Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Relapse-Free Survival Among Patients With Digestive Tract Cancers: The AMATERASU Randomized Clinical Trial.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Randomized clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation for secondary prevention in patients with cancer are needed, given positive results of observational studies. Objective:To determine whether postoperative vitamin D3 supplementation can improve survival of patients with digestive tract cancers overall and in subgroups stratified by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels. Design, Setting, and Participants:The AMATERASU trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at a single university hospital in Japan. Enrollment began in January 2010 and follow-up was completed in February 2018. Patients aged 30 to 90 years with cancers of the digestive tract from the esophagus to the rectum, stages I to III, were recruited. Of 439 eligible patients, 15 declined and 7 were excluded after operation. Interventions:Patients were randomized to receive oral supplemental capsules of vitamin D (2000 IU/d; n?=?251) or placebo (n?=?166) from the first postoperative outpatient visit to until the end of the trial. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was relapse-free survival time to relapse or death. The secondary outcome was overall survival time to death due to any cause. Subgroups analyzed had baseline serum 25(OH)D levels of 0 to less than 20 ng/mL, 20 to 40 ng/mL, and greater than 40 ng/mL; because of small sample size for the highest-baseline-level group, interactions were tested only between the low- and middle-baseline-level groups. Results:All 417 randomized patients (mean age, 66 years; male, 66%; esophageal cancer, 10%; gastric cancer, 42%; colorectal cancer, 48%) were included in the analyses. There was 99.8% follow-up over a median 3.5 (interquartile range, 2.3-5.3) years, with maximal follow-up of 7.6 years. Relapse or death occurred in 50 patients (20%) randomized to vitamin D and 43 patients (26%) randomized to placebo. Death occurred in 37 (15%) in the vitamin D group and 25 (15%) in the placebo group. The 5-year relapse-free survival was 77% with vitamin D vs 69% with placebo (hazard ratio [HR] for relapse or death, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.50-1.14; P?=?.18). The 5-year overall survival in the vitamin D vs placebo groups was 82% vs 81% (HR for death, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.57-1.57; P?=?.83). In the subgroup of patients with baseline serum 25(OH)D levels between 20 and 40 ng/mL, the 5-year relapse-free survival was 85% with vitamin D vs 71% with placebo (HR for relapse or death, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.86; P?=?.02; P?=?.04 for interaction). Fractures occurred in 3 patients (1.3%) in the vitamin D group and 5 (3.4%) in the placebo group. Urinary stones occurred in 2 patients (0.9%) in the vitamin D group and 0 in the placebo group. Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with digestive tract cancer, vitamin D supplementation, compared with placebo, did not result in significant improvement in relapse-free survival at 5 years. Trial Registration:UMIN Identifier: UMIN000001977.
Project description:UNLABELLED:<u> BACKGROUND:</u> Vitamin D insufficiency is common in cystic fibrosis (CF) and vitamin D repletion may have an important role in improving clinical outcomes in CF. This randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study examined the feasibility and impact of a single, large dose of cholecalciferol on vitamin D status and clinical outcomes in subjects with CF. <u> METHODS:</u> Thirty adults with were randomized in a double-blinded, pilot study to receive 250,000 IU cholecalciferol or placebo within 48 h of hospital admission for a pulmonary exacerbation. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), clinical outcomes and potential adverse events were assessed up to one year after randomization. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to evaluate the difference in mean serum concentrations and log-rank analyses were used to evaluate survival. <u> RESULTS:</u> Data from all subjects was analyzed. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from a mean of 30.6 ± 3.2 ng/mL to 58.1 ± 3.5 ng/mL (p < 0.001) at one week and 36.7 ± 2.6 ng/mL by 12 weeks (p = 0.06) in the vitamin D group; in contrast, serum 25(OH)D concentrations remained unchanged in the placebo group. Unadjusted, one-year survival and hospital-free days were increased in the vitamin D group (p = 0.029, p = 0.036; respectively). There was also a trend toward increased IV antibiotic therapy-free days in the vitamin D group (p = 0.073). There were no signs of hypervitaminosis D or adverse events. Serum PTH and calcium concentrations were similar across both groups. <u> CONCLUSIONS:</u> In this pilot study, a single, oral bolus of cholecalciferol increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations and was associated with a trend toward improved clinical outcomes in CF subjects hospitalized for a pulmonary exacerbation. Further investigation is needed into the clinical impact of improved vitamin D status in patients with CF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vitamin D deficiency is a common, potentially reversible contributor to morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. The potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in acute critical illness require further study. METHODS:We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of early vitamin D3 supplementation in critically ill, vitamin D-deficient patients who were at high risk for death. Randomization occurred within 12 hours after the decision to admit the patient to an intensive care unit. Eligible patients received a single enteral dose of 540,000 IU of vitamin D3 or matched placebo. The primary end point was 90-day all-cause, all-location mortality. RESULTS:A total of 1360 patients were found to be vitamin D-deficient during point-of-care screening and underwent randomization. Of these patients, 1078 had baseline vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D level, <20 ng per milliliter [50 nmol per liter]) confirmed by subsequent testing and were included in the primary analysis population. The mean day 3 level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 46.9±23.2 ng per milliliter (117±58 nmol per liter) in the vitamin D group and 11.4±5.6 ng per milliliter (28±14 nmol per liter) in the placebo group (difference, 35.5 ng per milliliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31.5 to 39.6). The 90-day mortality was 23.5% in the vitamin D group (125 of 531 patients) and 20.6% in the placebo group (109 of 528 patients) (difference, 2.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -2.1 to 7.9; P?=?0.26). There were no clinically important differences between the groups with respect to secondary clinical, physiological, or safety end points. The severity of vitamin D deficiency at baseline did not affect the association between the treatment assignment and mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Early administration of high-dose enteral vitamin D3 did not provide an advantage over placebo with respect to 90-day mortality or other, nonfatal outcomes among critically ill, vitamin D-deficient patients. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; VIOLET ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03096314.).
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>There has been no prospective study that examined intramuscular injection of high-dose vitamin D in Korean adults. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of high-dose vitamin D<sub>3</sub> after intramuscular injection in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency.<h4>Method</h4>This study was a 24-week, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 84 subjects ?19 and <65 years of age were randomly allocated to either the vitamin D<sub>3</sub> or placebo group in a 2:1 ratio. After randomization, a single injection of plain vitamin D<sub>3</sub> 200,000 IU or placebo was intramuscularly administered. If serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations were <30 ng/mL on week 12 or thereafter, a repeat injection was administered.<h4>Results</h4>After a single intramuscular injection of vitamin D<sub>3</sub> to adults with vitamin D deficiency, the proportion of subjects with serum 25(OH)D concentrations ?30 ng/mL within 12 weeks was 46.4% in the vitamin D<sub>3</sub> group and 3.6% in the placebo group (p < 0.0001). The proportion of subjects with serum 25(OH)D concentrations ?30 ng/mL within 24 weeks was 73.2% in the vitamin D<sub>3</sub> group and 3.6% in the placebo group (p < 0.0001). Mean change in serum 25(OH)D concentrations at weeks 12 and 24 after vitamin D<sub>3</sub> injection was 12.8 ± 8.1 and 21.5 ± 8.1 ng/mL, respectively, in the vitamin D<sub>3</sub> group, with no significant changes in the placebo group. Serum parathyroid hormone concentrations showed a significant decrease in the vitamin D<sub>3</sub> group but no change in the placebo group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Intramuscular injection of vitamin D<sub>3</sub> 200,000 IU was superior to placebo in terms of its impact on serum 25(OH)D concentrations, and is considered to be safe and effective in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency.
Project description:Background:Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) decreases bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized that vitamin D3 (VITD3) would increase BMD in youth receiving TDF. Methods:This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of directly observed VITD3 vs placebo every 4 weeks for 48 weeks in youth aged 16-24 years with HIV, RNA load <200 copies/mL, taking TDF-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (TDF-cART) for ?180 days. Participants (N = 214) received a daily multivitamin containing VITD3 400 IU and calcium 162 mg, plus monthly randomized VITD3 50000 IU (n = 109) or placebo (n = 105). Outcome was change from baseline to week 48 in lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD). Data presented are median (Q1, Q3). Results:Participants were aged 22.0 (21.0, 23.0) years, 84% were male, and 74% were black/African American. At baseline, 62% had 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) <20 ng/mL. Multivitamin adherence was 49% (29%, 69%), and VITD3/placebo adherence 100% (100%, 100%). Vitamin D intake was 2020 (1914, 2168) and 284 (179, 394) IU/day, and serum 25-OHD concentration was 36.9 (30.5, 42.4) and 20.6 (14.4, 25.8) ng/mL at 48 weeks in VITD3 and placebo groups, respectively (P < .001). From baseline to week 48, LSBMD increased by 1.15% (-0.75% to 2.74%) in the VITD3 group (n = 99; P < .001) and 0.09% (-1.49% to 2.61%) in the placebo group (n = 89; P = .25), without between-group difference (P = .12). VITD3 group changes occurred with baseline 25-OHD <20 ng/mL (1.17% [-.82% to 2.90%]; P = .004) and ?20 ng/mL (0.93% [-.26% to 2.15%]; P = .033). Conclusions:For youth taking TDF-cART, LSBMD increased through 48 weeks with VITD3 plus multivitamin, but not with placebo plus multivitamin, independent of baseline vitamin D status. Clinical Trials Registration:NCT01751646.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the critically ill patient population. Several intensive care unit studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 20 ng/mL] and increased hospital length of stay (LOS), readmission rate, sepsis and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Pilot, double blind randomized control trial conducted on mechanically ventilated adult ICU patients. Subjects were administered either placebo, 50,000 IU vitamin D3 or 100,000 IU vitamin D3 daily for 5 consecutive days enterally (total vitamin D3 dose = 250,000 IU or 500,000 IU, respectively). The primary outcome was plasma 25(OH)D concentration 7 days after oral administration of study drug. Secondary outcomes were plasma levels of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (LL37), hospital LOS, SOFA score, duration of mechanical ventilation, hospital mortality, mortality at 12 weeks, and hospital acquired infection. RESULTS:A total of 31 subjects were enrolled with 13 (43%) being vitamin D deficient at entry (25(OH)D levels < 20 ng/mL). The 250,000 IU and 500,000 IU vitamin D3 regimens each resulted in a significant increase in mean plasma 25(OH)D concentrations from baseline to day 7; values rose to 45.7±19.6 ng/mL and 55.2 ± 14.4 ng/mL, respectively, compared to essentially no change in the placebo group (21±11.2 ng/mL), p<0.001. There was a significant decrease in hospital length of stay over time in the 250,000 IU and the 500,000 IU vitamin D3 group, compared to the placebo group (25 ± 14 and 18 ± 11 days compared to 36 ± 19 days, respectively; p=0.03). There was no statically significant change in plasma LL-37 concentrations or other clinical outcomes by group over time. CONCLUSIONS:In this pilot study, high-dose vitamin D3 safely increased plasma 25(OH)D concentrations into the sufficient range and was associated with decreased hospital length of stay without altering other clinical outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01372995).
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To compare the effects of 12 months of vitamin D3 supplementation with that placebo on lean mass, bone mineral density (BMD), and muscle strength in overweight or obese postmenopausal women completing a structured weight-loss program. DESIGN:Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. SETTING:Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington. PARTICIPANTS:Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 75 with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater and a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration between 10.0 and 32.0 ng/mL (insufficient) (N = 218). INTERVENTION:Oral vitamin D3 2,000 IU/d or placebo in combination with a lifestyle-based weight loss intervention consisting of a reduction of 500 kcal to 1,000 kcal per day and 225 min/wk of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise. MEASUREMENTS:Serum 25(OH)D, body composition, and muscle strength were measured before randomization (baseline) and at 12 months. Mean changes of the groups were compared (intention to treat) using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS:Change in 25(OH)D was significantly different between the vitamin D and placebo groups at 12 months (13.6 ng/mL vs -1.3 ng/mL, P < .001), but no differences in change in lean mass (-0.8 kg vs -1.1 kg, P = .53) or BMD of the spine (-0.01 g/cm(2) vs 0.0 g/cm(2) , P = .82) or right femoral neck (both -0.01 g/cm(2) , P = .49) were detected between the groups. Leg strength decreased in the vitamin D group but not in the placebo group (-2.6 pounds vs 1.8 pounds, P = .03). In women randomized to vitamin D, achieving repletion (25(OH)D ? 32 ng/mL) did not alter results. CONCLUSION:Vitamin D3 supplementation during weight-loss decreased leg strength but did not alter changes in lean mass or BMD in postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency.
Project description:Several studies have suggested that low 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels may be prognostic in some malignancies, but no studies have evaluated their impact on treatment outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).Vitamin D levels were evaluated in 97 consecutive, newly diagnosed, intensively treated patients with AML. MicroRNA expression profiles and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 25(OH) vitamin D3 pathway genes were evaluated and correlated with 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels and treatment outcome.Thirty-four patients (35%) had normal 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels (32-100 ng/mL), 34 patients (35%) had insufficient levels (20-31.9 ng/mL), and 29 patients (30%) had deficient levels (<20 ng/mL). Insufficient/deficient 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels were associated with worse relapse-free survival (RFS) compared with normal vitamin D3 levels. In multivariate analyses, deficient 25(OH) vitamin D3 , smoking, European Leukemia Network genetic group, and white blood cell count retained their statistical significance for RFS. Several microRNAs and SNPs were associated with 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels, although none remained significant after multiple test corrections; one 25(OH) vitamin D3 receptor SNP, rs10783219, was associated with a lower complete remission rate (P =?.0442) and with shorter RFS (P =?.0058) and overall survival (P =?.0011).It remains to be determined what role microRNA and SNP profiles play in contributing to low 25(OH) vitamin D3 level and/or outcome and whether supplementation will improve outcomes for patients with AML.
Project description:Dosages of vitamin D necessary to prevent or treat vitamin D deficiency in children remain to be clarified.To determine the effects of vitamin D3 1000 IU/d on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], PTH, and markers of bone turnover (osteocalcin and collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide) in black children and white children, and to explore whether there is a threshold level of 25(OH)D associated with maximal suppression of serum PTH concentration.Healthy 8- to 14-year-old Pittsburgh-area black (n = 84) and white (n = 73) children not receiving vitamin supplements, enrolled from October through March from 2008 through 2011, were randomized to vitamin D3 1000 IU or placebo daily for 6 months.The mean baseline concentration of 25(OH)D was <20 ng/mL in both the vitamin D-supplemented group and the placebo group (19.8 ± 7.6 and 18.8 ± 6.9 ng/mL, respectively). The mean concentration was higher in the supplemented group than in the placebo group at 2 months (26.4 ± 8.1 vs 18.9 ± 8.1 ng/mL; P < .0001) and also at 6 months (26.7 ± 7.6 vs 22.4 ± 7.3; P = .003), after adjusting for baseline 25(OH)D, race, gender, pubertal status, dietary vitamin D intake, body mass index, and sunlight exposure. Increases were only significant in black children, when examined by race. The association between 25(OH)D and PTH concentrations was inverse and linear, without evidence of a plateau. Overall, vitamin D supplementation had no effect on PTH and bone turnover.Vitamin D3 supplementation with 1000 IU/d in children with mean baseline 25(OH)D concentration <20 ng/mL effectively raised their mean 25(OH)D concentration to ?20 ng/mL but failed to reach 30 ng/mL. Vitamin D supplementation had no effect on PTH concentrations.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among hemodialysis patients, but little data exist in support of an optimal repletion regimen.The objective was to ascertain the efficacy of weekly very-high-dose cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3)) in correcting vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in patients with stage 5D chronic kidney disease.We conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled pilot study that compared placebo with very high doses of oral cholecalciferol for 3 wk (200,000 IU/wk) in hemodialysis patients. We examined the rate of correction of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and the effect of treatment on markers of mineral metabolism and routine laboratory variables.Twenty-seven subjects received placebo, and 25 received cholecalciferol. The majority (94%) of subjects had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations <30 ng/mL. Study groups were similar with respect to baseline clinical characteristics, with the exception of hemoglobin concentrations, which were lower in the cholecalciferol-treated group (P < 0.04). At follow-up, 90.5% of subjects treated with cholecalciferol achieved serum 25(OH)D concentrations ?30 ng/mL in contrast to 13.6% of the placebo group. There were no significant changes in serum calcium, phosphate, or intact parathyroid hormone during the study.Short-term, high-dose oral cholecalciferol treatment of vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients appears to be effective and with no evidence of toxic effects. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00912782.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Cohort studies have reported increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with low vitamin D status. To date, randomized clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation have not found an effect, possibly because of using too low a dose of vitamin D.<h4>Objective</h4>To examine whether monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation prevents CVD in the general population.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>The Vitamin D Assessment Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that recruited participants mostly from family practices in Auckland, New Zealand, from April 5, 2011, through November 6, 2012, with follow-up until July 2015. Participants were community-resident adults aged 50 to 84 years. Of 47?905 adults invited from family practices and 163 from community groups, 5110 participants were randomized to receive vitamin D3 (n?=?2558) or placebo (n?=?2552). Two participants retracted consent, and all others (n?=?5108) were included in the primary analysis.<h4>Interventions</h4>Oral vitamin D3 in an initial dose of 200?000 IU, followed a month later by monthly doses of 100?000 IU, or placebo for a median of 3.3 years (range, 2.5-4.2 years).<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The primary outcome was the number of participants with incident CVD and death, including a prespecified subgroup analysis in participants with vitamin D deficiency (baseline deseasonalized 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels <20 ng/mL). Secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, arteriosclerosis, stroke, and venous thrombosis.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 5108 participants included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 65.9 (8.3) years, 2969 (58.1%) were male, and 4253 (83.3%) were of European or other ethnicity, with the remainder being Polynesian or South Asian. Mean (SD) baseline deseasonalized 25(OH)D concentration was 26.5 (9.0) ng/mL, with 1270 participants (24.9%) being vitamin D deficient. In a random sample of 438 participants, the mean follow-up 25(OH)D level was greater than 20 ng/mL higher in the vitamin D group than in the placebo group. The primary outcome of CVD occurred in 303 participants (11.8%) in the vitamin D group and 293 participants (11.5%) in the placebo group, yielding an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.87-1.20). Similar results were seen for participants with baseline vitamin D deficiency and for secondary outcomes.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation does not prevent CVD. This result does not support the use of monthly vitamin D supplementation for this purpose. The effects of daily or weekly dosing require further study.<h4>Trial registration</h4>clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: ACTRN12611000402943.