Differentiating SGBS adipocytes respond to PPAR? stimulation, irisin and BMP7 by functional browning and beige characteristics.
ABSTRACT: Brown and beige adipocytes are enriched in mitochondria with uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) to generate heat instead of ATP contributing to healthy energy balance. There are few human cellular models to reveal regulatory networks in adipocyte browning and key targets for enhancing thermogenesis in obesity. The Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) preadipocyte line has been a useful tool to study human adipocyte biology. Here we report that SGBS cells, which are comparable to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells, carry an FTO risk allele. Upon sustained PPAR? stimulation or irisin (a myokine released in response to exercise) treatment, SGBS cells differentiated into beige adipocytes exhibiting multilocular lipid droplets, high UCP1 content with induction of typical browning genes (Cidea, Elovl3) and the beige marker Tbx1. The autocrine mediator BMP7 led to moderate browning with the upregulation of the classical brown marker Zic1 instead of Tbx1. Thermogenesis potential resulted from PPAR? stimulation, irisin and BMP7 can be activated in UCP1-dependent and the beige specific, creatine phosphate cycle mediated way. The beige phenotype, maintained under long-term (28 days) conditions, was partially reversed by withdrawal of PPAR? ligand. Thus, SGBS cells can serve as a cellular model for both white and sustainable beige adipocyte differentiation and function.
Project description:Adult humans have a substantial amount of inducible-brown (or beige) fat, which is associated with increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain via thermogenesis. Despite the identification of key regulators of beige adipogenesis, impacts of dietary factors on adaptive thermogenesis are largely unknown, partly due to a lack of validated human cell models. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) is known to promote brown adipogenesis in rodent and human progenitor cells. However, controversy still surrounds the cellular identity in BMP7-mediated transition of white to brown adipocytes. The aim of this study was to confirm BMP7-derived human adipocytes as a relevant in vitro model of human beige adipocyte by verifying the cellular lineage and metabolic activity. In this study, we hypothesized that pre-exposure of the stromal vascular (SV) fraction of primary human adipogenic precursor cells (hASC) to BMP7 would convert metabolically active brown adipocytes. Our results showed that exposure of hASC to human BMP7 was associated with significant escalation of (1) UCP1 gene expression, a signature gene of brown adipocytes, (2) beige specific marker gene expression (i.e., CD137 and TMEM26), (3) glucose and fatty acid uptake, and (4) basal and cAMP-stimulated oxygen consumption rate compared to white adipocyte control. Taken together, we demonstrated that BMP7 mediates conversion of hASC into metabolically active beige adipocytes. By confirming the cellular identity and metabolic activity, this BMP7-induced human beige adipocytes from hASC should aid in the discovery and assessment of bioactive molecules to promote adaptive thermogenesis.
Project description:The alteration of white adipose tissue (WAT) "browning", a change of white into beige fat, has been considered as a new therapeutic strategy to treat obesity. In this study, we investigated the browning effect of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) using in vitro and in vivo models. Black raspberry water extract (BRWE) treatment inhibited lipid accumulation in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and zebrafish. To evaluate the thermogenic activity, BRWE was orally administered for 2 weeks, and then, the mice were placed in a 4 °C environment. As a result, BRWE treatment increased rectal temperature and inguinal WAT (iWAT) thermogenesis by inducing the expression of beige fat specific markers such as PR domain zinc-finger protein 16 (PRDM16), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), and t-box protein 1 (TBX1) in cold-exposed mice. Furthermore, ellagic acid (EA), a constituent of BRWE, markedly promoted beige specific markers: UCP1, PGC1α, TBX1, and nuclear respiratory factor 1 in beige differentiation media (DM)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings indicate that BRWE can promote beige differentiation/activation, and EA is the active compound responsible for such effect. Thus, we suggest the nature-derived agents BRWE and EA as potential agents for obesity treatment.
Project description:Brown adipogenesis contributes to controlling systemic energy balance by enhancing glucose and lipid consumptions. We have previously reported chemical compound-induced brown adipocytes (ciBAs) directly converted from human dermal fibroblasts using a serum-free medium. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed in ciBAs in comparison with the control fibroblasts. A broad range of integrated gene expression was enhanced in functional groups including tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transfer chain, triglycerides metabolism, fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and adaptive thermogenesis. The results suggested that the chemical conversion underwent metabolic and mitochondrial reprogramming closely associated with functions in brown/beige adipocytes. Moreover, we also compared the transcriptional changes to those of adipocyte browning in adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs). Transcriptome analysis indicated that the same sets of metabolic and mitochondria-related genes were similarly changed in the adipocyte browning. Interestingly, ciBAs more expressed Ucp1, while AdMSC-derived adipocytes predominantly expressed Ucp2. UCP1 protein was also more expressed in ciBAs than in AdMSC-derived adipocytes. Based on the evidence that UCP1, but not UCP2, is responsible for adrenergic thermogenesis, ciBAs could be a promising model for human beige adipocytes applicable for basic research, drug development, and clinical uses.
Project description:Adipose tissue expansion is accompanied by infiltration and accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages, which links obesity to pathologic conditions such as type 2 diabetes. However, little is known regarding the role of pro-inflammatory adipose tissue remodeling in the thermogenic activation of brown/beige fat. Here, we investigated the effect of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) activation in macrophages, especially the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3), on white adipocyte browning. We report that TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide repressed white adipocyte browning in response to ?3-adrenergic receptor activation and caused ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction, while genetic deletion of TLR4 protected mitochondrial function and thermogenesis. In addition, activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages attenuated UCP1 induction and mitochondrial respiration in cultures of primary adipocytes, while the absence of NLRP3 protected UCP1 in adipocytes. The effect of NLRP3 inflammasome activation on browning was mediated by IL-1? signaling, as blocking IL-1 receptor in adipocytes protected thermogenesis. We also report that IL-1? interferes with thermogenesis via oxidative stress stimulation and mitochondrial dysfunction as we observed a statistically significant increase in ROS production, decrease in SOD enzyme activity, and increase in mitochondrial depolarization in adipocytes treated with IL-1?. Collectively, we demonstrated that inflammatory response to obesity, such as TLR4 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as IL-1? secretion, attenuates ?3-adrenoreceptor-induced beige adipocyte formation via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our findings provide insights into targeting innate inflammatory system for enhancement of the adaptive thermogenesis against obesity.
Project description:The Simpson Golabi Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) pre-adipocyte cell strain is widely considered to be a representative in vitro model of human white pre-adipocytes. A recent study suggested that SGBS adipocytes exhibit an unexpected transient brown phenotype. Here, we comprehensively examined key differences between SGBS adipocytes and primary human white subcutaneous (PHWSC) adipocytes. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and metabolic pathways were the top two KEGG pathways significantly enriched in SGBS adipocytes, which included positively enriched mitochondrial respiration and oxidation pathways. Compared to PHWSC adipocytes, SGBS adipocytes showed not only greater induction of adipogenic gene expression during differentiation but also increased levels of UCP1 mRNA and protein expression. Functionally, SGBS adipocytes displayed higher ISO-induced basal leak respiration and overall oxygen consumption rate, along with increased triglyceride accumulation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In conclusion, we confirmed that SGBS adipocytes, which are considered of white adipose tissue origin can shift towards a brown/beige adipocyte phenotype. These differences indicate SGBS cells may help to identify mechanisms leading to browning, and inform our understanding for the use of SGBS vis-à-vis primary human subcutaneous adipocytes as a human white adipocyte model, guiding the selection of appropriate cell models in future metabolic research.
Project description:Background:Trehalose is well known as a functional disaccharide with anti-metabolic activities such as suppression of adipocyte hypertrophy in mice and alleviation of impaired glucose tolerance in humans. Recently, a new type of adipocyte beige cells, involved in so-called white adipocyte tissue (WAT) browning, has received much attention as a target for adaptive thermogenesis. To clarify the relationship between adipocyte hypertrophy suppression and beige cells involved in thermogenesis, we examined the effect of trehalose on the changes in beige adipocytes in mice under normal dietary conditions. Methods:Mice fed a normal diet were administered water containing 0.3% (W/V) trehalose for 16?weeks, 0.3% (W/V) maltose, or water without saccharide (controls). Body temperature and non-fasting blood glucose levels were measured every 3?weeks. After 16?weeks of these treatments, mesenteric and inguinal adipose tissues were collected for measuring adipocyte size, counting the number of UCP1 positive cells by image analysis, and preparing mRNA to analyze beige adipocyte-related gene expression. Results:Mice administered a continuous intake of trehalose exhibited a thermogenic ability as represented by an increase in rectal temperature, which was maintained at a relatively high level from 3 to 9?weeks and was significantly higher at 15?weeks in comparison with that of the maltose group. In addition to the reduced hypertrophy of mesenteric and inguinal adipose tissues, the trehalose group showed a significant increase in the rates of beige adipocytes in each WAT in comparison with those of the maltose and the water groups. Interestingly, a negative correlation was found between the mean cell sizes of adipocytes and the rates of beige adipocytes in the WAT. Furthermore, real-time PCR showed that the expression of Cidea and Ucp1 mRNAs, which are markers for beige adipocytes in the inguinal adipose tissue, increased in the trehalose group. Conclusions:Continuous administration of trehalose to mice fed a normal diet induced WAT browning accompanied by suppression of white adipocyte hypertrophy, elevated body temperature and decreased blood glucose levels, which resulted in enhancement of energy metabolism. Therefore, we propose trehalose as a new type of thermogenic dietary component to prevent obesity by promoting WAT browning.
Project description:Administration of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) often leads to weight gain and consequent cardio-metabolic side effects. We observed that clozapine but not six other antipsychotic drugs reprogrammed the gene expression pattern of differentiating human adipocytes ex vivo, leading to an elevated expression of the browning marker gene UCP1, more and smaller lipid droplets and more mitochondrial DNA than in the untreated white adipocytes. Laser scanning cytometry showed that up to 40% of the differentiating single primary and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes had the characteristic morphological features of browning cells. Furthermore, clozapine significantly upregulated ELOVL3, CIDEA, CYC1, PGC1A and TBX1 genes but not ZIC1 suggesting induction of the beige-like and not the classical brown phenotype. When we tested whether browning induced by clozapine can be explained by its known pharmacological effect of antagonizing serotonin (5HT) receptors, it was found that browning cells expressed 5HT receptors 2A, 1D, 7 and the upregulation of browning markers was diminished in the presence of exogenous 5HT. Undifferentiated progenitors or completely differentiated beige or white adipocytes did not respond to clozapine administration. The clozapine-induced beige cells displayed increased basal and oligomycin-inhibited (proton leak) oxygen consumption, but these cells showed a lower response to cAMP stimulus as compared with control beige adipocytes indicating that they are less capable to respond to natural thermogenic anti-obesity cues. Our data altogether suggest that novel pharmacological stimulation of these masked beige adipocytes can be a future therapeutic target for the treatment of SGA-induced weight gain.
Project description:Thermogenic brown and beige adipocytes oxidize metabolic substrates producing heat, mainly by the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1, and can thus counteract obesity. Masked beige adipocytes possess white adipocyte-like morphology, but can be made thermogenic by adrenergic stimuli. We investigated the regulation of mitophagy upon thermogenic activation of human masked and mature beige adipocytes. Human primary abdominal subcutaneous adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) preadipocytes were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes, then their cAMP-induced thermogenic potential was assessed by detecting increased expressions of UCP1, mitochondrial DNA content and respiratory chain complex subunits. cAMP increased the thermogenic potential of white adipocytes similarly to beige ones, indicating the presence of a masked beige population. In unstimulated conditions, a high autophagic flux and mitophagy rates (demonstrated by LC3 punctae and TOM20 co-immunostaining) were observed in white adipocytes, while these were lower in beige adipocytes. Silencing and gene expression experiments showed that the ongoing mitophagy was Parkin-independent. cAMP treatment led to the downregulation of mitophagy through PKA in both types of adipocytes, resulting in more fragmented mitochondria and increased UCP1 levels. Our data indicates that mitophagy is repressed upon encountering a short-term adrenergic stimulus, as a fast regulatory mechanism to provide high mitochondrial content for thermogenesis.
Project description:Mitochondria are critical in heat generation in brown and beige adipocytes. Mitochondrial number and function are regulated in response to external stimuli, such as cold exposure and ?3 adrenergic receptor agonist. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial biogenesis during browning, especially by microRNAs, remain unknown. We investigated the role of miR-494-3p in mitochondrial biogenesis during adipogenesis and browning. Intermittent mild cold exposure of mice induced PPAR? coactivator1-? (PGC1-?) and mitochondrial TFAM, PDH, and ANT1/2 expression along with uncoupling protein-1 (Ucp1) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). miR-494-3p levels were significantly downregulated in iWAT upon cold exposure (p?<?0.05). miR-494-3p overexpression substantially reduced PGC1-? expression and its downstream targets TFAM, PDH and MTCO1 in 3T3-L1 white and beige adipocytes (p?<?0.05). miR-494-3p inhibition in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes resulted in increased PDH (p?<?0.05). PGC1-?, TFAM and Ucp1 mRNA levels were robustly downregulated by miR-494-3p overexpression in 3T3-L1 beige adipocytes, along with strongly decreased oxygen consumption rate. PGC1-? and Ucp1 proteins were downregulated by miR-494-3p in primary beige cells (p?<?0.05). Luciferase assays confirmed PGC1-? as a direct gene target of miR-494-3p. Our findings demonstrate that decreased miR-494-3p expression during browning regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis through PGC1-?.
Project description:In acute cold stress in mammals, JMJD1A, a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase, upregulates thermogenic gene expressions through ?-adrenergic signaling in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Aside BAT-driven thermogenesis, mammals have another mechanism to cope with long-term cold stress by inducing the browning of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Here, we show that this occurs through a two-step process that requires both ?-adrenergic-dependent phosphorylation of S265 and demethylation of H3K9me2 by JMJD1A. The histone demethylation-independent acute Ucp1 induction in BAT and demethylation-dependent chronic Ucp1 expression in beige scWAT provides complementary molecular mechanisms to ensure an ordered transition between acute and chronic adaptation to cold stress. JMJD1A mediates two major signaling pathways, namely, ?-adrenergic receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) activation, via PRDM16-PPAR?-P-JMJD1A complex for beige adipogenesis. S265 phosphorylation of JMJD1A, and the following demethylation of H3K9me2 might prove to be a novel molecular target for the treatment of metabolic disorders, via promoting beige adipogenesis.