Cardioprotective Effect of the Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response During Chronic Pressure Overload.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is activated when misfolded proteins accumulate within mitochondria and leads to increased expression of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases to maintain protein quality and mitochondrial function. Cardiac mitochondria are essential for contractile function and regulation of cell viability, while mitochondrial dysfunction characterizes heart failure. The role of the UPRmt in the heart is unclear. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to: 1) identify conditions that activate the UPRmt in the heart; and 2) study the relationship among the UPRmt, mitochondrial function, and cardiac contractile function. METHODS:Cultured cardiac myocytes were subjected to different stresses in vitro. Mice were subjected to chronic pressure overload. Tissues and blood biomarkers were studied in patients with aortic stenosis. RESULTS:Diverse neurohumoral or mitochondrial stresses transiently induced the UPRmt in cultured cardiomyocytes. The UPRmt was also induced in the hearts of mice subjected to chronic hemodynamic overload. Boosting the UPRmt with nicotinamide riboside (which augments NAD+ pools) in cardiomyocytes in vitro or hearts in vivo significantly mitigated the reductions in mitochondrial oxygen consumption induced by these stresses. In mice subjected to pressure overload, nicotinamide riboside reduced cardiomyocyte death and contractile dysfunction. Myocardial tissue from patients with aortic stenosis also showed evidence of UPRmt activation, which correlated with reduced tissue cardiomyocyte death and fibrosis and lower plasma levels of biomarkers of cardiac damage (high-sensitivity troponin T) and dysfunction (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). CONCLUSIONS:These results identify the induction of the UPRmt in the mammalian (including human) heart exposed to pathological stresses. Enhancement of the UPRmt ameliorates mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction, suggesting that it may serve an important protective role in the stressed heart.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Defects at the level of mitochondria are also characteristic of heart failure. We assessed changes in cardiac insulin response and mitochondrial function in a model of pressure overload-induced heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS:Rats underwent aortic banding to induce pressure overload. At 10 weeks, rats showed cardiac hypertrophy and pulmonary congestion, but left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction were only evident after 20 weeks. This contractile impairment was accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction as shown by markedly reduced state 3 respiration of isolated mitochondria. Aortic banding did not affect systemic insulin response. However, insulin-stimulated cardiac glucose uptake and glucose oxidation were significantly diminished at 10 and 20 weeks, which indicates cardiac insulin resistance starting before the onset of mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction. The impaired cardiac insulin action was related to a decrease in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor ?. Consistently, we found elevated activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) at 10 and 20 weeks, which may blunt insulin action by dephosphorylating insulin receptor ?. PTP1B activity was also significantly increased in left ventricular samples of patients with systolic dysfunction undergoing aortic valve replacement because of aortic stenosis. CONCLUSIONS:Pressure overload causes cardiac insulin resistance that precedes and accompanies mitochondrial and systolic dysfunction. Activation of PTP1B in the heart is associated with heart failure in both rats and humans and may account for cardiac insulin resistance. PTP1B may be a potential target to modulate insulin sensitivity and contractile function in the failing heart.
Project description:Pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy, a risk factor for heart failure, is associated with reduced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins that correlate in rodents with reduced PGC-1? expression.To determine the role of PGC-1? in maintaining mitochondrial energy metabolism and contractile function in pressure overload hypertrophy.PGC-1? deficient (KO) mice and wildtype (WT) controls were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Although LV function was modestly reduced in young KO hearts, there was no further decline with age so that LV function was similar between KO and WT when TAC was performed. WT-TAC mice developed relatively compensated LVH, despite reduced mitochondrial function and repression of OXPHOS and FAO genes. In nonstressed KO hearts, OXPHOS gene expression and palmitoyl-carnitine-supported mitochondrial function were reduced to the same extent as banded WT, but FAO gene expression was normal. Following TAC, KO mice progressed more rapidly to heart failure and developed more severe mitochondrial dysfunction, despite a similar overall pattern of repression of OXPHOS and FAO genes as WT-TAC. However, in relation to WT-TAC, PGC-1? deficient mice exhibited greater degrees of oxidative stress, decreased cardiac efficiency, lower rates of glucose metabolism, and repression of hexokinase II protein.PGC-1? plays an important role in maintaining baseline mitochondrial function and cardiac contractile function following pressure overload hypertrophy by preserving glucose metabolism and preventing oxidative stress.
Project description:1. The present study was aimed to determine whether propranolol improves contractile function of the ischaemic/reperfused heart through protection of the mitochondrial function during ischaemia. 2. Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 35-min ischaemia followed by 60-min reperfusion. Pre-treatment with propranolol at the concentrations of 10 to 100 microM for the final 3 min of pre-ischaemia resulted in the improvement of ischaemia/reperfusion-induced contractile dysfunction, release of creatine kinase (CK) into perfusate, and decrease in myocardial high-energy phosphates. Propranolol also attenuated ischaemia-induced accumulation in Na+, suggesting that cytosolic sodium overload during ischaemia was prevented by propranolol. 3. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate of skinned bundles from the perfused heart decreased at the end of ischaemia and it further decreased at the end of reperfusion. These decreases were cancelled by treatment with propranolol. A release of cytochrome c from the perfused heart was observed during ischaemia, and this release was suppressed by treatment with propranolol. 4. To elucidate the direct effect of propranolol on mitochondria, the mitochondria were isolated from normal hearts and their activities were determined in the presence of various concentrations of Na+ and propranolol. The addition of sodium lactate, which mimicked sodium overload in the ischaemic heart, reduced the state 3 respiration, whereas this reduction was not attenuated by the presence of propranolol. 5. These results suggest that cardioprotection of propranolol may be exerted via attenuating Na+ influx into cardiac cells followed by prevention of the mitochondrial dysfunction in the ischaemic heart, leading to improvement of energy production of the heart during reperfusion.
Project description:Mitochondrial autophagy is an important mediator of mitochondrial quality control in cardiomyocytes. The occurrence of mitochondrial autophagy and its significance during cardiac hypertrophy are not well understood.Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and observed at multiple time points up to 30 days. Cardiac hypertrophy developed after 5 days, the ejection fraction was reduced after 14 days, and heart failure was observed 30 days after TAC. General autophagy was upregulated between 1 and 12 hours after TAC but was downregulated below physiological levels 5 days after TAC. Mitochondrial autophagy, evaluated by electron microscopy, mitochondrial content, and Keima with mitochondrial localization signal, was transiently activated at ?3 to 7 days post-TAC, coinciding with mitochondrial translocation of Drp1. However, it was downregulated thereafter, followed by mitochondrial dysfunction. Haploinsufficiency of Drp1 abolished mitochondrial autophagy and exacerbated the development of both mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure after TAC. Injection of Tat-Beclin 1, a potent inducer of autophagy, but not control peptide, on day 7 after TAC, partially rescued mitochondrial autophagy and attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure induced by overload. Haploinsufficiency of either drp1 or beclin 1 prevented the rescue by Tat-Beclin 1, suggesting that its effect is mediated in part through autophagy, including mitochondrial autophagy.Mitochondrial autophagy is transiently activated and then downregulated in the mouse heart in response to pressure overload. Downregulation of mitochondrial autophagy plays an important role in mediating the development of mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure, whereas restoration of mitochondrial autophagy attenuates dysfunction in the heart during pressure overload.
Project description:The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is a cytoprotective signaling pathway triggered by mitochondrial dysfunction. UPRmt activation upregulates chaperones, proteases, antioxidants, and glycolysis at the gene level to restore proteostasis and cell energetics. Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a proposed mediator of the mammalian UPRmt. Herein, we hypothesized pharmacological UPRmt activation may protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in an ATF5-dependent manner. Accordingly, in vivo administration of the UPRmt inducers oligomycin or doxycycline 6 h before ex vivo I/R injury (perfused heart) was cardioprotective in wild-type but not global Atf5-/- mice. Acute ex vivo UPRmt activation was not cardioprotective, and loss of ATF5 did not impact baseline I/R injury without UPRmt induction. In vivo UPRmt induction significantly upregulated many known UPRmt-linked genes (cardiac quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis), and RNA-Seq revealed an UPRmt-induced ATF5-dependent gene set, which may contribute to cardioprotection. This is the first in vivo proof of a role for ATF5 in the mammalian UPRmt and the first demonstration that UPRmt is a cardioprotective drug target.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cardioprotection can be induced by drugs that activate the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). UPRmt protection is dependent on activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5). This is the first in vivo evidence for a role of ATF5 in the mammalian UPRmt.
Project description:Heart failure treatment guidelines provide no recommendations regarding the intake of protein, though it has been proposed that increasing protein intake may result in clinical improvement. High-protein intake might improve protein synthesis and cell function, and prevent deterioration in mitochondrial and left ventricular function. We assessed the effects of a high-protein diet on the development of heart failure characterized by cardiac hypertrophy, impaired mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and contractile dysfunction induced by transverse aortic constriction in rats. A standard diet with 18% of energy intake from protein was compared with a high-protein diet (30% of energy intake). First, we evaluated the effects of protein intake on the development of heart failure during 14 weeks of aortic constriction, and found similar cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, ventricular dilation, and decreased cardiac mitochondrial oxidative capacity with both 18% and 30% protein. We then assessed more advanced heart failure, with 22 weeks of aortic constriction. We again saw no difference in cardiac mass, left ventricular volume, mitochondrial oxidative capacity or resistance to permeability transition between the 18% and 30% protein diets. There was a modest but significant decrease in survival with heart failure with the 30% protein diet compared with 18% protein (p < 0.003). In conclusion, consumption of a high-protein diet did not affect cardiac mass, left ventricular volumes or ejection fraction, or myocardial mitochondrial oxidative capacity in rats with pressure overload induced heart failure, but significantly decreased survival.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine whether endogenous GLUT1 induction and the increased glucose utilization that accompanies pressure overload hypertrophy (POH) are required to maintain cardiac function during hemodynamic stress, and to test the hypothesis that lack of GLUT1 will accelerate the transition to heart failure. To determine the contribution of endogenous GLUT1 to the cardiac adaptation to POH, male mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of the GLUT1 gene (G1KO) and their littermate controls (Cont) were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). GLUT1 deficiency reduced glycolysis and glucose oxidation by 50%, which was associated with a reciprocal increase in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) relative to controls. Four weeks after TAC, glycolysis increased and FAO decreased by 50% in controls, but were unchanged in G1KO hearts relative to shams. G1KO and controls exhibited equivalent degrees of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and capillary density loss after TAC. Following TAC, in vivo left ventricular developed pressure was decreased in G1KO hearts relative to controls, but+dP/dt was equivalently reduced in Cont and G1KO mice. Mitochondrial function was equivalently impaired following TAC in both Cont and G1KO hearts. GLUT1 deficiency in cardiomyocytes alters myocardial substrate utilization, but does not substantially exacerbate pressure-overload induced contractile dysfunction or accelerate the progression to heart failure.
Project description:Impaired energy metabolism is the defining characteristic of obesity-related heart failure. The adipocyte-derived peptide apelin has a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis and may contribute to the link between obesity, energy metabolism and cardiac function. Here we investigate the role of apelin in the transition from metabolic adaptation to maladaptation of the heart in obese state.Adult male C57BL/6J, apelin knock-out (KO) or wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks. To induce heart failure, mice were subjected to pressure overload after 18 weeks of HFD. Long-term effects of apelin on fatty acid (FA) oxidation, glucose metabolism, cardiac function and mitochondrial changes were evaluated in HFD-fed mice after 4 weeks of pressure overload. Cardiomyocytes from HFD-fed mice were isolated for analysis of metabolic responses.In HFD-fed mice, pressure overload-induced transition from hypertrophy to heart failure is associated with reduced FA utilization (P<0.05), accelerated glucose oxidation (P<0.05) and mitochondrial damage. Treatment of HFD-fed mice with apelin for 4 weeks prevented pressure overload-induced decline in FA metabolism (P<0.05) and mitochondrial defects. Furthermore, apelin treatment lowered fasting plasma glucose (P<0.01), improved glucose tolerance (P<0.05) and preserved cardiac function (P<0.05) in HFD-fed mice subjected to pressure overload. In apelin KO HFD-fed mice, spontaneous cardiac dysfunction is associated with reduced FA oxidation (P<0.001) and increased glucose oxidation (P<0.05). In isolated cardiomyocytes, apelin stimulated FA oxidation in a dose-dependent manner and this effect was prevented by small interfering RNA sirtuin 3 knockdown.These data suggest that obesity-related decline in cardiac function is associated with defective myocardial energy metabolism and mitochondrial abnormalities. Furthermore, our work points for therapeutic potential of apelin to prevent myocardial metabolic abnormalities in heart failure paired with obesity.
Project description:Cardiac failure occurs when the heart fails to adapt to chronic stresses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling is implicated in cardiac stress responses, but the role of different ROS sources remains unclear. Here we report that NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) facilitates cardiac adaptation to chronic stress. Unlike other Nox proteins, Nox4 activity is regulated mainly by its expression level, which increases in cardiomyocytes under stresses such as pressure overload or hypoxia. To investigate the functional role of Nox4 during the cardiac response to stress, we generated mice with a genetic deletion of Nox4 or a cardiomyocyte-targeted overexpression of Nox4. Basal cardiac function was normal in both models, but Nox4-null animals developed exaggerated contractile dysfunction, hypertrophy, and cardiac dilatation during exposure to chronic overload whereas Nox4-transgenic mice were protected. Investigation of mechanisms underlying this protective effect revealed a significant Nox4-dependent preservation of myocardial capillary density after pressure overload. Nox4 enhanced stress-induced activation of cardiomyocyte hypoxia inducible factor 1 and the release of vascular endothelial growth factor, resulting in increased paracrine angiogenic activity. These data indicate that cardiomyocyte Nox4 is a unique inducible regulator of myocardial angiogenesis, a key determinant of cardiac adaptation to overload stress. Our results also have wider relevance to the use of nonspecific antioxidant approaches in cardiac disease and may provide an explanation for the failure of such strategies in many settings.
Project description:Left ventricular (LV) dilatation is a key step in transition to heart failure (HF) in response to pressure overload. Cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) contains fibrillar collagens and proteoglycans, important for maintaining tissue integrity. Alterations in collagen production and cross-linking are associated with cardiac LV dilatation and HF. Lumican (LUM) is a collagen binding proteoglycan with increased expression in hearts of patients and mice with HF, however, its role in cardiac function remains poorly understood. To examine the role of LUM in pressure overload induced cardiac remodeling, we subjected LUM knock-out (LUMKO) mice to aortic banding (AB) and treated cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFB) with LUM. LUMKO mice exhibited increased mortality 1-14 days post-AB. Echocardiography revealed increased LV dilatation, altered hypertrophic remodeling and exacerbated contractile dysfunction in surviving LUMKO 1-10w post-AB. LUMKO hearts showed reduced collagen expression and cross-linking post-AB. Transcriptional profiling of LUMKO hearts by RNA sequencing revealed 714 differentially expressed transcripts, with enrichment of cardiotoxicity, ECM and inflammatory pathways. CFB treated with LUM showed increased mRNAs for markers of myofibroblast differentiation, proliferation and expression of ECM molecules important for fibrosis, including collagens and collagen cross-linking enzyme lysyl oxidase. In conclusion, we report the novel finding that lack of LUM attenuates collagen cross-linking in the pressure-overloaded heart, leading to increased mortality, dilatation and contractile dysfunction in mice.