A Study into the ADP-Ribosylome of IFN-?-Stimulated THP-1 Human Macrophage-like Cells Identifies ARTD8/PARP14 and ARTD9/PARP9 ADP-Ribosylation.
ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that, until recently, has remained elusive to study at the cellular level. Previously dependent on radioactive tracers to identify ADP-ribosylation targets, several advances in mass spectrometric workflows now permit global identification of ADP-ribosylated substrates. In this study, we capitalized on two ADP-ribosylation enrichment strategies, and multiple activation methods performed on the Orbitrap Fusion Lumos, to identify IFN-?-induced ADP-ribosylation substrates in macrophages. The ADP-ribosyl binding protein, Af1521, was used to enrich ADP-ribosylated peptides, and the antipoly-ADP-ribosyl antibody, 10H, was used to enrich ADP-ribosylated proteins. ADP-ribosyl-specific mass spectra were further enriched by an ADP-ribose product ion triggered EThcD and HCD activation strategy, in combination with multiple acquisitions that segmented the survey scan into smaller ranges. HCD and EThcD resulted in overlapping and unique ADP-ribosyl peptide identifications, with HCD providing more peptide identifications but EThcD providing more reliable ADP-ribosyl acceptor sites. Our acquisition strategies also resulted in the first ever characterization of ADP-ribosyl on three poly-ADP-ribose polymerases, ARTD9/PARP9, ARTD10/PARP10, and ARTD8/PARP14. IFN-? increased the ADP-ribosylation status of ARTD9/PARP9, ARTD8/PARP14, and proteins involved in RNA processes. This study therefore summarizes specific molecular pathways at the intersection of IFN-? and ADP-ribosylation signaling pathways.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that, until recently, has remained elusive to study at the cellular level. Previously dependent on radioactive tracers to identify ADP-ribosylation targets, several advances in mass spectrometric workflows now permit global identification of ADP-ribosylated substrates. In this study, we capitalized on two ADP-ribosylation enrichment strategies, and multiple activation methods performed on the Orbitrap Fusion Lumos, to identify IFN--induced ADP-ribosylation substrates in macrophages. The ADP-ribosyl binding protein, Af1521, was used to enrich ADP-ribosylated peptides, and the anti-poly-ADP-ribosyl antibody, 10H, was used to enrich ADP-ribosylated proteins. ADP-ribosyl-specific mass spectra were further enriched by an ADP-ribose product ion triggered EThcD and HCD activation strategy, in combination with multiple acquisitions that segmented the survey scan into smaller ranges. HCD and EThcD resulted in overlapping and unique ADP-ribosyl peptide identifications, with HCD providing more peptide identifications but EThcD providing more reliable ADP-ribosyl acceptor sites. Our acquisition strategies also resulted in the first ever characterization of ADP-ribosyl on three poly-ADP-ribose polymerases, ARTD9/PARP9, ARTD10/PARP10, and ARTD8/PARP14. IFN- increased the ADP-ribosylation status of ARTD9/PARP9, ARTD8/PARP14, and proteins involved in RNA processes. This study therefore summarizes specific molecular pathways at the intersection of IFN- and ADP-ribosylation signaling pathways.
Project description:Despite the global impact of macrophage activation in vascular disease, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show, with global proteomic analysis of macrophage cell lines treated with either IFN? or IL-4, that PARP9 and PARP14 regulate macrophage activation. In primary macrophages, PARP9 and PARP14 have opposing roles in macrophage activation. PARP14 silencing induces pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFN?) cells, whereas it suppresses anti-inflammatory gene expression and STAT6 phosphorylation in M(IL-4) cells. PARP9 silencing suppresses pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFN?) cells. PARP14 induces ADP-ribosylation of STAT1, which is suppressed by PARP9. Mutations at these ADP-ribosylation sites lead to increased phosphorylation. Network analysis links PARP9-PARP14 with human coronary artery disease. PARP14 deficiency in haematopoietic cells accelerates the development and inflammatory burden of acute and chronic arterial lesions in mice. These findings suggest that PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation.
Project description:Human pathogenic positive single strand RNA ((+)ssRNA) viruses, including Chikungunya virus, pose severe health problems as for many neither efficient vaccines nor therapeutic strategies exist. To interfere with propagation, viral enzymatic activities are considered potential targets. Here we addressed the function of the viral macrodomains, conserved folds of non-structural proteins of many (+)ssRNA viruses. Macrodomains are closely associated with ADP-ribose function and metabolism. ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification controlling various cellular processes, including DNA repair, transcription and stress response. We found that the viral macrodomains possess broad hydrolase activity towards mono-ADP-ribosylated substrates of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases ARTD7, ARTD8 and ARTD10 (aka PARP15, PARP14 and PARP10, respectively), reverting this post-translational modification both in vitro and in cells. In contrast, the viral macrodomains possess only weak activity towards poly-ADP-ribose chains synthesized by ARTD1 (aka PARP1). Unlike poly-ADP-ribosylglycohydrolase, which hydrolyzes poly-ADP-ribose chains to individual ADP-ribose units but cannot cleave the amino acid side chain - ADP-ribose bond, the different viral macrodomains release poly-ADP-ribose chains with distinct efficiency. Mutational and structural analyses identified key amino acids for hydrolase activity of the Chikungunya viral macrodomain. Moreover, ARTD8 and ARTD10 are induced by innate immune mechanisms, suggesting that the control of mono-ADP-ribosylation is part of a host-pathogen conflict.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation (ADPr) is a post-translational modification that plays pivotal roles in a wide range of cellular processes. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis of ADPr under physiological conditions, without relying on genetic or chemical perturbation, has been hindered by technical limitations. Here, we describe the applicability of activated ion electron transfer dissociation (AI-ETD) for MS-based proteomics analysis of physiological ADPr using our unbiased Af1521 enrichment strategy. To benchmark AI-ETD, we profile 9,000 ADPr peptides mapping to >5,000 unique ADPr sites from a limited number of cells exposed to oxidative stress and identify 120% and 28% more ADPr peptides compared to contemporary strategies using ETD and electron-transfer higher-energy collisional dissociation (EThcD), respectively. Under physiological conditions, AI-ETD identifies 450 ADPr sites on low-abundant proteins, including in vivo cysteine modifications on poly(ADP-ribosyl)polymerase (PARP) 8 and tyrosine modifications on PARP14, hinting at specialist enzymatic functions for these enzymes. Collectively, our data provide insights into the physiological regulation of ADPr.
Project description:The capacity to achieve sufficient concentrations of Ag-specific Ab of the appropriate isotypes is a critical component of immunity that requires efficient differentiation and interactions of Ag-specific B and Th cells along with dendritic cells. Numerous bacterial toxins catalyze mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation of mammalian proteins to influence cell physiology and adaptive immunity. However, little is known about biological functions of intracellular mammalian mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases, such as any ability to regulate Ab responses. poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 14 (PARP14), an intracellular protein highly expressed in lymphoid cells, binds to STAT6 and encodes a catalytic domain with mammalian mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity. In this article, we show that recall IgA as well as the STAT6-dependent IgE Ab responses are impaired in PARP14-deficient mice. Whereas PARP14 regulation of IgE involved a B cell-intrinsic process, the predominant impact on IgA was B cell extrinsic. Of note, PARP14 deficiency reduced the levels of Th17 cells and CD103? DCs, which are implicated in IgA regulation. PARP14 enhanced the expression of ROR?, Runx1, and Smad3 after T cell activation, and, importantly, its catalytic activity of PARP14 promoted Th17 differentiation. Collectively, the findings show that PARP14 influences the class distribution, affinity repertoire, and recall capacity of Ab responses in mice, as well as provide direct evidence of the requirement for protein mono-ADP-ribosylation in Th cell differentiation.
Project description:Poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) implements posttranslational mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation modification of target proteins. Among the known 18 members in the enormous family of PARP enzymes, several investigations about PARP1, PARP2, and PARP5a/5b have been launched in the past few decades; more specifically, PARP14 is gradually emerging as a promising drug target. An intact PARP14 (also named ARTD8 or BAL2) is constructed by macro1, macro2, macro3, WWE, and the catalytic domain. PARP14 takes advantage of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a metabolic substrate to conduct mono-ADP-ribosylation modification on target proteins, taking part in cellular responses and signaling pathways in the immune system. Therefore, PARP14 has been considered a fascinating target for treatment of tumors and allergic inflammation. More importantly, PARP14 could be a potential target for a chemosensitizer based on the theory of synthetic lethality and its unique role in homologous recombination DNA repair. This review first gives a brief introduction on several representative PARP members. Subsequently, current literatures are presented to reveal the molecular mechanisms of PARP14 as a novel drug target for cancers (e.g., diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, multiple myeloma, prostate cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma) and allergic inflammatory. Finally, potential PARP inhibitor-associated adverse effects are discussed. The review could be a meaningful reference for innovative drug or chemosensitizer discovery targeting to PARP14.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although ADP-ribosylation has been described five decades ago, only recently a distinction has been made between eukaryotic intracellular poly- and mono-ADP-ribosylating enzymes. Poly-ADP-ribosylation by ARTD1 (formerly PARP1) is best known for its role in DNA damage repair. Other polymer forming enzymes are ARTD2 (formerly PARP2), ARTD3 (formerly PARP3) and ARTD5/6 (formerly Tankyrase 1/2), the latter being involved in Wnt signaling and regulation of 3BP2. Thus several different functions of poly-ADP-ribosylation have been well described whereas intracellular mono-ADP-ribosylation is currently largely undefined. It is for example not known which proteins function as substrate for the different mono-ARTDs. This is partially due to lack of suitable reagents to study mono-ADP-ribosylation, which limits the current understanding of this post-translational modification. RESULTS: We have optimized a novel screening method employing protein microarrays, ProtoArrays®, applied here for the identification of substrates of ARTD10 (formerly PARP10) and ARTD8 (formerly PARP14). The results of this substrate screen were validated using in vitro ADP-ribosylation assays with recombinant proteins. Further analysis of the novel ARTD10 substrate GSK3? revealed mono-ADP-ribosylation as a regulatory mechanism of kinase activity by non-competitive inhibition in vitro. Additionally, manipulation of the ARTD10 levels in cells accordingly influenced GSK3? activity. Together these data provide the first evidence for a role of endogenous mono-ADP-ribosylation in intracellular signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that substrates of ADP-ribosyltransferases can be identified using protein microarrays. The discovered substrates of ARTD10 and ARTD8 provide the first sets of proteins that are modified by mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases in vitro. By studying one of the ARTD10 substrates more closely, the kinase GSK3?, we identified mono-ADP-ribosylation as a negative regulator of kinase activity.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation of proteins was first described in the early 1960's, and today the function and regulation of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is partially understood. By contrast, little is known about intracellular mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation (MARylation) by ADP-ribosyl transferase (ART) enzymes, such as ARTD10. Recent findings indicate that MARylation regulates signalling and transcription by modifying key components in these processes. Emerging evidence also suggests that specific macrodomain-containing proteins, including ARTD8, macroD1, macroD2 and C6orf130, which are distinct from those affecting PARylation, interact with MARylation on target proteins to 'read' and 'erase' this modification. Thus, studying macrodomain-containing proteins is key to understanding the function and regulation of MARylation.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a widespread post-translational modification (PTM) with crucial functions in many cellular processes. Here, we describe an in-depth ADP-ribosylome using our Af1521-based proteomics methodology for comprehensive profiling of ADP-ribosylation sites, by systematically assessing complementary proteolytic digestions and precursor fragmentation through application of electron-transfer higher-energy collisional dissociation (EThcD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD), respectively. Although ETD spectra yielded higher identification scores, EThcD generally proved superior to ETD in identification and localization of ADP-ribosylation sites regardless of protease employed. Notwithstanding, the propensities of complementary proteases and fragmentation methods expanded the detectable repertoire of ADP-ribosylation to an unprecedented depth. This system-wide profiling of the ADP-ribosylome in HeLa cells subjected to DNA damage uncovered >11,000 unique ADP-ribosylated peptides mapping to >7,000 ADP-ribosylation sites, in total modifying over one-third of the human nuclear proteome and highlighting the vast scope of this PTM. High-resolution MS/MS spectra enabled identification of dozens of proteins concomitantly modified by ADP-ribosylation and phosphorylation, revealing a considerable degree of crosstalk on histones. ADP-ribosylation was confidently localized to various amino acid residue types, including less abundantly modified residues, with hundreds of ADP-ribosylation sites pinpointed on histidine, arginine, and tyrosine residues. Functional enrichment analysis suggested modification of these specific residue types is directed in a spatial manner, with tyrosine ADP-ribosylation linked to the ribosome, arginine ADP-ribosylation linked to the endoplasmic reticulum, and histidine ADP-ribosylation linked to the mitochondrion.
Project description:The ?-type ADP-ribosylated peptides represent a class of important molecular tools in the field of protein ADP-ribosylation, however, they are difficult to access because of their inherent complicated structures and the lack of effective synthetic tools. In this paper, we present a biomimetic ?-selective ribosylation reaction to synthesize a key intermediate, ?-ADP-ribosyl azide, directly from native ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in a clean ionic liquid system. This reaction in tandem with click chemistry then offers a two-step modular synthesis of ?-ADP-ribosylated peptides. These syntheses can be performed open air in eppendorf tubes, without the need for specialized instruments or training. Importantly, we demonstrate that the synthesized ?-ADP-ribosylated peptides show high binding affinity and desirable stability for enriching protein partners, and reactivity in post-stage poly ADP-ribosylations. Owing to their simple chemistry and multidimensional bio-applications, the presented methods may provide a powerful platform to produce general molecular tools for the study of protein ADP-ribosylation.