Nanoparticle-mediated intratumoral inhibition of miR-21 for improved survival in glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly form of malignant brain tumor in the United States, and current therapies fail to provide significant improvement in survival. Local delivery of nanoparticles is a promising therapeutic strategy that bypasses the blood-brain barrier, minimizes systemic toxicity, and enhances intracranial drug distribution and retention. Here, we developed nanoparticles loaded with agents that inhibit miR-21, an oncogenic microRNA (miRNA) that is strongly overexpressed in GBM compared to normal brain tissue. We synthesized, engineered, and characterized two different delivery systems. One was designed around an anti-miR-21 composed of RNA and employed a cationic poly(amine-co-ester) (PACE). The other was designed around an anti-miR-21 composed of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and employed a block copolymer of poly(lactic acid) and hyperbranched polyglycerol (PLA-HPG). We show that both nanoparticle products facilitate efficient intracellular delivery and miR-21 suppression that leads to PTEN upregulation and apoptosis of human GBM cells. Further, when administered by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) to animals with intracranial gliomas, they both induced significant miR-21 knockdown and provided chemosensitization, resulting in improved survival when combined with chemotherapy. The challenges involved in optimizing the two delivery systems differed, and despite offering distinct advantages and limitations, results showed significant therapeutic efficacy with both methods of treatment. This study demonstrates the feasibility and promise of local administration of miR-21 inhibiting nanoparticles as an adjuvant therapy for GBM.
Project description:Despite our growing molecular-level understanding of glioblastoma (GBM), treatment modalities remain limited. Recent developments in the mechanisms of cell fate regulation and nanomedicine provide new avenues by which to treat and manage brain tumors via the delivery of molecular therapeutics. Here, we have developed bioreducible poly(?-amino ester) nanoparticles that demonstrate high intracellular delivery efficacy, low cytotoxicity, escape from endosomes, and promotion of cytosol-targeted environmentally triggered cargo release for miRNA delivery to tumor-propagating human cancer stem cells. In this report, we combined this nanobiotechnology with newly discovered cancer stem cell inhibiting miRNAs to develop self-assembled miRNA-containing polymeric nanoparticles (nano-miRs) to treat gliomas. We show that these nano-miRs effectively intracellularly deliver single and combination miRNA mimics that inhibit the stem cell phenotype of human GBM cells in vitro. Following direct intratumoral infusion, these nano-miRs were found to distribute through the tumors, inhibit the growth of established orthotopic human GBM xenografts, and cooperatively enhance the response to standard-of-care ? radiation. Co-delivery of two miRNAs, miR-148a and miR-296-5p, within the bioreducible nano-miR particles enabled long-term survival from GBM in mice.
Project description:The prognosis for glioblastoma (GBM) remains depressingly low. The biological barriers of the brain present a major challenge to achieving adequate drug concentrations for GBM therapy. To address this, we explore the potential of the nose-to-brain direct transport pathway to bypass the blood-brain barrier, and to enable targeted delivery of theranostic polyfunctional gold-iron oxide nanoparticles (polyGIONs) surface loaded with therapeutic miRNAs (miR-100 and antimiR-21) to GBMs in mice. These nanoformulations would thus allow presensitization of GBM cells to the systemically delivered chemotherapy drug temozolomide (TMZ), as well as in vivo multimodality molecular and anatomic imaging of nanoparticle delivery, trafficking, and treatment effects. First, we synthesized GIONs coated with ?-cyclodextrin-chitosan (CD-CS) hybrid polymer, and co-loaded with miR-100 and antimiR-21. Then we decorated their surface with PEG-T7 peptide using CD-adamantane host-guest chemistry. The resultant polyGIONs showed efficient miRNA loading with enhanced serum stability. We characterized them for particle size, PDI, polymer functionalization, charge and release using dynamic light scattering analysis, TEM and qRT-PCR. For in vivo intranasal delivery, we used U87-MG GBM cell-derived orthotopic xenograft models in mice. Intranasal delivery resulted in efficient accumulation of Cy5-miRNAs in mice treated with T7-targeted polyGIONs, as demonstrated by in vivo optical fluorescence and MR imaging. We measured the therapeutic response of these FLUC-EGFP labelled U87-MG GBMs using bioluminescence imaging. Overall, there was a significant increase in survival of mice co-treated with T7-polyGIONs loaded with miR-100/antimiR-21 plus systemic TMZ, compared to the untreated control group, or the animals receiving non-targeted polyGIONs-miR-100/antimiR-21, or TMZ alone. Once translated clinically, this novel theranostic nanoformulation and its associated intranasal delivery strategy will have a strong potential to potentiate the effects of TMZ treatment in GBM patients.
Project description:New treatments for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are desperately needed, as GBM prognosis remains poor, mainly due to treatment resistance, poor distribution of therapeutics in the tumor tissue, and fast metabolism of chemotherapeutic drugs in the brain extracellular space. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of nanoparticles (NPs) has been shown to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the tumor bed, providing sustained release, and enhancing survival of animals with intracranial tumors. Here we administered gemcitabine, a nucleoside analog used as a first line treatment for a wide variety of extracranial solid tumors, within squalene-based NPs using CED, to overcome the above-mentioned challenges of GBM treatment. Small percentages of poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) dramatically enhanced the distribution of squalene-gemcitabine nanoparticles (SQ-Gem NPs) in healthy animals and tumor-bearing animals after administration by CED. When tested in an orthotopic model of GBM, SQ-Gem-PEG NPs demonstrated significantly improved therapeutic efficacy compared to free gemcitabine, both as a chemotherapeutic drug and as a radiosensitizer. Furthermore, MR contrast agents were incorporated into the SQ-Gem-PEG NP formulation, providing a way to non-invasively track the NPs during infusion.
Project description:The present work aimed at the development and application of a lipid-based nanocarrier for targeted delivery of nucleic acids to glioblastoma (GBM). For this purpose, chlorotoxin (CTX), a peptide reported to bind selectively to glioma cells while showing no affinity for non-neoplastic cells, was covalently coupled to liposomes encapsulating antisense oligonucleotides (asOs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The resulting targeted nanoparticles, designated CTX-coupled stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs), exhibited excellent features for in vivo application, namely small size (<180?nm) and neutral surface charge. Cellular association and internalization studies revealed that attachment of CTX onto the liposomal surface enhanced particle internalization into glioma cells, whereas no significant internalization was observed in noncancer cells. Moreover, nanoparticle-mediated miR-21 silencing in U87 human GBM and GL261 mouse glioma cells resulted in increased levels of the tumor suppressors PTEN and PDCD4, caspase 3/7 activation and decreased tumor cell proliferation. Preliminary in vivo studies revealed that CTX enhances particle internalization into established intracranial tumors. Overall, our results indicate that the developed targeted nanoparticles represent a valuable tool for targeted nucleic acid delivery to cancer cells. Combined with a drug-based therapy, nanoparticle-mediated miR-21 silencing constitutes a promising multimodal therapeutic approach towards GBM.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e100; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.30; published online 18 June 2013.
Project description:Intracranial delivery of therapeutic agents is limited by penetration beyond the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and rapid metabolism of the drugs that are delivered. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) provides for local administration, control of distribution, and sustained drug release. While some investigators have shown that repeated CED procedures are possible, longer periods of sustained release could eliminate the need for repeated infusions, which would enhance safety and translatability of the approach. Here, we demonstrate that nanoparticles formed from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-pentadecalactone-co-p-dioxanone) block copolymers [PEG-poly(PDL-co-DO)] are highly efficient nanocarriers that provide long-term release: small nanoparticles (less than 100?nm in diameter) continuously released a radiosensitizer (VE822) over a period of several weeks in vitro, provided widespread intracranial drug distribution during CED, and yielded significant drug retention within the brain for over 1 week. One advantage of PEG-poly(PDL-co-DO) nanoparticles is that hydrophobicity can be tuned by adjusting the ratio of hydrophobic PDL to hydrophilic DO monomers, thus making it possible to achieve a wide range of drug release rates and drug distribution profiles. When administered by CED to rats with intracranial RG2 tumors, and combined with a 5-day course of fractionated radiation therapy, VE822-loaded PEG-poly(PDL-co-DO) NPs significantly prolonged survival when compared to free VE822. Thus, PEG-poly(PDL-co-DO) NPs represent a new type of versatile nanocarrier system with potential for sustained intracranial delivery of therapeutic agents to treat brain tumors.
Project description:MicroRNA-10b (miR-10b) is a unique oncogenic miRNA that is highly expressed in all GBM subtypes, while absent in normal neuroglial cells of the brain. miR-10b inhibition strongly impairs proliferation and survival of cultured glioma cells, including glioma-initiating stem-like cells (GSC). Although several miR-10b targets have been identified previously, the common mechanism conferring the miR-10b-sustained viability of GSC is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that in heterogeneous GSC, miR-10b regulates cell cycle and alternative splicing, often through the non-canonical targeting via 5'UTRs of its target genes, including MBNL1-3, SART3, and RSRC1. We have further assessed the inhibition of miR-10b in intracranial human GSC-derived xenograft and murine GL261 allograft models in athymic and immunocompetent mice. Three delivery routes for the miR-10b antisense oligonucleotide inhibitors (ASO), direct intratumoral injections, continuous osmotic delivery, and systemic intravenous injections, have been explored. In all cases, the treatment with miR-10b ASO led to targets' derepression, and attenuated growth and progression of established intracranial GBM. No significant systemic toxicity was observed upon ASO administration by local or systemic routes. Our results indicate that miR-10b is a promising candidate for the development of targeted therapies against all GBM subtypes.
Project description:Aromatase is a critical enzyme in the irreversible conversion of androgens to oestrogens, with inhibition used clinically in hormone-dependent malignancies. We tested the hypothesis that targeted aromatase inhibition in an aggressive brain cancer called glioblastoma (GBM) may represent a new treatment strategy. In this study, aromatase inhibition was achieved using third generation inhibitor, Letrozole, encapsulated within the core of biodegradable poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). PLGA-NPs were conjugated to human/mouse chimeric anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18/CHO, enabling specific targeting of GD2-positive GBM cells. Treatment of primary and recurrent patient-derived GBM cells with free-Letrozole (0.1 ?M) led to significant decrease in cell proliferation and migration; in addition to reduced spheroid formation. Anti-GD2-ch14.18/CHO-NPs displayed specific targeting of GBM cells in colorectal-glioblastoma co-culture, with subsequent reduction in GBM cell numbers when treated with anti-GD2-ch14.18-PLGA-Let-NPs in combination with temozolomide. As miR-191 is an estrogen responsive microRNA, its expression, fluctuation and role in Letrozole treated GBM cells was evaluated, where treatment with premiR-191 was capable of rescuing the reduced proliferative phenotype induced by aromatase inhibitor. The repurposing and targeted delivery of Letrozole for the treatment of GBM, with the potential role of miR-191 identified, provides novel avenues for target assessment in this aggressive brain cancer.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a common, usually lethal disease with a median survival of only ~15 months. It has proven resistant in clinical trials to chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel that are highly effective in vitro, presumably because of impaired drug delivery across the tumor's blood-brain barrier (BBB). In an effort to increase paclitaxel delivery across the tumor BBB, we linked the drug to a novel filomicelle nanocarrier made with biodegradable poly(ethylene-glycol)-block-poly(?-caprolactone-r-D,L-lactide) and used precisely collimated radiation therapy (RT) to disrupt the tumor BBB's permeability in an orthotopic mouse model of GBM. Using a non-invasive bioluminescent imaging technique to assess tumor burden and response to therapy in our model, we demonstrated that the drug-loaded nanocarrier (DLN) alone was ineffective against stereotactically implanted intracranial tumors yet was highly effective against GBM cells in culture and in tumors implanted into the flanks of mice. When targeted cranial RT was used to modulate the tumor BBB, the paclitaxel-loaded nanocarriers became effective against the intracranial tumors. Focused cranial RT improved DLN delivery into the intracranial tumors, significantly improving therapeutic outcomes. Tumor growth was delayed or halted, and survival was extended by >50% (p less than 0.05) compared to the results obtained with either RT or the DLN alone. Combinations of RT and chemotherapeutic agents linked to nanocarriers would appear to be an area for future investigations that could enhance outcomes in the treatment of human GBM.
Project description:Brain glioma treatment with checkpoint inhibitor antibodies to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (a-CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (a-PD-1) was largely unsuccessful due to their inability to cross blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here we describe targeted nanoscale immunoconjugates (NICs) on natural biopolymer scaffold, poly(?-L-malic acid), with covalently attached a-CTLA-4 or a-PD-1 for systemic delivery across the BBB and activation of local brain anti-tumor immune response. NIC treatment of mice bearing intracranial GL261 glioblastoma (GBM) results in an increase of CD8+ T cells, NK cells and macrophages with a decrease of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the brain tumor area. Survival of GBM-bearing mice treated with NIC combination is significantly longer compared to animals treated with single checkpoint inhibitor-bearing NICs or free a-CTLA-4 and a-PD-1. Our study demonstrates trans-BBB delivery of tumor-targeted polymer-conjugated checkpoint inhibitors as an effective GBM treatment via activation of both systemic and local privileged brain tumor immune response.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal, therapy-resistant brain cancer consisting of numerous tumor cell subpopulations, including stem-like glioma-initiating cells (GICs), which contribute to tumor recurrence following initial response to therapy. Here, we identified miR-182 as a regulator of apoptosis, growth, and differentiation programs whose expression level is correlated with GBM patient survival. Repression of Bcl2-like12 (Bcl2L12), c-Met, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2? (HIF2A) is of central importance to miR-182 anti-tumor activity, as it results in enhanced therapy susceptibility, decreased GIC sphere size, expansion, and stemness in vitro. To evaluate the tumor-suppressive function of miR-182 in vivo, we synthesized miR-182-based spherical nucleic acids (182-SNAs); i.e., gold nanoparticles covalently functionalized with mature miR-182 duplexes. Intravenously administered 182-SNAs penetrated the blood-brain/blood-tumor barriers (BBB/BTB) in orthotopic GBM xenografts and selectively disseminated throughout extravascular glioma parenchyma, causing reduced tumor burden and increased animal survival. Our results indicate that harnessing the anti-tumor activities of miR-182 via safe and robust delivery of 182-SNAs represents a novel strategy for therapeutic intervention in GBM.