A Small-Molecule SIRT2 Inhibitor That Promotes K-Ras4a Lysine Fatty-Acylation.
ABSTRACT: SIRT2, a member of the sirtuin family of protein lysine deacylases, has been identified as a promising therapeutic target for treating cancer. In addition to catalyzing deacetylation, SIRT2 has recently been shown to remove fatty acyl groups from K-Ras4a and promote its transforming activity. Among the SIRT2-specific inhibitors, only the thiomyristoyl lysine compound TM can weakly inhibit the demyristoylation activity of SIRT2. Therefore, more potent small-molecule SIRT2 inhibitors are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of SIRT2 inhibition, and to understand the function of protein lysine defatty-acylation. Herein we report a SIRT2 inhibitor, JH-T4, which can increase K-Ras4a lysine fatty acylation. This is the first small-molecule inhibitor that can modulate the lysine fatty acylation levels of K-Ras4a. JH-T4 also inhibits SIRT1 and SIRT3 in?vitro. The increased potency of JH-T4 is likely due to the formation of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxy group and SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3. This is further supported by in?vitro studies with another small-molecule inhibitor, NH-TM. These studies provide useful insight for future SIRT2 inhibitor development.
Project description:Ras proteins play vital roles in numerous biological processes and Ras mutations are found in many human tumors. Understanding how Ras proteins are regulated is important for elucidating cell signaling pathways and identifying new targets for treating human diseases. Here we report that one of the K-Ras splice variants, K-Ras4a, is subject to lysine fatty acylation, a previously under-studied protein post-translational modification. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), one of the mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent lysine deacylases, catalyzes the removal of fatty acylation from K-Ras4a. We further demonstrate that SIRT2-mediated lysine defatty-acylation promotes endomembrane localization of K-Ras4a, enhances its interaction with A-Raf, and thus promotes cellular transformation. Our study identifies lysine fatty acylation as a previously unknown regulatory mechanism for the Ras family of GTPases that is distinct from cysteine fatty acylation. These findings highlight the biological significance of lysine fatty acylation and sirtuin-catalyzed protein lysine defatty-acylation.
Project description:Protein lysine fatty acylation is increasingly recognized as a prevalent and important protein post-translation modification. Recently, it has been shown that K-Ras4a, R-Ras2, and Rac1 are regulated by lysine fatty acylation. Here, we investigated whether other members of the Ras superfamily could also be regulated by lysine fatty acylation. Several small GTPases exhibit hydroxylamine resistant fatty acylation, suggesting they may also have protein lysine fatty acylation. We further characterized one of these GTPases, RalB. We show that RalB has C-terminal lysine fatty acylation, with the predominant modification site being Lys200. The lysine acylation of RalB is regulated by SIRT2, a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein lysine deacylases. Lysine fatty acylated RalB exhibited enhanced plasma membrane localization and recruited its known effectors Sec5 and Exo84, members of the exocyst complex, to the plasma membrane. RalB lysine fatty acylation did not affect the proliferation or anchorage-independent growth but did affect the trans-well migration of A549 lung cancer cells. This study thus identified an additional function for protein lysine fatty acylation and the deacylase SIRT2.
Project description:Sirtuins are a class of enzymes originally identified as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein lysine deacetylases. Among the seven mammalian sirtuins, SIRT1-7, only SIRT1-3 possess efficient deacetylase activity in vitro, whereas SIRT4-7 possess very weak in vitro deacetylase activity. Several sirtuins that exhibit weak deacetylase activity have recently been shown to possess more efficient activity for the removal other acyl lysine modifications, such as succinyl lysine and palmitoyl lysine. Here, we demonstrate that even the well-known deacetylase SIRT2 possesses efficient activity for the removal of long-chain fatty acyl groups. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for the removal of a myristoyl group is slightly higher than that for the removal of an acetyl group. The crystal structure of SIRT2 in complex with a thiomyristoyl peptide reveals that SIRT2 possesses a large hydrophobic pocket that can accommodate the myristoyl group. Comparison of the SIRT2 acyl pocket to those of SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT6 reveals that the acyl pockets of SIRT1-3 are highly similar, and to a lesser degree, similar to that of SIRT6. The efficient in vitro demyristoylase activity of SIRT2 suggests that this activity may be physiologically relevant and warrants future investigative studies.
Project description:Genetic ablation as well as pharmacological inhibition of sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), an NAD+-dependent protein deacylase, have therapeutic effects in various cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we described the discovery of a dual SIRT1/SIRT2 inhibitor called cambinol (IC50 56 and 59 µM, respectively), which showed cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and a marked anti-proliferative effect in a Burkitt lymphoma mouse xenograft model. A number of recent studies have shown a protective effect of SIRT1 and SIRT3 in neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases as well as in certain cancers prompting us to initiate a medicinal chemistry effort to develop cambinol-based SIRT2-specific inhibitors devoid of SIRT1 or SIRT3 modulating activity. Here we describe potent cambinol-based SIRT2 inhibitors, several of which show potency of ~600 nM with >300 to >800-fold selectivity over SIRT1 and 3, respectively. In vitro, these inhibitors are found to be toxic to lymphoma and epithelial cancer cell lines. In particular, compounds 55 (IC50 SIRT2 0.25 µM and <25% inhibition at 50 µM against SIRT1 and SIRT3) and 56 (IC50 SIRT2 0.78 µM and <25% inhibition at 50 µM against SIRT1 and SIRT3) showed apoptotic as well as strong anti-proliferative properties against B-cell lymphoma cells.
Project description:Sirtuins are NAD-dependent lysine deacylases that play critical roles in cellular regulation and are implicated in human diseases. Modulators of sirtuins are needed as tools for investigating their biological functions and possible therapeutic applications. However, the discovery of sirtuin modulators is hampered by the lack of efficient sirtuin assays. Here we report an improved fluorogenic assay for SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3 using a new substrate, a myristoyl peptide with a C-terminal aminocoumarin. The new assay has several advantages, including significantly lower substrate concentration needed, increased signal-to-background ratio, and improved Z'-factor. The novel assay thus will expedite high-throughput screening of SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3 modulators.
Project description:Acylation of proteins with fatty acids is important for the regulation of membrane association, trafficking, subcellular localization, and activity of many cellular proteins. While significant progress has been made in our understanding of the two major forms of protein acylation with fatty acids, N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation, studies of the acylation of lysine residues, within proteins, with fatty acids have lagged behind. Demonstrated here is the use of integrative chemical biology approaches to examine human sirtuins as de-fatty-acid acylases in?vitro and in cells. Photo-crosslinking chemistry is used to investigate enzymes which recognize fatty-acid acylated lysine. Human Sirt2 was identified as a robust lysine de-fatty-acid acylase in?vitro. The results also show that Sirt2 can regulate the acylation of lysine residues, of proteins, with fatty acids within cells.
Project description:Acylation of lysine is an important protein modification regulating diverse biological processes. It was recently demonstrated that members of the human Sirtuin family are capable of catalyzing long chain deacylation, in addition to the well-known NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation activity [Feldman, J. L., Baeza, J., and Denu, J. M. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 31350-31356]. Here we provide a detailed kinetic and structural analysis that describes the interdependence of NAD(+)-binding and acyl-group selectivity for a diverse series of human Sirtuins, SIRT1-SIRT3 and SIRT6. Steady-state and rapid-quench kinetic analyses indicated that differences in NAD(+) saturation and susceptibility to nicotinamide inhibition reflect unique kinetic behavior displayed by each Sirtuin and depend on acyl substrate chain length. Though the rate of nucleophilic attack of the 2'-hydroxyl on the C1'-O-alkylimidate intermediate varies with acyl substrate chain length, this step remains rate-determining for SIRT2 and SIRT3; however, for SIRT6, this step is no longer rate-limiting for long chain substrates. Cocrystallization of SIRT2 with myristoylated peptide and NAD(+) yielded a co-complex structure with reaction product 2'-O-myristoyl-ADP-ribose, revealing a latent hydrophobic cavity to accommodate the long chain acyl group, and suggesting a general mechanism for long chain deacylation. Comparing two separately determined co-complex structures containing either a myristoylated peptide or 2'-O-myristoyl-ADP-ribose indicates there are conformational changes at the myristoyl-ribose linkage with minimal structural differences in the enzyme active site. During the deacylation reaction, the fatty acyl group is held in a relatively fixed position. We describe a kinetic and structural model to explain how various Sirtuins display unique acyl substrate preferences and how different reaction kinetics influence NAD(+) dependence. The biological implications are discussed.
Project description:Sirtuins are a family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that play critical roles in epigenetic regulation, stress responses, and cellular aging in eukaryotic cells. In an effort to identify small molecule inhibitors of sirtuins for potential use as chemotherapeutics as well as tools to modulate sirtuin activity, we previously identified a nonselective sirtuin inhibitor called cambinol (IC50 ≈ 50 μM for SIRT1 and SIRT2) with in vitro and in vivo antilymphoma activity. In the current study, we used saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments with recombinant SIRT1 and 20 to map parts of the inhibitor that interacted with the protein. Our ongoing efforts to optimize cambinol analogues for potency and selectivity have resulted in the identification of isoform selective analogues: 17 with >7.8-fold selectivity for SIRT1, 24 with >15.4-fold selectivity for SIRT2, and 8 with 6.8- and 5.3-fold selectivity for SIRT3 versus SIRT1 and SIRT2, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity studies with these compounds as well as EX527, a potent and selective SIRT1 inhibitor, suggest that antilymphoma activity of this compound class may be predominantly due to SIRT2 inhibition.
Project description:Chromatin structure and gene expression are dynamically regulated by posttranslational modifications of histones. Recent advance in mass spectrometry has identified novel types of lysine acylations, such as butyrylation and malonylation, whose functions and regulations are likely different from those of acetylation. Sirtuins, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent histone deacetylases, catalyze various deacylations. However, it is poorly understood how distinct sirtuins regulate the histone acylation states of nucleosomes that have many lysine residues. Here, we provide mass spectrometry-based quantitative information about the acyl group- and site-selectivity of all human sirtuins on acylated nucleosomes. The acyl group- and site-selectivity of each sirtuin is unique to its subtype. Sirt5 exclusively removes negatively-charged acyl groups, while Sirt1/2/3/6/7 preferentially remove hydrophobic acyl groups; Sirt1 and Sirt3 selectively remove acetyl group more than butyryl group, whereas Sirt2 and Sirt6 showed the opposite selectivity. Investigating site-selectivity for active sirtuins revealed acylated lysines on H4 tails to be poor substrates and acylated H3K18 to be a good substrate. Furthermore, we found Sirt7 to be a robust deacylase of H3K36/37, and its activity reliant on nucleosome-binding at its C-terminal basic region. All together, our quantitative dataset provides a useful resource in understanding chromatin regulations by histone acylations.
Project description:Dysregulation of metabolic pathways leads to type 2 diabetes, characteristic of high glucose concentration caused by insulin resistance. The histone deacetylases sirtuins exhibit remarkable enzymatic activities. Accumulating evidence indicates that sirtuins can be pharmacologically activated to ameliorate diabetes. Here, we evaluated different roles of sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) in diabetes progression and described their involvement in metabolic pathways of skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver. The nuclear sirtuins, SIRT1, SIRT6, and SIRT7, regulate the activity of key transcription factors and cofactors in almost all tissues with the cellular responses to energy demands. The mitochondrial sirtuins, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5, regulate the activity of mitochondrial enzymes in response to fasting and calorie restriction. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms of SIRT1 and SIRT2 have been reported to associate with diabetes development. It's worth noting that SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, and SIRT6 are positive regulators of insulin resistance in most cases. In the opposite, SIRT4 and SIRT7 inhibit insulin secretion and fatty acid oxidation. Identification of SIRT1 activators for diabetes has gained wide attention, such as metformin, resveratrol, and resveratrol derivatives. Randomized, prospective, and large-scale clinical trials are warrant to uncover the responsibilities of SIRTs modulators on diabetes progress.