CGmapTools improves the precision of heterozygous SNV calls and supports allele-specific methylation detection and visualization in bisulfite-sequencing data.
ABSTRACT: Motivation:DNA methylation is important for gene silencing and imprinting in both plants and animals. Recent advances in bisulfite sequencing allow detection of single nucleotide variations (SNVs) achieving high sensitivity, but accurately identifying heterozygous SNVs from partially C-to-T converted sequences remains challenging. Results:We designed two methods, BayesWC and BinomWC, that substantially improved the precision of heterozygous SNV calls from ∼80% to 99% while retaining comparable recalls. With these SNV calls, we provided functions for allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) analysis and visualizing the methylation status on reads. Applying ASM analysis to a previous dataset, we found that an average of 1.5% of investigated regions showed allelic methylation, which were significantly enriched in transposon elements and likely to be shared by the same cell-type. A dynamic fragment strategy was utilized for DMR analysis in low-coverage data and was able to find differentially methylated regions (DMRs) related to key genes involved in tumorigenesis using a public cancer dataset. Finally, we integrated 40 applications into the software package CGmapTools to analyze DNA methylomes. This package uses CGmap as the format interface, and designs binary formats to reduce the file size and support fast data retrieval, and can be applied for context-wise, gene-wise, bin-wise, region-wise and sample-wise analyses and visualizations. Availability and implementation:The CGmapTools software is freely available at https://cgmaptools.github.io/. Contact:email@example.com. Supplementary information:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:MOTIVATION: With the advent of relatively affordable high-throughput technologies, DNA sequencing of cancers is now common practice in cancer research projects and will be increasingly used in clinical practice to inform diagnosis and treatment. Somatic (cancer-only) single nucleotide variants (SNVs) are the simplest class of mutation, yet their identification in DNA sequencing data is confounded by germline polymorphisms, tumour heterogeneity and sequencing and analysis errors. Four recently published algorithms for the detection of somatic SNV sites in matched cancer-normal sequencing datasets are VarScan, SomaticSniper, JointSNVMix and Strelka. In this analysis, we apply these four SNV calling algorithms to cancer-normal Illumina exome sequencing of a chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patient. The candidate SNV sites returned by each algorithm are filtered to remove likely false positives, then characterized and compared to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of each SNV calling algorithm. RESULTS: Comparing the candidate SNV sets returned by VarScan, SomaticSniper, JointSNVMix2 and Strelka revealed substantial differences with respect to the number and character of sites returned; the somatic probability scores assigned to the same sites; their susceptibility to various sources of noise; and their sensitivities to low-allelic-fraction candidates. AVAILABILITY: Data accession number SRA081939, code at http://code.google.com/p/snv-caller-review/ CONTACT: firstname.lastname@example.org SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Integrating single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data with genotypes obtained from DNA sequencing studies facilitates the detection of functional genetic variants underlying cell type-specific gene expression variation. Unfortunately, most existing scRNA-seq studies do not come with DNA sequencing data; thus, being able to call single nucleotide variants (SNVs) from scRNA-seq data alone can provide crucial and complementary information, detection of functional SNVs, maximizing the potential of existing scRNA-seq studies. Here, we perform extensive analyses to evaluate the utility of two SNV calling pipelines (GATK and Monovar), originally designed for SNV calling in either bulk or single-cell DNA sequencing data. In both pipelines, we examined various parameter settings to determine the accuracy of the final SNV call set and provide practical recommendations for applied analysts. We found that combining all reads from the single cells and following GATK Best Practices resulted in the highest number of SNVs identified with a high concordance. In individual single cells, Monovar resulted in better quality SNVs even though none of the pipelines analyzed is capable of calling a reasonable number of SNVs with high accuracy. In addition, we found that SNV calling quality varies across different functional genomic regions. Our results open doors for novel ways to leverage the use of scRNA-seq for the future investigation of SNV function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It has recently been shown that significant and accurate single nucleotide variants (SNVs) can be reliably called from RNA-Seq data. These may provide another source of features for multivariate predictive modeling of disease phenotype for the prioritization of candidate biomarkers. The continuous nature of SNV allele fraction features allows the concurrent investigation of several genomic phenomena, including allele specific expression, clonal expansion and/or deletion, and copy number variation. RESULTS:The proposed software pipeline and package, SNV Discriminant Analysis (SNV-DA), was applied on two RNA-Seq datasets with varying sample sizes sequenced at different depths: a dataset containing primary tumors from twenty patients with different disease outcomes in lung adenocarcinoma and a larger dataset of primary tumors representing two major breast cancer subtypes, estrogen receptor positive and triple negative. Predictive models were generated using the machine learning algorithm, sparse projections to latent structures discriminant analysis. Training sets composed of RNA-Seq SNV features limited to genomic regions of origin (e.g. exonic or intronic) and/or RNA-editing sites were shown to produce models with accurate predictive performances, were discriminant towards true label groupings, and were able to produce SNV rankings significantly different from than univariate tests. Furthermore, the utility of the proposed methodology is supported by its comparable performance to traditional models as well as the enrichment of selected SNVs located in genes previously associated with cancer and genes showing allele-specific expression. As proof of concept, we highlight the discovery of a previously unannotated intergenic locus that is associated with epigenetic regulatory marks in cancer and whose significant allele-specific expression is correlated with ER+ status; hereafter named ER+ associated hotspot (ERPAHS). CONCLUSION:The use of models from RNA-Seq SNVs to identify and prioritize candidate molecular targets for biomarker discovery is supported by the ability of the proposed method to produce significantly accurate predictive models that are discriminant towards true label groupings. Importantly, the proposed methodology allows investigation of mutations outside of exonic regions and identification of interesting expressed loci not included in traditional gene annotations. An implementation of the proposed methodology is provided that allows the user to specify SNV filtering criteria and cross-validation design during model creation and evaluation.
Project description:Scientists working with single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), inferred by next-generation sequencing software, often need further information regarding true variants, artifacts and sequence coverage gaps. In clinical diagnostics, e.g. SNVs must usually be validated by visual inspection or several independent SNV-callers. We here demonstrate that 0.5-60% of relevant SNVs might not be detected due to coverage gaps, or might be misidentified. Even low error rates can overwhelm the true biological signal, especially in clinical diagnostics, in research comparing healthy with affected cells, in archaeogenetic dating or in forensics. For these reasons, we have developed a package called pibase, which is applicable to diploid and haploid genome, exome or targeted enrichment data. pibase extracts details on nucleotides from alignment files at user-specified coordinates and identifies reproducible genotypes, if present. In test cases pibase identifies genotypes at 99.98% specificity, 10-fold better than other tools. pibase also provides pair-wise comparisons between healthy and affected cells using nucleotide signals (10-fold more accurately than a genotype-based approach, as we show in our case study of monozygotic twins). This comparison tool also solves the problem of detecting allelic imbalance within heterozygous SNVs in copy number variation loci, or in heterogeneous tumor sequences.
Project description:MOTIVATION:Single nucleotide variant (SNV) detection procedures are being utilized as never before to analyze the recent abundance of high-throughput DNA sequencing data, both on single and multiple sample datasets. Building on previously published work with the single sample SNV caller genotype model selection (GeMS), a multiple sample version of GeMS (MultiGeMS) is introduced. Unlike other popular multiple sample SNV callers, the MultiGeMS statistical model accounts for enzymatic substitution sequencing errors. It also addresses the multiple testing problem endemic to multiple sample SNV calling and utilizes high performance computing (HPC) techniques. RESULTS:A simulation study demonstrates that MultiGeMS ranks highest in precision among a selection of popular multiple sample SNV callers, while showing exceptional recall in calling common SNVs. Further, both simulation studies and real data analyses indicate that MultiGeMS is robust to low-quality data. We also demonstrate that accounting for enzymatic substitution sequencing errors not only improves SNV call precision at low mapping quality regions, but also improves recall at reference allele-dominated sites with high mapping quality. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION:The MultiGeMS package can be downloaded from https://github.com/cui-lab/multigems CONTACT:email@example.com SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:With the recent advances in single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies, the estimation of allele expression from single cells is becoming increasingly reliable. Allele expression is both quantitative and dynamic and is an essential component of the genomic interactome. Here, we systematically estimate the allele expression from heterozygous single nucleotide variant (SNV) loci using scRNA-seq data generated on the 10×Genomics Chromium platform. We analyzed 26,640 human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (from three healthy donors), sequenced to an average of 150K sequencing reads per cell (more than 4 billion scRNA-seq reads in total). High-quality SNV calls assessed in our study contained approximately 15% exonic and >50% intronic loci. To analyze the allele expression, we estimated the expressed variant allele fraction (VAFRNA) from SNV-aware alignments and analyzed its variance and distribution (mono- and bi-allelic) at different minimum sequencing read thresholds. Our analysis shows that when assessing positions covered by a minimum of three unique sequencing reads, over 50% of the heterozygous SNVs show bi-allelic expression, while at a threshold of 10 reads, nearly 90% of the SNVs are bi-allelic. In addition, our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of scVAFRNA estimation from current scRNA-seq datasets and shows that the 3'-based library generation protocol of 10×Genomics scRNA-seq data can be informative in SNV-based studies, including analyses of transcriptional kinetics.
Project description:Whole genome methylation profiling at a single cytosine resolution is now feasible due to the advent of high-throughput sequencing techniques together with bisulfite treatment of the DNA. To obtain the methylation value of each individual cytosine, the bisulfite-treated sequence reads are first aligned to a reference genome, and then the profiling of the methylation levels is done from the alignments. A huge effort has been made to quickly and correctly align the reads and many different algorithms and programs to do this have been created. However, the second step is just as crucial and non-trivial, but much less attention has been paid to the final inference of the methylation states. Important error sources do exist, such as sequencing errors, bisulfite failure, clonal reads, and single nucleotide variants. We developed MethylExtract, a user friendly tool to: i) generate high quality, whole genome methylation maps and ii) detect sequence variation within the same sample preparation. The program is implemented into a single script and takes into account all major error sources. MethylExtract detects variation (SNVs - Single Nucleotide Variants) in a similar way to VarScan, a very sensitive method extensively used in SNV and genotype calling based on non-bisulfite-treated reads. The usefulness of MethylExtract is shown by means of extensive benchmarking based on artificial bisulfite-treated reads and a comparison to a recently published method, called Bis-SNP. MethylExtract is able to detect SNVs within High-Throughput Sequencing experiments of bisulfite treated DNA at the same time as it generates high quality methylation maps. This simultaneous detection of DNA methylation and sequence variation is crucial for many downstream analyses, for example when deciphering the impact of SNVs on differential methylation. An exclusive feature of MethylExtract, in comparison with existing software, is the possibility to assess the bisulfite failure in a statistical way. The source code, tutorial and artificial bisulfite datasets are available at http://bioinfo2.ugr.es/MethylExtract/ and http://sourceforge.net/projects/methylextract/, and also permanently accessible from 10.5281/zenodo.7144.
Project description:Next generation sequencing has now enabled a cost-effective enumeration of the full mutational complement of a tumor genome-in particular single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Most current computational and statistical models for analyzing next generation sequencing data, however, do not account for cancer-specific biological properties, including somatic segmental copy number alterations (CNAs)-which require special treatment of the data. Here we present CoNAn-SNV (Copy Number Annotated SNV): a novel algorithm for the inference of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that overlap copy number alterations. The method is based on modelling the notion that genomic regions of segmental duplication and amplification induce an extended genotype space where a subset of genotypes will exhibit heavily skewed allelic distributions in SNVs (and therefore render them undetectable by methods that assume diploidy). We introduce the concept of modelling allelic counts from sequencing data using a panel of Binomial mixture models where the number of mixtures for a given locus in the genome is informed by a discrete copy number state given as input. We applied CoNAn-SNV to a previously published whole genome shotgun data set obtained from a lobular breast cancer and show that it is able to discover 21 experimentally revalidated somatic non-synonymous mutations in a lobular breast cancer genome that were not detected using copy number insensitive SNV detection algorithms. Importantly, ROC analysis shows that the increased sensitivity of CoNAn-SNV does not result in disproportionate loss of specificity. This was also supported by analysis of a recently published lymphoma genome with a relatively quiescent karyotype, where CoNAn-SNV showed similar results to other callers except in regions of copy number gain where increased sensitivity was conferred. Our results indicate that in genomically unstable tumors, copy number annotation for SNV detection will be critical to fully characterize the mutational landscape of cancer genomes.
Project description:Next generation sequencing enables studying heterogeneous populations of viral infections. When the sequencing is done at high coverage depth ("deep sequencing"), low frequency variants can be detected. Here we present QQ-SNV (http://sourceforge.net/projects/qqsnv), a logistic regression classifier model developed for the Illumina sequencing platforms that uses the quantiles of the quality scores, to distinguish true single nucleotide variants from sequencing errors based on the estimated SNV probability. To train the model, we created a dataset of an in silico mixture of five HIV-1 plasmids. Testing of our method in comparison to the existing methods LoFreq, ShoRAH, and V-Phaser 2 was performed on two HIV and four HCV plasmid mixture datasets and one influenza H1N1 clinical dataset.For default application of QQ-SNV, variants were called using a SNV probability cutoff of 0.5 (QQ-SNV(D)). To improve the sensitivity we used a SNV probability cutoff of 0.0001 (QQ-SNV(HS)). To also increase specificity, SNVs called were overruled when their frequency was below the 80(th) percentile calculated on the distribution of error frequencies (QQ-SNV(HS-P80)). When comparing QQ-SNV versus the other methods on the plasmid mixture test sets, QQ-SNV(D) performed similarly to the existing approaches. QQ-SNV(HS) was more sensitive on all test sets but with more false positives. QQ-SNV(HS-P80) was found to be the most accurate method over all test sets by balancing sensitivity and specificity. When applied to a paired-end HCV sequencing study, with lowest spiked-in true frequency of 0.5%, QQ-SNV(HS-P80) revealed a sensitivity of 100% (vs. 40-60% for the existing methods) and a specificity of 100% (vs. 98.0-99.7% for the existing methods). In addition, QQ-SNV required the least overall computation time to process the test sets. Finally, when testing on a clinical sample, four putative true variants with frequency below 0.5% were consistently detected by QQ-SNV(HS-P80) from different generations of Illumina sequencers.We developed and successfully evaluated a novel method, called QQ-SNV, for highly efficient single nucleotide variant calling on Illumina deep sequencing virology data.
Project description:Accurate identification of sparse heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) is a critical challenge for identifying the causative mutations in mouse genetic screens, human genetic diseases and cancer. When seeking to identify causal DNA variants that occur at such low rates, they are overwhelmed by false-positive calls that arise from a range of technical and biological sources. We describe a strategy using whole-exome capture, massively parallel DNA sequencing and computational analysis, which identifies with a low false-positive rate the majority of heterozygous and homozygous SNVs arising de novo with a frequency of one nucleotide substitution per megabase in progeny of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-mutated C57BL/6j mice. We found that by applying a strategy of filtering raw SNV calls against known and platform-specific variants we could call true SNVs with a false-positive rate of 19.4 per cent and an estimated false-negative rate of 21.3 per cent. These error rates are small enough to enable calling a causative mutation from both homozygous and heterozygous candidate mutation lists with little or no further experimental validation. The efficacy of this approach is demonstrated by identifying the causative mutation in the Ptprc gene in a lymphocyte-deficient strain and in 11 other strains with immune disorders or obesity, without the need for meiotic mapping. Exome sequencing of first-generation mutant mice revealed hundreds of unphenotyped protein-changing mutations, 52 per cent of which are predicted to be deleterious, which now become available for breeding and experimental analysis. We show that exome sequencing data alone are sufficient to identify induced mutations. This approach transforms genetic screens in mice, establishes a general strategy for analysing rare DNA variants and opens up a large new source for experimental models of human disease.