Absence of an osteopetrosis phenotype in IKBKG (NEMO) mutation-positive women: A case-control study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO), encoded by IKBKG, is necessary for activation of the ubiquitous transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B). Animal studies suggest NEMO is required for NF-?B mediated bone homeostasis, but this has not been thoroughly studied in humans. IKBKG loss-of-function mutation causes incontinentia pigmenti (IP), a rare X-linked disease featuring linear hypopigmentation, alopecia, hypodontia, and immunodeficiency. Single case reports describe osteopetrosis (OPT) in boys carrying hypomorphic IKBKG mutations. METHOD:We studied the bone phenotype in women with IP with evaluation of radiographs of the spine and non-dominant arm and leg; lumbar spine and femoral neck aBMD using DXA; ?-CT and histomorphometry of trans-iliac crest biopsy specimens; bone turnover markers; and cellular phenotype in bone marrow skeletal (stromal) stem cells (BM-MSCs) in a cross-sectional, age-, sex-, and BMI-matched case-control study. X-chromosome inactivation was measured in blood leucocytes and BM-MSCs using a PCR method with methylation of HpaII sites. NF-?B activity was quantitated in BM-MSCs using a luciferase NF-?B reporter assay. RESULTS:Seven Caucasian women with IP (age: 24-67?years and BMI: 20.0-35.2?kg/m2) and IKBKG mutation (del exon 4-10 (n?=?4); c.460C>T (n?=?3)) were compared to matched controls. The IKBKG mutation carriers had extremely skewed X-inactivation (>90:10%) in blood, but not in BM-MSCs. NF-?B activity was lower in BM-MSCs from IKBKG mutation carriers (n?=?5) compared to controls (3094?±?679 vs. 5422?±?1038/?g protein, p?
Project description:X-linked dominant incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) are caused by loss-of-function and hypomorphic IKBKG (also known as NEMO) mutations, respectively. We describe a European mother with mild IP and a Japanese mother without IP, whose 3 boys with EDA-ID died from ID. We identify the same private variant in an intron of IKBKG, IVS4+866 C>T, which was inherited from and occurred de novo in the European mother and Japanese mother, respectively. This mutation creates a new splicing donor site, giving rise to a 44-nucleotide pseudoexon (PE) generating a frameshift. Its leakiness accounts for NF-?B activation being impaired but not abolished in the boys' cells. However, aberrant splicing rates differ between cell types, with WT NEMO mRNA and protein levels ranging from barely detectable in leukocytes to residual amounts in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC-derived) macrophages, and higher levels in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neuronal precursor cells. Finally, SRSF6 binds to the PE, facilitating its inclusion. Moreover, SRSF6 knockdown or CLK inhibition restores WT NEMO expression and function in mutant cells. A recurrent deep intronic splicing mutation in IKBKG underlies a purely quantitative NEMO defect in males that is most severe in leukocytes and can be rescued by the inhibition of SRSF6 or CLK.
Project description:Studies suggest that genetic factors are associated with the etiology of learning disabilities. Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP, OMIM#308300), which is caused by mutations of the IKBKG/NEMO gene, is a rare X-linked genomic disorder (1:10000/20:000) that affects the neuroectodermal tissues. It always affects the skin and sometimes the hair, teeth, nails, eyes and central nervous system (CNS). Data from IP patients demonstrate the heterogeneity of the clinical phenotype; about 30% have CNS manifestations. This extreme variability suggests that IP patients might also have learning disabilities. However, no studies in the literature have evaluated the cognitive profile of IP patients. In fact, the learning disability may go unnoticed in general neurological analyses, which focus on major disabling manifestations of the CNS. Here, we investigated the neuropsychological outcomes of a selected group of IP-patients by focusing on learning disabilities. We enrolled 10 women with IP (7 without mental retardation and 3 with mild to severe mental retardation) whose clinical diagnosis had been confirmed by the presence of a recurrent deletion in the IKBKG/NEMO gene. The participants were recruited from the Italian patients' association (I.P.A.SS.I. Onlus). They were submitted to a cognitive assessment that included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale and a battery of tests examining reading, arithmetic and writing skills. We found that 7 patients had deficits in calculation/arithmetic reasoning and reading but not writing skills; the remaining 3 had severe to mild intellectual disabilities. Results of this comprehensive evaluation of the molecular and psychoneurological aspects of IP make it possible to place "learning disabilities" among the CNS manifestations of the disease and suggest that the IKBKG/NEMO gene is a genetic determinant of this CNS defect. Our findings indicate the importance of an appropriate psychoneurological evaluation of IP patients, which includes early assessment of learning abilities, to prevent the onset of this deficit.
Project description:Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) participate in the formation of bone marrow niches for hematopoietic stem cells. Donor MSCs can serve as a source of recovery for niches in patients with graft failure (GF) after allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation. Since only few MSCs reach the BM after intravenous injection, MSCs were implanted into the iliac spine. For 8 patients with GF after allo-BMT, another hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with simultaneous implantation of MSCs from their respective donors into cancellous bone was performed. BM was aspirated from the iliac crest of these patients at 1-2, 4-5, and 9 months after the intraosseous injection of donor MSCs. Patients' MSCs were cultivated, and chimerism was determined. In 6 out of 8 patients, donor hematopoiesis was restored. Donor cells (9.4?±?3.3%) were detected among MSCs. Thus, implanted MSCs remain localized at the site of administration and do not lose the ability to proliferate. These results suggest that MSCs could participate in the restoration of niches for donor hematopoietic cells or have an immunomodulatory effect, preventing repeated rejection of the graft. Perhaps, intraosseous implantation of MSCs contributes to the success of the second transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells and patient survival.
Project description:The covalent attachment of lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin to the zinc-finger domain of IKBKG/NEMO (also known as IKK?) is necessary for full activation of NF-?B. Impairments of this biochemical mechanism explain the deleterious effects of hypomorphic NEMO mutations on NF-?B signaling function in humans suffering from X-linked ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency. Nevertheless, the biological function of the NEMO zinc-finger domain in the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity is poorly understood. Here we show that dendritic cells from patients with EDI caused by a C-terminal E391X deletion of the zinc finger of NEMO exhibit impaired MAPK activation in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Interestingly, DCs from patients with a C417R missense mutation within the zinc finger domain of NEMO in which ubiquitination of NEMO is preserved are also defective in JNK and ERK activity following LPS stimulation. Our findings indicate that the structural integrity of the NEMO ZF domain is more important than its polyubiquitination for full activation of the MAPK. Furthermore, phosphorylation and polyubiquitination of upstream TAK1 were significantly reduced in the E391X zinc-finger deleted patients, indicating that the NEMO zinc finger may play an important role in assembling the proximal signaling complex for MAPK activation.
Project description:Precise control of the innate immune response is essential to ensure host defense against infection while avoiding inflammatory disease. Systems-level analyses of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated macrophages suggested that SHANK-associated RH domain-interacting protein (SHARPIN) might play a role in the TLR pathway. This hypothesis was supported by the observation that macrophages derived from chronic proliferative dermatitis mutation (cpdm) mice, which harbor a spontaneous null mutation in the Sharpin gene, exhibited impaired IL-12 production in response to TLR activation. Systems biology approaches were used to define the SHARPIN-regulated networks. Promoter analysis identified NF-?B and AP-1 as candidate transcription factors downstream of SHARPIN, and network analysis suggested selective attenuation of these pathways. We found that the effects of SHARPIN deficiency on the TLR2-induced transcriptome were strikingly correlated with the effects of the recently described hypomorphic L153P/panr2 point mutation in Ikbkg [NF-?B Essential Modulator (NEMO)], suggesting that SHARPIN and NEMO interact. We confirmed this interaction by co-immunoprecipitation analysis and furthermore found it to be abrogated by panr2. NEMO-dependent signaling was affected by SHARPIN deficiency in a manner similar to the panr2 mutation, including impaired p105 and ERK phosphorylation and p65 nuclear localization. Interestingly, SHARPIN deficiency had no effect on I?B? degradation and on p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SHARPIN is an essential adaptor downstream of the branch point defined by the panr2 mutation in NEMO.
Project description:The potential use of bone progenitors, multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) helping spine fusion is increasing, but convenient MSC sources and effective processing methods are critical factors yet to be optimised. The aim of this study was to test the effect of bone marrow processing on the MSC abundance and to compare the differentiation capabilities of vertebral body-bone marrow (VB-BM) MSCs versus iliac crest-bone marrow (IC-BM) MSCs. We assessed the effect of the red blood cell lysis (ammonium chloride, AC) and density-gradient centrifugation (Lymphoprep™, LMP), on the extracted VB-BM and IC-BM MSC numbers. The MSC abundance (indicated by colony counts and CD45lowCD271high cell numbers), phenotype, proliferation and tri-lineage differentiation of VB-BM MSCs were compared with donor-matched IC-BM MSCs. Importantly, the MSC attachment and osteogenesis were examined when VB-BM and IC-BM samples were loaded on a beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold. In contrast to LMP, using AC yielded more colonies from IC-BM and VB-BM aspirates (p = 0.0019 & p = 0.0201 respectively). For IC-BM and VB-BM, the colony counts and CD45lowCD271high cell numbers were comparable (p = 0.5186, p = 0.2640 respectively). Furthermore, cultured VB-BM MSCs exhibited the same phenotype, proliferative and adipogenic potential, but a higher osteogenic and chondrogenic capabilities than IC-BM MSCs (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0005 for calcium and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels, respectively). The gene expression data confirmed higher chondrogenesis for VB-BM MSCs than IC-BM MSCs, but osteogenic gene expression levels were comparable. When loaded on Vitoss™, both MSCs showed a similar degree of attachment and survival, but a better osteogenic ability was detected for VB-BM MSCs as measured by alkaline phosphatase activity (p = 0.0386). Collectively, the BM processing using AC had more MSC yield than using LMP. VB-BM MSCs have a comparable phenotype and proliferative capacity, but higher chondrogenesis and osteogenesis with or without using scaffold than donor-matched IC-BM MSCs. Given better accessibility, VB-BM could be an ideal MSC source for spinal bone fusion.
Project description:Bone marrow-Multipotential stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are increasingly used to treat complicated fracture healing e.g., non-union. Though, the quality of these autologous cells is not well characterized. We aimed to evaluate bone healing-related capacities of non-union BM-MSCs. Iliac crest-BM was aspirated from long-bone fracture patients with normal healing (U) or non-united (NU). Uncultured (native) CD271highCD45low cells or passage-zero cultured BM-MSCs were analyzed for gene expression levels, and functional assays were conducted using culture-expanded BM-MSCs. Blood samples were analyzed for serum cytokine levels. Uncultured NU-CD271highCD45low cells significantly expressed fewer transcripts of growth factor receptors, EGFR, FGFR1, and FGRF2 than U cells. Significant fewer transcripts of alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), osteocalcin (BGLAP), osteonectin (SPARC) and osteopontin (SPP1) were detected in NU-CD271highCD45low cells. Additionally, immunoregulation-related markers were differentially expressed between NU- and U-CD271highCD45low cells. Interestingly, passage-zero NU BM-MSCs showed low expression of immunosuppressive mediators. However, culture-expanded NU and U BM-MSCs exhibited comparable proliferation, osteogenesis, and immunosuppression. Serum cytokine levels were found similar for NU and U groups. Collectively, native NU-BM-MSCs seemed to have low proliferative and osteogenic capacities; therefore, enhancing their quality should be considered for regenerative therapies. Further research on distorted immunoregulatory molecules expression in BM-MSCs could potentially benefit the prediction of complicated fracture healing.
Project description:Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) (OMIM #308300) is a rare X-linked dominant neuroectodermal multisystemic syndrome due to mutations in the gene for NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO). A term newborn girl who was born with erythematous vesicular eruptions developed recurrent seizures during the first and second weeks of her life. The serial MRIs demonstrated diffuse, progressive brain infarctions and subsequent encephalomalacia as well as brain atrophy. Skin biopsy found it was consistent with the vesicular stage of IP. Genetic analysis revealed a deletion exon 4-10 in NEMO gene associated with IP. We hereby report a Korean female baby with IP confirmed by mutation analysis of NEMO gene.
Project description:Precise regulation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling is crucial for normal immune responses, and defective NF-?B activity underlies a range of immunodeficiencies. NF-?B is activated through two signaling cascades: the classical and noncanonical pathways. The classical pathway requires inhibitor of ?B kinase ? (IKK?) and NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO), and hypomorphic mutations in the gene encoding NEMO (ikbkg) lead to inherited immunodeficiencies, collectively termed NEMO-ID. Noncanonical NF-?B activation requires NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK) and IKK?, but not NEMO. We found that noncanonical NF-?B was basally active in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NEMO-ID patients and that noncanonical NF-?B signaling was similarly enhanced in cell lines lacking functional NEMO. NIK, which normally undergoes constitutive degradation, was aberrantly present in resting NEMO-deficient cells, and regulation of its abundance was rescued by reconstitution with full-length NEMO, but not a mutant NEMO protein unable to physically associate with IKK? or IKK?. Binding of NEMO to IKK? was not required for ligand-dependent stabilization of NIK or noncanonical NF-?B signaling. Rather, an intact and functional IKK complex was essential to suppress basal NIK activity in unstimulated cells. Despite interacting with IKK? and IKK? to form an IKK complex, NEMO mutants associated with immunodeficiency failed to rescue classical NF-?B signaling or reverse the accumulation of NIK. Together, these findings identify a crucial role for classical NF-?B activity in the suppression of basal noncanonical NF-?B signaling.
Project description:CONTEXT: The kindred described is the only known instance of a germ line loss of function mutation of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the impact of a loss of function mutation in the ER-alpha gene on histomorphometry, bone volumetric density, bone geometry and skeletal growth, and ER-alpha heterozygosity on spine density and adult height in an extended pedigree. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A longitudinal follow-up of the propositus with homozygous loss of function mutation of ER-alpha and single contact evaluation of the kindred were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Iliac crest bone biopsy and peripheral quantitative computed tomography of propositus with serial measures of areal spine bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone age were performed. Members of pedigree were evaluated for ER-alpha mutation carrier status and spine aBMD. RESULTS: Bone biopsy revealed marked osteopenia (cortex: 641 microm), low trabecular volume (10.6%), decreased thickness (76.2 microm), normal trabecular number, and low activation frequency (0.099/yr). Radial periosteal circumference was similar, endosteal circumference larger, and trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density markedly lower (158 and 1092 mg/cm(3), respectively) than controls. Spine aBMD at age 28.5 yr (0.745 g/cm(2)) decreased to 0.684 g/cm(2) (Z score -3.85) in 3.5 yr. Bone age advanced from 15-17.5 yr. Kindred analysis revealed that gene carriers had spine aBMD Z scores less than zero (P = 0.003), but carriers and nonmutant members were similar (-0.84 +/- 0.26 vs. -0.64 +/- 0.16). CONCLUSION: Homozygous ER-alpha disruption markedly affects bone growth, mineral content, and structure but not periosteal circumference. ER-alpha heterozygosity appears to not impair spine aBMD.