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Identification of pharmacodynamic biomarker hypotheses through literature analysis with IBM Watson.


ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Pharmacodynamic biomarkers are becoming increasingly valuable for assessing drug activity and target modulation in clinical trials. However, identifying quality biomarkers is challenging due to the increasing volume and heterogeneity of relevant data describing the biological networks that underlie disease mechanisms. A biological pathway network typically includes entities (e.g. genes, proteins and chemicals/drugs) as well as the relationships between these and is typically curated or mined from structured databases and textual co-occurrence data. We propose a hybrid Natural Language Processing and directed relationships-based network analysis approach using IBM Watson for Drug Discovery to rank all human genes and identify potential candidate biomarkers, requiring only an initial determination of a specific target-disease relationship. METHODS:Through natural language processing of scientific literature, Watson for Drug Discovery creates a network of semantic relationships between biological concepts such as genes, drugs, and diseases. Using Bruton's tyrosine kinase as a case study, Watson for Drug Discovery's automatically extracted relationship network was compared with a prominent manually curated physical interaction network. Additionally, potential biomarkers for Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibition were predicted using a matrix factorization approach and subsequently compared with expert-generated biomarkers. RESULTS:Watson's natural language processing generated a relationship network matching 55 (86%) genes upstream of BTK and 98 (95%) genes downstream of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in a prominent manually curated physical interaction network. Matrix factorization analysis predicted 11 of 13 genes identified by Merck subject matter experts in the top 20% of Watson for Drug Discovery's 13,595 ranked genes, with 7 in the top 5%. CONCLUSION:Taken together, these results suggest that Watson for Drug Discovery's automatic relationship network identifies the majority of upstream and downstream genes in biological pathway networks and can be used to help with the identification and prioritization of pharmacodynamic biomarker evaluation, accelerating the early phases of disease hypothesis generation.

SUBMITTER: Hatz S 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6453528 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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