?-Selective Glycosylation with ?-Glycosyl Sulfonium Ions Prepared via Intramolecular Alkylation.
ABSTRACT: Stereoselective glycosylation remains the main challenge in the chemical synthesis of oligosaccharides. Herein we report a simple method to convert thioglycosides into ?-sulfonium ions via an intramolecular alkylation reaction, leading to highly ?-selective glycosylations for a variety of glycosyl acceptors. The influence of the thioglycoside substituent and the protecting group pattern on the glycosyl donor was investigated and showed a clear correlation with the observed stereoselectivity.
Project description:It is reported that stable glycosyl sulfonium salts can be generated via direct anomeric S-methylation of ethylthioglycosides. Mechanistically, this pathway represents the first step in the activation of thioglycosides for glycosidation; however, it can further allow for the synthesis and isolation of quasi-stable sulfonium ions, representing a new approach for studying these key intermediates.
Project description:The development of selectively protected monosaccharide building blocks that can reliably be glycosylated with a wide variety of acceptors is expected to make oligosaccharide synthesis a more routine operation. In particular, there is an urgent need for the development of modular building blocks that can readily be converted into glycosyl donors for glycosylations that give reliably high 1,2-cis-anomeric selectivity. We report here that 1,2-oxathiane ethers are stable under acidic, basic, and reductive conditions making it possible to conduct a wide range of protecting group manipulations and install selectively removable protecting groups such as levulinoyl (Lev) ester, fluorenylmethyloxy (Fmoc)- and allyloxy (Alloc)-carbonates, and 2-methyl naphthyl ethers (Nap). The 1,2-oxathiane ethers could easily be converted into bicyclic anomeric sulfonium ions by oxidization to sulfoxides and arylated with 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. The resulting sulfonium ions gave high 1,2-cis-anomeric selectivity when glycosylated with a wide variety of glycosyl acceptors including properly protected amino acids, primary and secondary sugar alcohols and partially protected thioglycosides. The selective protected 1,2-oxathianes were successfully employed in the preparation of a branched glucoside derived from a glycogen-like polysaccharide isolated form the fungus Pseudallescheria boydii , which is involved in fungal phagocytosis and activation of innate immune responses. The compound was assembled by a latent-active glycosylation strategy in which an oxathiane was employed as an acceptor in a glycosylation with a sulfoxide donor. The product of such a glycosylation was oxidized to a sulfoxide for a subsequent glycosylation. The use of Nap and Fmoc as temporary protecting groups made it possible to install branching points.
Project description:Our group has previously reported that 3,3-difluoroxindole (HOFox) is able to mediate glycosylations via intermediacy of OFox imidates. Thioglycoside precursors were first converted into the corresponding glycosyl bromides that were then converted into the OFox imidates in the presence of Ag<sub>2</sub> O followed by the activation with catalytic Lewis acid in a regenerative fashion. Reported herein is a direct conversion of thioglycosides via the regenerative approach that bypasses the intermediacy of bromides and eliminates the need for heavy-metal-based promoters. The direct regenerative activation of thioglycosides is achieved under neutral reaction conditions using only 1 equiv. NIS and catalytic HOFox without the acidic additives.
Project description:Anomeric sulfonium ions are attractive glycosyl donors for the stereoselective installation of 1,2-cis glycosides. Although these donors are receiving increasing attention, their mechanism of glycosylation remains controversial. We have investigated the reaction mechanism of glycosylation of a donor modified at C-2 with a (1S)-phenyl-2-(phenylsulfanyl)ethyl chiral auxiliary. Preactivation of this donor results in the formation of a bicyclic ?-sulfonium ion that after addition of an alcohol undergoes 1,2-cis-glycosylation. To probe the importance of the thiophenyl moiety, analogs were prepared in which this moiety was replaced by an anisoyl or benzyl moiety. Furthermore, the auxiliaries were installed as S- and R-stereoisomers. It was found that the nature of the heteroatom and chirality of the auxiliary greatly influenced the anomeric outcome and only the one containing a thiophenyl moiety and having S-configuration gave consistently ?-anomeric products. The sulfonium ions are sufficiently stable at a temperature at which glycosylations proceed indicating that they are viable glycosylation agents. Time-course NMR experiments with the latter donor showed that the initial rates of glycosylations increase with increases in acceptor concentration and the rate curves could be fitted to a second order rate equation. Collectively, these observations support a mechanism by which a sulfonium ion intermediate is formed as a trans-decalin ring system that can undergo glycosylation through a bimolecular mechanism. DFT calculations have provided further insight into the reaction path of glycosylation and indicate that initially a hydrogen-bonded complex is formed between sulfonium ion and acceptor that undergoes SN2-like glycosylation to give an ?-anomeric product.
Project description:A series of glycosyl hemiacetal derivatives have been transformed into thioglycosides and glycosyl thiols in a one-pot two-step reaction sequence mediated by Appel reagent (carbon tetrabromide and triphenylphosphine). 1,2-trans-Thioglycosides and ?-glycosyl thiol derivatives were stereoselectively formed by the reaction of the in situ generated glycosyl bromides with thiols and sodium carbonotrithioate. The reaction conditions are reasonably simple and yields were very good.
Project description:TMSOTf-promoted glycosylations of 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucosyl trichloroacetimidates provide excellent alpha-anomeric selectivities when performed at a relatively high reaction temperature in the presence of PhSEt or thiophene. NMR and computation studies have shown that these glycosylations proceed through an equatorial anomeric sulfonium ion, which upon displacement by a sugar alcohol provides an axial glycoside. Computational studies have indicated that steric factors determine the selective formation of the beta-anomeric sulfonium ion.
Project description:The pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of E. coli O117:K98:H4 strain has been synthesized using a combination of sequential glycosylations and [3 + 2] block synthetic strategy from the suitably protected monosaccharide intermediates. Thioglycosides and glycosyl trichloroacetimidate derivatives have been used as glycosyl donors in the glycosylations.
Project description:Presented herein is a study of the conformation and reactivity of highly reactive thioglycoside donors. The structural studies have been conducted using NMR spectroscopy and computational methods. The reactivity of these donors has been investigated in bromine-promoted glycosylations of aliphatic and sugar alcohols. Swift reaction times, high yields, and respectable 1,2-cis stereoselectivity were observed in a majority of these glycosylations.
Project description:Glycosyl triflates, which serve as important intermediates in glycosylation reactions, were generated and accumulated by the low-temperature electrochemical oxidation of thioglycosides such as thioglucosides, thiogalactosides, and thiomannosides in the presence of tetrabutylammonium triflate (Bu(4)NOTf) as a supporting electrolyte. Thus-obtained solutions of glycosyl triflates (glycosyl triflate pools) were characterized by low-temperature NMR measurements. The thermal stability of glycosyl triflates and their reactions with glycosyl acceptors were also examined.
Project description:The stereoselective synthesis of saccharide thioglycosides containing 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic linkages is challenging. In addition to the difficulties associated with achieving high ?-selectivity in the formation of 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic bonds, the glycosylation reaction is hampered by undesired transfer of the anomeric sulfide group from the glycosyl acceptor to the glycosyl donor. Overcoming these obstacles will pave the way for the preparation of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates bearing the 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic linkages because the saccharide thioglycosides obtained can serve as donors for another coupling iteration. This approach streamlines selective deprotection and anomeric derivatization steps prior to the subsequent coupling event. We have developed an efficient approach for the synthesis of highly yielding and ?-selective saccharide thioglycosides containing 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic bonds, via cationic nickel-catalyzed glycosylation of thioglycoside acceptors bearing the 2-trifluoromethylphenyl aglycon with N-phenyl trifluoroacetimidate donors. The 2-trifluoromethylphenyl group effectively blocks transfer of the anomeric sulfide group from the glycosyl acceptor to the C(2)-benzylidene donor and can be easily installed and activated. The current method also highlights the efficacy of the nickel catalyst selectively activating the C(2)-benzylidene imidate group in the presence of the anomeric sulfide group on the glycosyl acceptors.