediolate intermediate. The enediolate intermediate is believed to be mimicked by the inhibitor 2-phosphoglycolate (PGA) and the subsequent enediol intermediate by phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH). Here, neutron structures of <i>Leishmania mexicana</i> TIM have been determined with both inhibitors, and joint neutron/X-ray refinement followed by quantum refinement has been performed. The structures show that in the PGA complex the postulated general base Glu167 is protonated, while in the PGH complex it remains deprotonated. The deuteron is clearly localized on Glu167 in the PGA-TIM structure, suggesting an asymmetric hydrogen bond instead of a low-barrier hydrogen bond. The full picture of the active-site protonation states allowed an investigation of the reaction mechanism using density-functional theory calculations.
Project description:Well structured: As a new triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel-fold prenyl transferase, PcrB catalyzes the production of heptaprenylglyceryl phosphate from heptaprenyl diphosphate and glycerol-1-phosphate. Crystal structures of PcrB from Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus in complex with ligands were solved, and together with site-directed mutagenesis and bioinformatics analyses, clearly reveal the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme.
Project description:Lack of triose phosphate isomerase activity (TIM) is of special interest because this enzyme works at an important branch point of glycolytic flux. In this paper, we report the cloning and sequencing of the Kluyveromyces lactis gene encoding TIM. Unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae DeltaTPI1 mutants, the K. lactis mutant strain was found to be able to grow on glucose. Preliminary bioconversion experiments indicated that, like the S. cerevisiae TIM-deficient strain, the K. lactis TIM-deficient strain is able to produce glycerol with high yield.
Project description:1. The equilibrium constant at 38 degrees and I 0.25 of the triose phosphate isomerase reaction was found to be 22.0 and that of the aldolase reaction, 0.99x10(-4)m. The [dihydroxyacetone phosphate]/[glyceraldehyde phosphate] ratio was found to be 9.3 in rat liver. The causes of the apparent deviation of the triose phosphate isomerase system from equilibrium in vivo have been investigated. 2. The equilibria of the triose phosphate isomerase and aldolase reactions were studied with relatively large concentrations of crystalline enzymes and small concentrations of substrates, approximating to those found in rat liver and muscle. There was significant binding of fructose diphosphate by aldolase under these conditions. There was no evidence that binding of glyceraldehyde phosphate by either enzyme affected the equilibria. 3. The deviation from equilibrium of the triose phosphate isomerase system in rat liver can be accounted for by the low activity of the enzyme, in relation to the flux, at low physiological concentrations of glyceraldehyde phosphate (about 3mum). It has been calculated that a flux of 1.8mumoles/min./g. wet weight of liver would be expected to cause the measured degree of disequilibrium found in vivo. 4. The conclusion that the triose phosphate isomerase is not at equilibrium is in accordance with the situation postulated by Rose, Kellermeyer, Stjernholm & Wood (1962) on the basis of isotope-distribution data. 5. The triose phosphate isomerase system is closer to equilibrium in resting muscle probably because of a very low flux and a high enzyme concentration. 6. The aldolase system deviated from equilibrium in rat liver by a factor of about 10 and by a much greater factor in resting muscle. 7. The measurement of total dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate content indicates the concentrations of the free metabolites in the tissue. This may not hold for fructose diphosphate, a significant proportion of which may be bound to aldolase.
Project description:Labeling of proteins with deuterium (2H) is often necessary for structural biology techniques, such as neutron crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering. Perdeuteration in which all protium (1H) atoms are replaced by deuterium is a costly process. Typically, expression hosts are grown in a defined medium with heavy water as the solvent, which is supplemented with a deuterated carbon source. <i>Escherichia coli</i>, which is the most widely used host for recombinant protein production, can utilize several compounds as a carbon source. Glycerol-<i>d</i><sub>8</sub> is often used as a carbon source for deuterium labelling due to its lower cost compered to glucose-<i>d</i><sub>7</sub>. In order to expand available options for recombinant protein deuteration, we investigated the possibility of producing a deuterated carbon source in-house. <i>E. coli</i> can utilize pyruvate as a carbon source and pyruvate-<i>d</i><sub>3</sub> can be made by a relatively simple procedure. To circumvent the very poor growth of <i>E. coli</i> in minimal media with pyruvate as sole carbon source, adaptive laboratory evolution for strain improvement was applied. <i>E. coli</i> strains with enhanced growth in minimal pyruvate medium was subjected to whole genome sequencing and the genetic changes were revealed. One of the evolved strains was adapted for the widely used T7 RNA polymerase overexpression systems. Using the improved strain <i>E. coli</i> DAP1(DE3) and in-house produced deuterated carbon source (pyruvic acid-<i>d</i><sub>4</sub> and sodium pyruvate-<i>d</i><sub>3</sub>), we produce deuterated (>90%) triose-phosphate isomerase, at quantities sufficient enough for large volume crystal production and subsequent analysis by neutron crystallography.
Project description:D-Xylose isomerase (XI) and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyze the aldose-ketose isomerization reactions of D-xylose and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (DGAP), respectively. D-Glyceraldehyde (DGA) is the triose fragment common to the substrates for XI and TIM. The XI-catalyzed isomerization of DGA to give dihydroxyacetone (DHA) in D(2)O was monitored by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and a k(cat)/K(m) of 0.034 M(-1) s(-1) was determined for this isomerization at pD 7.0. This is similar to the k(cat)/K(m) of 0.017 M(-1) s(-1) for the TIM-catalyzed carbon deprotonation reaction of DGA in D(2)O at pD 7.0 [Amyes, T. L., O'Donoghue, A. C., and Richard, J. P. (2001) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 11325-11326]. The much larger activation barrier for XI-catalyzed isomerization of D-xylose (k(cat)/K(m) = 490 M(-1) s(-1)) versus that for the TIM-catalyzed isomerization of DGAP (k(cat)/K(m) = 9.6 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) is due to (i) the barrier to conversion of cyclic d-xylose to the reactive linear sugar (5.4 kcal/mol) being larger than that for conversion of DGAP hydrate to the free aldehyde (1.7 kcal/mol) and (ii) the intrinsic binding energy [Jencks, W. P. (1975) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas Mol. Biol. 43, 219-410] of the terminal ethylene glycol fragment of D-xylose (9.3 kcal/mol) being smaller than that of the phosphodianion group of DGAP (~12 kcal/mol). The XI-catalyzed isomerization of DGA in D(2)O at pD 7.0 gives a 90% yield of [1-(1)H]DHA and a 10% yield of [1-(2)H]DHA, the product of isomerization with incorporation of deuterium from solvent D(2)O. By comparison, the transfer of (3)H from the labeled hexose substrate to solvent is observed only once in every 10(9) turnovers for the XI-catalyzed isomerization of [2-(3)H]glucose in H(2)O [Allen, K. N., Lavie, A., Farber, G. K., Glasfeld, A., Petsko, G. A., and Ringe, D. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 1481-1487]. We propose that truncation of the terminal ethylene glycol fragment of d-xylose to give DGA results in a large decrease in the rate of XI-catalyzed isomerization with hydride transfer compared with that for proton transfer. An ultra-high-resolution (0.97 Å) X-ray crystal structure was determined for the complex obtained by soaking crystals of XI with 50 mM DGA. The triose binds to XI as the unreactive hydrate, but ligand binding induces metal cofactor movement and conformational changes in active site residues similar to those observed for XI·sugar complexes.
Project description:1. The dissimilation of a number of externally added hexose phosphates and 5'-nucleotides by the perfused rat heart is described, and non-specific esterase and 5'-nucleotidase activity associated with the superficial cell membrane or vascular system has been demonstrated. 2. The rate of production of (14)CO(2) from [U-(14)C]glucose 6-phosphate suggests that oxidation occurred after hydrolysis to glucose. The incorporation of isotope from [U-(14)C]glucose 6-phosphate into glycogen was small, and similar to that obtained with [U-(14)C]glucose as substrate. 3. Glucose 6-phosphate was also partially isomerized to fructose 6-phosphate. Similarly, fructose 6-phosphate was converted mainly into glucose 6-phosphate, but also into glucose and inorganic phosphate. When fructose 1,6-diphosphate was added to the perfusate, a mixture of glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and triose phosphates accumulated in the medium approximately in the equilibrium proportions of the phosphohexose-isomerase and triose phosphate-isomerase reactions, together with inorganic phosphate and some glucose. Glucose 1-phosphate was hydrolysed to glucose, but was not converted into glucose 6-phosphate. Leakage of enzymes out into the perfusion fluid did not occur. 4. This demonstration that phosphohexose isomerase, triose phosphate isomerase and aldolase may react with extracellular substrates at an appreciable rate suggests that these enzymes are attached to the cell membrane.
Project description:1. The effect of alpha-chlorohydrin on the metabolism of glycolytic and tricarboxylate-cycle substrates by ram spermatozoa was investigated. The utilization and oxidation of fructose and triose phosphate were much more sensitive to inhibition by alpha-chlorohydrin (0.1-1.0mm) than lactate or pyruvate. Inhibition of glycolysis by alpha-chlorohydrin is concluded to be between triose phosphate and pyruvate formation. Oxidation of glycerol was not as severely inhibited as that of the triose phosphate. This unexpected finding can be explained in terms of competition between glycerol and alpha-chlorohydrin. A second, much less sensitive site, of alpha-chlorohydrin inhibition appears to be associated with production of acetyl-CoA from exogenous and endogenous fatty acids. 2. Measurement of the glycolytic intermediates after incubation of spermatozoal suspensions with 15mm-fructose in the presence of 3mm-alpha-chlorohydrin showed a ;block' in the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into 3-phosphoglycerate. alpha-Chlorohydrin also caused conversion of most of the ATP in spermatozoa into AMP. After incubation with 3mm-alpha-chlorohydrin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and triose phosphate isomerase activities were decreased by approx. 90% and 80% respectively, and in some experiments aldolase was also inhibited. Other glycolytic enzymes were not affected by a low concentration (0.3mm) of alpha-chlorohydrin. Loss of motility of spermatozoa paralleled the decrease in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. alpha-Chlorohydrin, however, did not inhibit glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or triose phosphate isomerase in sonicated enzyme preparations when added to the assay cuvette. 3. Measurement of intermediates and glycolytic enzymes in ejaculated spermatozoa before, during and after injection of rams with alpha-chlorohydrin (25mg/kg body wt.) confirmed a severe block in glycolysis in vivo at the site of triose phosphate conversion into 3-phosphoglycerate within 24h of the first injection. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was no longer detectable and both aldolase and triose phosphate isomerase were severely inhibited. Spermatozoal ATP decreased by 92% at this time, being quantitatively converted into AMP. At 1 month after injection of alpha-chlorohydrin glycolytic intermediate concentrations returned to normal in the spermatozoa but ATP was still only 38% of the pre-injection concentration. Motility of spermatozoa was, however, as good as during the pre-injection period. The activity of the inhibited enzymes also returned to normal during the recovery period and 26 days after injection were close to pre-injection values. 4. An unknown metabolic product of alpha-chlorohydrin is suggested to inhibit glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and triose phosphate isomerase of spermatozoa. This results in a lower ATP content, motility and fertility of the spermatozoa. Glycidol was shown not to be an active intermediate of alpha-chlorohydrin in vitro.
Project description:Sialic acids are nine-carbon sugars that are found abundantly on the cell surfaces of mammals as glycoprotein or glycolipid complexes. Several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria have the ability to scavenge and catabolize sialic acids to use as a carbon source. This gives them an advantage in colonizing sialic acid-rich environments. The genes of the sialic acid catabolic pathway are generally present as the operon nanAKE. The third gene in the operon encodes the enzyme N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase (NanE), which catalyzes the conversion of N-acetylmannosamine 6-phosphate to N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate, thus committing it to enter glycolysis. The NanE enzyme belongs to the isomerase class of enzymes possessing the triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold. Here, comparative structural and functional characterizations of the NanE epimerases from two pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Vibrio cholerae (Vc), have been carried out. Structures of NanE from Vc (VcNanE) with and without ligand bound have been determined to 1.7 and 2.7?Å resolution, respectively. The structure of NanE from Fn (FnNanE) has been determined to 2.2?Å resolution. The enzymes show kinetic parameters that are consistent with those of Clostridium perfringens NanE. These studies allowed an evaluation of whether NanE may be a good drug target against these pathogenic bacteria.