Characteristics and health care utilization of otherwise healthy commercially and Medicaid-insured preterm and full-term infants in the US.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:This study examined health care utilization and costs during the first year of life for preterm and full-term infants in the US. Subjects and methods:Preterm (<37 weeks gestational age [GA]) and full-term infants born 2003 to 2012 without complex medical conditions were identified in the MarketScan® Commercial and Multi-State Medicaid claims databases using ICD-9-CM diagnosis and diagnosis-related grouping codes. Inpatient and outpatient claims from birth through the first year were analyzed for preterm and full-term subgroups. Results were stratified by payer. Results:There were 1,692,935 commercially insured infants (12.5% preterm) and 1,873,324 Medicaid-insured infants (13.9% preterm). The majority (>75%) of preterm infants were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit during their birth hospitalization. Generally, mean length of stay and costs for birth hospitalizations increased with decreasing GA. The average cost of a birth hospitalization was US $62,931 (SD $134,347) for commercially insured preterm infants and $43,858 (SD $115,412) for Medicaid-insured preterm infants compared to $2,401 (SD $7,399) and $1,894 (SD $5,444) for commercially insured and Medicaid-insured full-term infants, respectively. Post-neonatal hospitalization rates increased as GA decreased (in full-term to <29 weeks GA: commercial =3.3%-19.5%; Medicaid =6.1%-26.2%). Preterm infants had greater average numbers of outpatient office visits and pharmacy claims than full-term infants. Following birth discharge, mean monthly health care costs per infant increased as GA decreased (commercial = $334 to $3,126; Medicaid = $205 to $2,473). Conclusion:During the first year of life, post-neonatal hospitalization rates, outpatient office visits, pharmacy claims, and monthly costs increased as GA decreased.
Project description:Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which causes lower respiratory tract infections, is the leading cause of hospitalization among children <1 year old in the United States. Risk factors for RSV hospitalization include premature birth and younger chronologic age, along with several comorbid conditions. However, in terms of RSV hospitalization costs, premature infants are rarely studied separately from full-term infants. The objective of this study is to describe the cost and severity of RSV hospitalizations among preterm and full-term infants without chronic lung disease or other high-risk conditions.This analysis used Truven Health Market Scan Multi-State Medicaid and Commercial Claims and Encounters databases, which contain a combined 4 million births from 2003 to 2013. Infants with comorbid conditions associated with increased risk for RSV infection were excluded. Infants were classified as preterm (<29, 29-30, 31-32, 33-34 and 35-36 weeks' gestational age (wGA)) or full term based on diagnostic coding. Health-care claims during the first year of life were evaluated for RSV hospitalizations, defined as inpatient claims with a diagnosis code for RSV in any position. Costs of RSV hospitalizations were captured and reported in 2014 USD. Inpatient claims for RSV hospitalizations were evaluated for the presence of codes indicating admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), use of mechanical ventilation (MV) and length of stay. These three measures were used to describe hospital severity. Chronologic age at the time of RSV hospitalization was also captured. Data were summarized and no statistical comparisons were conducted.There were 1?683?188 infants insured through Medicaid and 1?663?832 infants insured through commercial plans born from 1 July 2003 to 30 June 2013. Of those, 10.8 and 8.8% in each database, respectively, were born prematurely. There were 29?967 Medicaid-insured infants and 16?310 commercially insured infants with an RSV hospitalization during their first year of life. Mean first-year RSV hospitalization costs were higher for preterm infants, ranging from $8324 and $10?570 for full-term infants to $15?839 and $19?931 for preterm infants 33-34 wGA, and to $39?354 and $40?813 for preterm infants <29 wGA, among Medicaid-insured and commercially insured infants, respectively. RSV hospitalizations also tended to be more severe among preterm infants, with longer lengths of stay, a higher proportion of infants admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and increased use of MV compared with full-term infants. Mean costs of RSV hospitalizations with a PICU admission ranged from approximately $35?000 to $89?000. In both Medicaid and commercial groups, costs were greater for infants hospitalized at <90 days of age compared with older infants.Infants who were born prematurely and those hospitalized at <90 days of age have more costly and more severe RSV hospitalizations during the first year of life. These findings demonstrate important differences in the costs and severity of first-year RSV hospitalizations of premature and full-term infants. These differences are likely to be obscured in combined analysis, in which full-term infants predominate. Clinical guidelines and health-care policies relating to RSV would benefit from the availability of data obtained from separate analyses of these two infant subgroups.
Project description:Palivizumab is indicated for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in high-risk children. Previous palivizumab utilization studies examined prior authorization claims but did not examine utilization within insured populations as a whole. This study describes outpatient palivizumab utilization trends and characterizes high-risk infants receiving palivizumab within Medicaid- and commercially insured populations.Infants born July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2013 were identified in the MarketScan® Multistate Medicaid and Commercial claims databases. Infants with ? 18 months of continuous medical insurance enrollment with pharmacy benefits after birth and evidence of chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLDP), congenital heart disease (CHD), or preterm birth without CLDP or CHD were studied. Palivizumab use and demographic and clinical characteristics were measured in infant subgroups. Outpatient palivizumab utilization rates were calculated for each seasonal year (July-June) and for each infant subgroup.In total, 29,350 (2.1%) Medicaid-insured and 9589 (2.5%) commercially insured infants received palivizumab and had CLDP, CHD, or were born at < 37 weeks gestational age (wGA). Infants with CLDP (82%) and those < 29 wGA (78%) had the highest utilization. Decreases in utilization rates between the 2003-2004 and 2012-2013 seasons were seen among Medicaid-insured infants born at 29-36 wGA (all P < .0001), and commercially insured infants born at 31-32 wGA (P < .0001), 33-34 wGA (P = .055), 35-36 wGA (P < .0001), and with CHD (P = .003). Utilization by month was consistent across subgroups among Medicaid- and commercially insured infants, with most doses administered from November to March.Palivizumab use is targeted to a small percentage of infants who are at highest risk of hospitalization for RSV disease. Utilization declined in recent years in both Medicaid- and commercially insured infant groups. Most palivizumab doses were administered from November to March, with most infants receiving ? 5 doses.AstraZeneca.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:?This article aims to compare respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) immunoprophylaxis (IP) use and RSV hospitalization rates (RSVH) in preterm and full-term infants without chronic lung disease of prematurity or congenital heart disease before and after the recommendation against RSV IP use in preterm infants born at 29 to 34 weeks' gestational age (wGA). STUDY DESIGN:?Infants in commercial and Medicaid claims databases were followed from birth through first year to assess RSV IP and RSVH, as a function of infant's age and wGA. RSV IP was based on pharmacy or outpatient medical claims for palivizumab. RSVH was based on inpatient medical claims with a diagnosis of RSV. RESULTS:?Commercial and Medicaid infants 29 to 34 wGA represented 2.9 to 3.5% of all births. RSV IP use in infants 29 to 34 wGA decreased 62 to 95% (p?<?0.01) in the 2014-2015 season relative to the 2013-2014 season. Compared with the 2013-2014 season, RSVH increased by 2.7-fold (p?=?0.02) and 1.4-fold (p?=?0.03) for infants aged <3 months and 29 to 34 wGA in the 2014-2015 season with commercial and Medicaid insurance, respectively. In the 2014-2015 season, RSVH for infants 29 to 34 wGA were two to seven times higher than full-term infants without high-risk conditions. CONCLUSION:?Following the 2014 RSV IP guidance change, RSV IP use declined and RSVH increased among infants born at 29 to 34 wGA and aged <3 months.
Project description:Background: Infants born extremely preterm are at high risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This study aimed to assess the incremental health care burden of BPD and associated comorbidities among extremely preterm infants in the United States. Methods: Health service claims in the Premier Perspective database were retrospectively analyzed for infants born at ?28 weeks gestation who were admitted to neonatal intensive care during birth hospitalization and survived to a postmenstrual age of ?36 weeks. Gestational age (GA) at birth and BPD status of infants was determined based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes recorded in the database. Results: Of the 12,017 infants included, 4,904 (40.8%) had BPD. BPD increased with decreasing GA: 67.4% of infants born at <24 weeks GA had BPD vs. 28.7% of those born at 27-28 weeks. Infants with BPD had significantly longer hospital stays following birth than those without (mean [standard deviation (SD)] 102  vs. 83  days, respectively, P < 0.001), and incurred higher total charges (mean [SD] $799,499 [$535,528] vs. $588,949 [$377,137], respectively, P < 0.001). Mean total charges incurred during index hospitalization decreased as GA at birth increased, with GA having a bigger effect than presence or absence of BPD. During their first year, infants with BPD had a higher in-hospital late mortality rate than those without (1.9 vs. 0.6%), and were more likely to have two or more hospital encounters following birth hospitalization (58.0 vs. 48.2%). Among infants who had two or more encounters after discharge, those with BPD experienced a higher percentage of pulmonary symptoms than those without (46.3 vs. 38.9%). Comparison with infants who did not have BPD, retinopathy of prematurity, or intraventricular hemorrhage showed that BPD is the main complication contributing to increased length of stay, costs, in-hospital mortality, and additional health care encounters. Conclusion: BPD is a key contributor to the large health care burden associated with extremely preterm birth. However, GA at birth has a bigger effect on health care costs for extremely preterm infants than the presence of BPD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:?The objective of this study was to compare risk for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalizations (RSVH) for preterm infants 29 to 34 weeks gestational age (wGA) versus term infants before and after 2014 guidance changes for immunoprophylaxis (IP), using data from the 2012 to 2016 RSV seasons. STUDY DESIGN:?Using commercial and Medicaid claims databases, infants born between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2016 were categorized as preterm or term. RSVH during the RSV season (November-March) were identified for infants aged <6 months and rate ratios (RRs) for hospitalization comparing preterm and term infants were calculated. Difference-in-difference models were fit to evaluate the changes in hospitalization risks in preterm versus term infants from 2012 to 2014 seasons to 2014 to 2016 seasons. RESULTS:?In all seasons, preterm infants had higher RSVH rates than term infants. Seasonal RRs prior to the guidance change for preterm wGA categories versus term infants ranged from 1.6 to 3.4. After the guidance change, the seasonal RRs ranged from 2.6 to 5.6. In 2014 to 2016, the risk associated with prematurity of 29 to 34 wGA versus term was significantly higher than in 2012 to 2014 (P<0.0001 for commercial and Medicaid samples). CONCLUSION:?In infants aged <6 months, the risk for RSVH for infants 29 to 34 wGA compared with term infants increased significantly after the RSV IP recommendations became more restrictive.
Project description:Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is common among young children insured through Medicaid in the United States. Complete and timely dosing with palivizumab is associated with lower risk of RSV-related hospitalizations, but up to 60% of infants who receive palivizumab in Medicaid population do not receive full prophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of partial palivizumab prophylaxis with the risk of RSV hospitalization among high-risk Medicaid-insured infants.Claims data from 12 states during 6 RSV seasons (October 1st to April 30th in the first year of life in 2003-2009) were analyzed. Inclusion criteria were birth hospital discharge before October 1st, continuous insurance eligibility from birth through April 30th, ? one palivizumab administration from August 1st to end of season, and high-risk status (?34 weeks gestational age or chronic lung disease of prematurity [CLDP] or hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease [CHD]). Fully prophylaxed infants received the first palivizumab dose by November 30th with no gaps >35 days up to the first RSV-related hospitalization or end of follow-up. All other infants were categorized as partially prophylaxed.Of the 8,443 high-risk infants evaluated, 67% (5,615) received partial prophylaxis. Partially prophylaxed infants were more likely to have RSV-related hospitalization than fully prophylaxed infants (11.7% versus 7.9%, p< 0.001). RSV-related hospitalization rates ranged from 8.5% to 24.8% in premature, CHD, and CLDP infants with partial prophylaxis. After adjusting for potential confounders, logistic regression showed that partially prophylaxed infants had a 21% greater odds of hospitalization compared with fully prophylaxed infants (odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.34).RSV-related hospitalization rates were significantly higher in high-risk Medicaid infants with partial palivizumab prophylaxis compared with fully prophylaxed infants. These findings suggest that reduced and/or delayed dosing is less effective.
Project description:It is unknown whether the age threshold (?24 months) for preterm infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) to receive immunoprophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as currently recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines correctly identified infants at higher risk for hospitalization for RSV.To determine the age when the risk of hospitalization for RSV among preterm infants with CLD becomes equivalent to the risk for healthy, 1-month-old term infants who do not qualify for immunoprophylaxis.A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 1?018?593 healthy term infants and 5181 preterm infants with CLD using Medicaid billing records (Medicaid Analytic eXtract files) from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2010, linked to Florida and Texas birth and death certificates.Age-trend discrete time logistic regression models within a survival analysis framework were developed, adjusting for covariates including the use of immunoprophylaxis, to compare the risk of hospitalization of preterm infants (<32 weeks' gestational age) with CLD at 3 through 34 months of age with the risk of hospitalization of term infants (37-41 weeks' gestational age) at 1 month of age.Age at which risk of hospitalization for RSV among preterm infants with CLD equals the risk for healthy term infants at age 1 month.The study cohort included 1?018?593 healthy term infants and 5181 preterm infants with CLD; because patients could reenter the cohort for a second or third season, the total study cohort consisted of 1?880?531 healthy term infant-seasons (926?206 girls and 954?325 boys; mean [SD] age at first season entry, 12.6 [9.6] months) and 8680 CLD infant-seasons (3519 girls and 5161 boys; mean [SD] age at first season entry, 15.1 [9.1] months). Among term infants with siblings, the risk of hospitalization for RSV averaged across all covariate strata was 9.0 (95% CI, 8.4-9.6) per 1000 patient season-months at 1 month of age. The risk of hospitalization for RSV among preterm infants with CLD became similar to that of 1-month-old term infants at an age of 18.5 months (95% CI, 15.6-22.8).The age threshold at which the risk of hospitalization for RSV among qualifying preterm infants with CLD approximates that of healthy term infants supports the current American Academy of Pediatrics practice guideline recommending RSV prophylaxis until a maximum of 24 months of age.
Project description:To describe hospital utilization and costs associated with preterm or low birth weight births (preterm/LBW) by payer prior to implementation of the Affordable Care Act and to identify areas for improvement in the quality of care received among preterm/LBW infants.Hospital utilization-defined as mean length of stay (LOS, days), secondary diagnoses for birth hospitalizations, primary diagnoses for rehospitalizations, and transfer status-and costs were described among preterm/LBW infants using the 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample.Approximately 9.1 % of included hospitalizations (n = 4,167,900) were births among preterm/LBW infants; however, these birth hospitalizations accounted for 43.4 % of total costs. Rehospitalizations of all infants occurred at a rate of 5.9 % overall, but accounted for 22.6 % of total costs. This pattern was observed across all payer types. The prevalence of rehospitalizations was nearly twice as high among preterm/LBW infants covered by Medicaid (7.6 %) compared to commercially-insured infants (4.3 %). Neonatal transfers were more common among preterm/LBW infants whose deliveries and hospitalizations were covered by Medicaid (7.3 %) versus commercial insurance (6.5 %). Uninsured/self-pay preterm and LBW infants died in-hospital during the first year of life at a rate of 91 per 1000 discharges-nearly three times higher than preterm and LBW infants covered by either Medicaid (37 per 1000) or commercial insurance (32 per 1000).When comparing preterm/LBW infants whose births were covered by Medicaid and commercial insurance, there were few differences in length of hospital stays and costs. However, opportunities for improvement within Medicaid and CHIP exist with regard to reducing rehospitalizations and neonatal transfers.
Project description:Mother's own milk (MOM) reduces the risk of morbidities in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. When MOM is unavailable, donor breastmilk (DM) is used, with unclear impact on short- and long-term growth. This retrospective analysis compared anthropometric data at six time points from birth to 20⁻24 months corrected age in VLBW infants who received MOM supplements of preterm formula (n = 160) versus fortified DM (n = 161) during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. The cohort was 46% female; mean birth weight and gestational age (GA) were 998 g and 27.3 weeks. Multilevel linear growth models assessed changes in growth z-scores short-term (to NICU discharge) and long-term (post-discharge), controlling for amount of DM or formula received in first 28 days of life, NICU length of stay (LOS), birth GA, and sex. Z-scores for weight and length decreased during hospitalization but increased for all parameters including head circumference post-discharge. Short-term growth was positively associated with LOS and birth GA. A higher preterm formula proportion, but not DM proportion, was associated with slower rates of decline in short-term growth trajectories, but feeding type was unrelated to long-term growth. In conclusion, controlling for total human milk fed, DM did not affect short- or long-term growth.
Project description:One in nine US infants is born before 37 weeks' gestation, incurring medical costs 10 times higher than full-term infants. One in three infants is born by cesarean; cesarean births cost twice as much as vaginal births. We compared rates of preterm and cesarean birth among Medicaid recipients with prenatal access to doula care (nonmedical maternal support) with similar women regionally. We used data on this association to mathematically model the potential cost-effectiveness of Medicaid coverage of doula services.Data came from two sources: all Medicaid-funded, singleton births at hospitals in the West North Central and East North Central US (n = 65,147) in the 2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, and all Medicaid-funded singleton births (n = 1,935) supported by a community-based doula organization in the Upper Midwest from 2010 to 2014. We analyzed routinely collected, de-identified administrative data. Multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate associations between doula care and outcomes. A probabilistic decision-analytic model was used for cost-effectiveness estimates.Women who received doula support had lower preterm and cesarean birth rates than Medicaid beneficiaries regionally (4.7 vs 6.3%, and 20.4 vs 34.2%). After adjustment for covariates, women with doula care had 22 percent lower odds of preterm birth (AOR 0.77 [95% CI 0.61-0.96]). Cost-effectiveness analyses indicate potential savings associated with doula support reimbursed at an average of $986 (ranging from $929 to $1,047 across states).Based on associations between doula care and preterm and cesarean birth, coverage reimbursement for doula services would likely be cost saving or cost-effective for state Medicaid programs.