The effects of flipped classrooms on undergraduate pharmaceutical marketing learning: A clustered randomized controlled study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Recently, flipped classrooms (FCs) have gradually been used in Chinese higher education settings. However, few studies have focused on the effects of FCs on interdisciplinary curricula. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an FC on the engagement, performance, and perceptions of students and on teacher-student interaction in a pharmaceutical marketing course. DESIGN:A clustered randomized controlled study was conducted, with 137 junior-year pharmacy undergraduates using an FC serving as the intervention group, in contrast to students using lecture-based learning (LBL) as the control group. Flanders' interaction analysis system (FIAS) was used to measure teacher-student interaction, and questionnaires regarding attitudes toward and satisfaction with the teaching model were administered. RESULTS:The students in the FC group scored significantly higher than those in the LBL group (88.21±5.95 vs. 80.05±5.59, t = -8.08, p = 0.000) on pharmaceutical marketing. The multiple linear regression results showed that the FC model had a significant impact on student performance (? = 8.16, p<0.0001). The percentages of teacher talk in the FC and LBL groups were 21% and 96%, respectively (?2 = 2170.274, p = 0.000); however, the percentages of student talk in the FC and LBL groups were 75% and 2.6%, respectively (?2 = 2012.483, p = 0.000). Compared with the LBL group, most students in the FC group held more positive attitudes toward the teaching model; the mean scores for the 8 attitude attributes in the FC group were significantly higher than those in the LBL group (p = 0.000). There were significant differences in the ratings of satisfaction with teacher-student interaction (p = 0.000), the students' learning attitude (p = 0.000), the teacher's preparatory work (p = 0.000), the teaching objective (p = 0.000), and the teaching effect (p = 0.000) between the two groups. CONCLUSION:Compared with LBL methods, implementing the FC model improved student performance, increased teacher-student interaction and generated positive student attitudes toward the experience. As an effective pedagogical model, it can also stimulate pharmacy students' learning interest and improve their self-learning abilities.
Project description:There has been little attention given to teaching beliefs of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), even though they represent the primary teaching workforce for undergraduate students in discussion and laboratory sections at many research universities. Secondary school education studies have shown that teaching beliefs are malleable and can be shaped by professional development, particularly for inexperienced teachers. This study characterized inexperienced GTAs' teaching beliefs about student learning and how they change with a science-specific pedagogy course that emphasized student learning. GTA teaching beliefs were characterized as traditional (providing information to students), instructive (providing activities for students), and transitional (focusing on student-teacher relationships). At the start of the course, traditional, instructive, and transitional beliefs were emphasized comparably in the concept maps and presentations of inexperienced GTAs. At the end of the course, although GTAs' beliefs remained mostly teacher focused, they were more instructive than traditional or transitional. GTAs included teaching strategies and jargon from the course in their concept maps but provided minimal explanations about how opportunities for active student engagement would impact student learning. These results suggest there is a need to provide ongoing discipline-specific professional development to inexperienced GTAs as they develop and strengthen their teaching beliefs about student learning.
Project description:Teaching large numbers of students can be a challenge for both teachers and students. Implementing new teaching strategies may be 1 way to address the problem. This article presents the impact of using Gagne's 9 events of instruction on student learning and course evaluations over a 3-semester period. Student evaluations indicated enhanced teacher mastery, effectiveness, and enthusiasm. Overall student final grades increased.
Project description:Performed in a Slovenian higher education institution, the presented research was designed to help investigate which factors influence the ways a student perceives an e-course's usefulness in a blended learning environment. The study is based on an online questionnaire completed by 539 students whose participation in the survey was voluntary. Using structural equation modelling, the students' perceptions of different aspects were investigated, including their attitudes to course topics and technology, learning preferences, teachers' role in course design and managing the teaching process. The empirical results show e-learning is positively perceived to be usefulness when: (1) the teacher is engaged and their activities in an e-course, with the (2) a student's attitude to the subject matter and the lecturer's classroom performance having a direct impact, and (3) technology acceptance having an indirect impact. No major differences were revealed when the model was tested on student subgroups sorted by gender, year of study, and students' weekly spare-time activities.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:At present, current didactic teaching delivery method help nursing students apply theory to clinical situations in an inefficient way. The flipped classroom (FC), a novel teaching mode emphasizing self-study and critical thinking, has generated interest in nursing education in China. However, there are a gap in the literature and no consistent outcomes of current studies which compared FC and lecture-based learning (LBL), and no systematic review has comprehensively compared theoretical scores as an affected outcome in FC versus LBL modes. METHODS:In this review, we analyze flipped-learning nursing students' scores, and aim to assess the efficacy and provide a deeper understanding of the FC in nursing education. Following the inclusion criteria, articles were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase and Chinese data, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, and VIP database until 3 January 2020. Data were extracted from eligible articles and quality was assessed. A meta-analysis was then performed using a random effects model with a standardized mean value (SMD) and a 95% confidence interval (CI).32 studies were included after reviewing 2,439 citations. All studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The FC theoretical knowledge scores in FC were significantly positively affected compared to those of the traditional classroom (SMD = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02-1.64; P < 0.001). In addition, 23 studies reported skill scores, indicating significant difference between the FC mode and LBL mode (SMD = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.23-1.93; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The results of this meta-analysis suggest that compared to the LBL teaching method, the FC mode dose significantly improve Chinese nursing students' theoretical scores. However, the problems of heterogeneity and publication bias in this study need to be remedied high-quality future studies.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>According to the CanMEDS' Scholar competency, physicians are expected to facilitate the learning of colleagues, patients and other health professionals. However, most medical students are not provided with formal opportunities to gain teaching experience with objective feedback.<h4>Methods</h4>To address this, the University's Medical Education Interest Group (MEIG) created a pilot teaching program in January 2015 entitled 'MedTalks'. Four 3-hour sessions were held at the University Faculty of Medicine, where first and second year medical students taught clinically oriented topics to undergraduate university students. Each extracurricular session included three 30-minute content lectures, and a 90-minute small group session on physical examination skills. Each medical student-teacher received formal feedback from undergraduate students and from faculty educators regarding teaching style, communication abilities, and professionalism. In addition, medical student-teachers self-evaluated their own teaching experience.<h4>Results</h4>Over 50 medical students from the University participated as medical student-teachers. Based on quantitative and qualitative evaluation surveys, 100% of medical students agreed that MedTalks was a useful way to develop teaching skills and 92% gained a greater confidence in individual teaching capabilities, based largely on the opportunity to gain experience (with feedback) in teaching roles.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A program designed to give medical students multi-source teaching experience (lecture- and small group-based) and feedback on their teaching (from learners and Faculty observers, in addition to their own self-reflection) can improve medical student confidence and enthusiasm towards teaching. Future studies will clarify if medical student self-perceived enhancements in teaching ability can be corroborated by independent (Faculty, learner) observations of future teaching activity.
Project description:Medical education remains the onerous responsibility of the senior medical fraternity. Not being formally trained calls for periodic introspection to be more effective teachers. This study, involving the fourth year medical students revealed a great need for self-reflection to improve the Style of teaching, ensuring greater involvement of the students and teaching what is appropriate to the stage of study. Aggressive behaviour was inimical to good learning. A better student teacher communication and the ability to run the session' are important indicators of good teaching. A continued self-evaluation by teachers will improve student learning and medical education.
Project description:Background:Teaching of maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) is challenging for dental educators due to the varied sinus anatomy and high rate of complications. The method integrating problem-based learning and case-based learning (PBL-CBL method) may be more effective than the traditional teacher-centered method. The aim is to evaluate the efficacy of the PBL-CBL method in teaching MSFA. Materials & Methods:Ninety-two students who received training between 2015 and 2017 at the Department of Implant Dentistry were divided randomly into an experimental group and a control group. Students in the experimental group were trained using the PBL-CBL method, while those in the control group were trained using the traditional teacher-centered method. After three months of training, a survey of the students' opinions about the corresponding teaching method was carried out through a feedback questionnaire. A theory test was used to investigate the level of MSFA knowledge among the students. A case analysis was designed to test whether the students can apply the knowledge in solving new problems. Results:Compared with the control method, the PBL-CBL method resulted in higher scores in both the theory test and the case analysis, and obtained a higher rate of satisfaction among the students. The difference in scores between the two methods were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion:The PBL-CBL method resulted in better results regarding acquisition of academic knowledge, ability in case analysis and student satisfaction compared with the teacher-centered method. It may be a promising mode for teaching complex surgical techniques in implant dentistry and other dental fields.
Project description:To ensure online collaborative learning meets the intended pedagogical goals (is actually collaborative and stimulates learning), mechanisms are needed for monitoring the efficiency of online collaboration. Various studies have indicated that social network analysis can be particularly effective in studying students' interactions in online collaboration. However, research in education has only focused on the theoretical potential of using SNA, not on the actual benefits they achieved. This study investigated how social network analysis can be used to monitor online collaborative learning, find aspects in need of improvement, guide an informed intervention, and assess the efficacy of intervention using an experimental, observational repeated-measurement design in three courses over a full-term duration. Using a combination of SNA-based visual and quantitative analysis, we monitored three SNA constructs for each participant: the level of interactivity, the role, and position in information exchange, and the role played by each participant in the collaboration. On the group level, we monitored interactivity and group cohesion indicators. Our monitoring uncovered a non-collaborative teacher-centered pattern of interactions in the three studied courses as well as very few interactions among students, limited information exchange or negotiation, and very limited student networks dominated by the teacher. An intervention based on SNA-generated insights was designed. The intervention was structured into five actions: increasing awareness, promoting collaboration, improving the content, preparing teachers, and finally practicing with feedback. Evaluation of the intervention revealed that it has significantly enhanced student-student interactions and teacher-student interactions, as well as produced a collaborative pattern of interactions among most students and teachers. Since efficient and communicative activities are essential prerequisites for successful content discussion and for realizing the goals of collaboration, we suggest that our SNA-based approach will positively affect teaching and learning in many educational domains. Our study offers a proof-of-concept of what SNA can add to the current tools for monitoring and supporting teaching and learning in higher education.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Education in Japan and other Asian countries advocates the stereotypical passive learning style where students are limited in their breadth of knowledge dismissing anything not imparted by their teachers. With globalized education, professions are becoming very competitive, embracing student-centeredness compelling them to introduce active learning activities. A study funded by Japan's Ministry of Education conducted a needs analysis, proposed a solution, and implemented an active learning approach. Since the latter is still new in the Japanese teaching-learning environment, this current study aimed at assessing the willingness of undergraduate students of dental medicine to participate in active learning activities rather than the typical passive-style teaching-learning educational process. METHODS:Three active implementation-learning activities, namely International Group Discussions (IGD), Student-Teacher Experience (STE) and Role Play Activities (RPA) were included in the Dental English course in a classroom setting at a dental school in Japan. Students had to choose between participating in the activity or taking the final examination. Two hundred and three third-year undergraduate dental students participated over a 5-year period from October 2013 to March 2017. For IGD, the researchers assigned students to a topic and grouped them with visiting international exchange students. For STE, researchers gave students teacher-prepared presentation slides on basic dental topics, which they presented in front of their classmates. For RPA, students had to do prepared role-play and impromptu role play. Peer and teacher feedbacks of the activities were given to all students. At the end of the course, the students evaluated the active learning activities and wrote their comments in a free entry survey. RESULTS:All 203 students participated in the active learning activities confirming the changing learning needs of Japanese students in this dental school. The most common comment was that the class was interesting, fun, an easy-to-understand way to learn dental terms, and a safe way to express themselves in the English language. CONCLUSION:The majority of Japanese students preferred the active learning style. The study revealed that students reported greater engagement and better learning with proper guidance and time to prepare for the activities.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: To compare patients' enablement and satisfaction after teaching and non-teaching consultations. To explore patients' views about the possible impact that increased community based teaching of student doctors in their practice may have on the delivery of service and their attitudes towards direct involvement with students. DESIGN: Observational study using validated survey instruments (patient enablement index--PEI, and consultation satisfaction questionnaire--CSQ) administered after teaching consultations and non-teaching consultations. Ten focus groups (two from each practice), comprising five with patients participating in prearranged teaching sessions and five with patients not participating in these. SETTING: Five general practices in west Suffolk and southern Norfolk, England, that teach student doctors on the Cambridge graduate medical course. PARTICIPANTS: 240 patients attending teaching consultations (response rate 82%, 196 patients) and 409 patients attending non-teaching consultations (response rate 72%, 294 patients) received survey instruments. Ten focus groups with a total of 34 patients participating in prearranged teaching sessions and 20 patients not participating in these. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scores on the patient enablement index and consultation satisfaction questionnaire, analysed at the level of all patients, allowing for age, sex, general practitioner, and practice, and at the level of the individual general practitioner teacher. Qualitative analysis of focus group data. RESULTS: Patients' enablement or satisfaction was not reduced after teaching consultations compared with non-teaching consultations (mean difference in scores on the patient enablement index and consultation satisfaction questionnaire with adjustment for confounders 2.24% and 1.70%, respectively). This held true for analysis by all patients and by general practitioner teacher. Qualitative data showed that patients generally supported the teaching of student doctors in their practice. However, this support was conditional on receiving sufficient information about reasons for doctors' absence, the characteristics of students, and the nature of teaching planned. Many patients viewed their general practice as different from hospital and expected greater control over students' presence during their consultations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients' enablement and satisfaction are not impaired by students' participation in consultations. Patients generally support the teaching of student doctors in their general practice but expect to be provided with sufficient information and to have a choice about participation, so they can give informed consent. Recognising this when organising general practice based teaching is important.