ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a cation channel associated with numerous diseases. It has a C-terminal NUDT9 homology (NUDT9H) domain responsible for binding adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (ADPR), and both ADPR and calcium (Ca2+) are required for TRPM2 activation. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of human TRPM2 alone, with ADPR, and with ADPR and Ca2+ NUDT9H forms both intra- and intersubunit interactions with the N-terminal TRPM homology region (MHR1/2/3) in the apo state but undergoes conformational changes upon ADPR binding, resulting in rotation of MHR1/2 and disruption of the intersubunit interaction. The binding of Ca2+ further engages transmembrane helices and the conserved TRP helix to cause conformational changes at the MHR arm and the lower gating pore to potentiate channel opening. These findings explain the molecular mechanism of concerted TRPM2 gating by ADPR and Ca2+ and provide insights into the gating mechanism of other TRP channels.
Project description:Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel essential for immunocyte activation, insulin secretion, and postischemic cell death. TRPM2 is activated by ADP ribose (ADPR) binding to its C-terminal cytosolic NUDT9-homology (NUDT9H) domain, homologous to the soluble mitochondrial ADPR pyrophosphatase (ADPRase) NUDT9. Reported ADPR hydrolysis classified TRPM2 as a channel-enzyme, but insolubility of isolated NUDT9H hampered further investigations. Here we developed a soluble NUDT9H model using chimeric proteins built from complementary polypeptide fragments of NUDT9H and NUDT9. When expressed in E.coli, chimeras containing up to ~90% NUDT9H sequence remained soluble and were affinity-purified. In ADPRase assays the conserved Nudix-box sequence of NUDT9 proved essential for activity (kcat~4-9s(-1)), that of NUDT9H did not support catalysis. Replacing NUDT9H in full-length TRPM2 with soluble chimeras retained ADPR-dependent channel gating (K1/2~1-5 ?M), confirming functionality of chimeric domains. Thus, TRPM2 is not a 'chanzyme'. Chimeras provide convenient soluble NUDT9H models for structural/biochemical studies.
Project description:TRPM2 is critically involved in diverse physiological processes including core temperature sensing, apoptosis, and immune response. TRPM2's activation by Ca2+ and ADP ribose (ADPR), an NAD+-metabolite produced under oxidative stress and neurodegenerative conditions, suggests a role in neurological disorders. We provide a central concept between triple-site ligand binding and the channel gating of human TRPM2. We show consecutive structural rearrangements and channel activation of TRPM2 induced by binding of ADPR in two indispensable locations, and the binding of Ca2+ in the transmembrane domain. The 8-Br-cADPR-an antagonist of cADPR-binds only to the MHR1/2 domain and inhibits TRPM2 by stabilizing the channel in an apo-like conformation. We conclude that MHR1/2 acts as a orthostatic ligand-binding site for TRPM2. The NUDT9-H domain binds to a second ADPR to assist channel activation in vertebrates, but not necessary in invertebrates. Our work provides insights into the gating mechanism of human TRPM2 and its pharmacology.
Project description:TRPM2 (transient receptor potential channel, subfamily melastatin, member 2) is a Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel activated by the binding of adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADPR) to its cytoplasmic NUDT9H domain (NUDT9 homology domain). Activation of TRPM2 by ADPR downstream of oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, rendering TRPM2 an attractive novel target for pharmacological intervention. However, the structural basis underlying this activation is largely unknown. Since ADP (adenosine 5'-diphosphate) alone did not activate or antagonize the channel, we used a chemical biology approach employing synthetic analogues to focus on the role of the ADPR terminal ribose. All novel ADPR derivatives modified in the terminal ribose, including that with the seemingly minor change of methylating the anomeric-OH, abolished agonist activity at TRPM2. Antagonist activity improved as the terminal substituent increasingly resembled the natural ribose, indicating that gating by ADPR might require specific interactions between hydroxyl groups of the terminal ribose and the NUDT9H domain. By mutating amino acid residues of the NUDT9H domain, predicted by modelling and docking to interact with the terminal ribose, we demonstrate that abrogating hydrogen bonding of the amino acids Arg1433 and Tyr1349 interferes with activation of the channel by ADPR. Taken together, using the complementary experimental approaches of chemical modification of the ligand and site-directed mutagenesis of TRPM2, we demonstrate that channel activation critically depends on hydrogen bonding of Arg1433 and Tyr1349 with the terminal ribose. Our findings allow for a more rational design of novel TRPM2 antagonists that may ultimately lead to compounds of therapeutic potential.
Project description:There are at least two different principles of how ADP-ribose (ADPR) induces activation of TRPM2 channels. In human TRPM2, gating requires the C-terminal NUDT9H domain as ADPR-binding module, whereas in sea anemone, NUDT9H is dispensable and binding of ADPR occurs N-terminally. Zebrafish TRPM2 needs both, the N-terminal ADPR-binding pocket and NUDT9H. Our aim was to pinpoint the relative functional contributions of NUDT9H and the N-terminal ADPR-binding pocket in zebrafish TRPM2, to identify fundamental mechanisms of ADPR-directed gating. We show that the NUDT9H domains of human and zebrafish TRPM2 are interchangeable since chimeras generate ADPR-sensitive channels. A point mutation at a highly conserved position within NUDT9H induces loss-of-function in both vertebrate channels. The substrate specificity of zebrafish TRPM2 corresponds to that of sea anemone TRPM2, indicating gating by the proposed N-terminal ADPR-binding pocket. However, a point mutation in this region abolishes ADPR activation also in human TRPM2. These findings provide functional evidence for an uniform N-terminal ADPR-binding pocket in TRPM2 of zebrafish and sea anemone with modified function in human TRPM2. The structural importance of NUDT9H in vertebrate TRPM2 can be associated with a single amino acid residue which is not directly involved in the binding of ADPR.
Project description:Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel expressed in immune cells of phagocytic lineage, pancreatic ? cells, and brain neurons and is activated under oxidative stress. TRPM2 activity is required for immune cell activation and insulin secretion and is responsible for postischemic neuronal cell death. TRPM2 is opened by binding of ADP ribose (ADPR) to its C-terminal cytosolic nudix-type motif 9 (NUDT9)-homology (NUDT9-H) domain, which, when expressed in isolation, cleaves ADPR into AMP and ribose-5-phosphate. A suggested coupling of this enzymatic activity to channel gating implied a potentially irreversible gating cycle, which is a unique feature of a small group of channel enzymes known to date. The significance of such a coupling lies in the conceptually distinct pharmacologic strategies for modulating the open probability of channels obeying equilibrium versus nonequilibrium gating mechanisms. Here we examine the potential coupling of TRPM2 enzymatic activity to pore gating. Mutation of several residues proposed to enhance or eliminate NUDT9-H catalytic activity all failed to affect channel gating kinetics. An ADPR analog, ?-?-methylene-ADPR (AMPCPR), was shown to be entirely resistant to hydrolysis by NUDT9, but nevertheless supported TRPM2 channel gating, albeit with reduced apparent affinity. The rate of channel deactivation was not slowed but, rather, accelerated in AMPCPR. These findings, as well as detailed analyses of steady-state gating kinetics of single channels recorded in the presence of a range of concentrations of ADPR or AMPCPR, identify TRPM2 as a simple ligand-gated channel that obeys an equilibrium gating mechanism uncoupled from its enzymatic activity.
Project description:Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a cation channel important for the immune response, insulin secretion, and body temperature regulation. It is activated by cytosolic ADP ribose (ADPR) and contains a nudix-type motif 9 (NUDT9)-homology (NUDT9-H) domain homologous to ADPR phosphohydrolases (ADPRases). Human TRPM2 (hsTRPM2) is catalytically inactive due to mutations in the conserved Nudix box sequence. Here, we show that TRPM2 Nudix motifs are canonical in all invertebrates but vestigial in vertebrates. Correspondingly, TRPM2 of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (nvTRPM2) and the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta (srTRPM2) are active ADPRases. Disruption of ADPRase activity fails to affect nvTRPM2 channel currents, reporting a catalytic cycle uncoupled from gating. Furthermore, pore sequence substitutions responsible for inactivation of hsTRPM2 also appeared in vertebrates. Correspondingly, zebrafish (Danio rerio) TRPM2 (drTRPM2) and hsTRPM2 channels inactivate, but srTRPM2 and nvTRPM2 currents are stable. Thus, catalysis and pore stability were lost simultaneously in vertebrate TRPM2 channels.
Project description:The human non-selective cation channel TRPM2 represents a mediator of apoptosis triggered by oxidative stress. The principal agonist ADP-ribose binds to the cytosolic domain of TRPM2, which is homologous to the human ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase NUDT9. To further elucidate the structure-function relationship of this channel, we characterised a TRPM2 orthologue from the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, after its expression in a human cell line. This far distant relative shows only 31% total sequence similarity to hTRPM2, while its C-terminal domain has a greater resemblance to the NUDT9 enzyme. Current through nvTRPM2 was induced by ADPR, with a more pronounced sensitivity and faster kinetics than in hTRPM2. In contrast to hTRPM2, there was no response to H2O2 and hardly any modulatory effect by intracellular Ca(2+). The deletion of a stretch of 15 residues from the NUDT9 domain of nvTRPM2, which is absent in hTRPM2, did not change the response to ADPR but enabled activation of the channel by H2O2 and increased the effects of intracellular Ca(2+). These findings shed new light on the evolution of TRPM2 and establish nvTRPM2 as a promising tool to decipher its complex gating mechanisms.
Project description:Activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel occurs during the response to oxidative stress under physiological conditions as well as in pathological processes such as ischemia and diabetes. Accumulating evidence indicates that adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is the most important endogenous ligand of TRPM2. However, although it is known that ADPR binds to the NUDT9 homology (NUDT9-H) domain in the intracellular C-terminal region, the molecular mechanism underlying ADPR binding and activation of TRPM2 remains unknown. In this study, we generate a structural model of the NUDT9-H domain and identify the binding pocket for ADPR using induced docking and molecular dynamics simulation. We find a subset of 11 residues-H1346, T1347, T1349, L1379, G1389, S1391, E1409, D1431, R1433, L1484, and H1488-that are most likely to directly interact with ADPR. Results from mutagenesis and electrophysiology approaches support the predicted binding mechanism, indicating that ADPR binds tightly to the NUDT9-H domain, and suggest that the most significant interactions are the van der Waals forces with S1391 and L1484, polar solvation interaction with E1409, and electronic interactions (including ?-? interactions) with H1346, T1347, Y1349, D1431, and H1488. These findings not only clarify the roles of a range of newly identified residues involved in ADPR binding in the TRPM2 channel, but also reveal the binding pocket for ADPR in the NUDT9-H domain, which should facilitate structure-based drug design for the TRPM2 channel.
Project description:TRPM2 is a non-selective, Ca2+-permeable cation channel, which plays a role in cell death but also contributes to diverse immune cell functions. In addition, TRPM2 contributes to the control of body temperature and is involved in perception of non-noxious heat and thermotaxis. TRPM2 is regulated by many factors including Ca2+, ADPR, 2'-deoxy-ADPR, Ca2+-CaM, and temperature. However, the molecular basis for the temperature sensitivity of TRPM2 as well as the interplay between the regulatory factors is still not understood. Here we identify a novel CaM-binding site in the unique NudT9H domain of TRPM2. Using a multipronged biophysical approach we show that binding of Ca2+-CaM to this site occurs upon partial unfolding at temperatures >35?°C and prevents further thermal destabilization. In combination with patch-clamp measurements of full-length TRPM2 our results suggest a role of this CaM-binding site in the temperature sensitivity of TRPM2. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: ECS Meeting edited by Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs and Jacques Haiech.
Project description:TRPM2 is a non-selective, Ca2+-permeable cation channel widely expressed in immune cells. It is firmly established that the channel can be activated by intracellular adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADPR). Until recent cryo-EM structures have exhibited an additional nucleotide binding site in the N-terminus of the channel, this activation was thought to occur via binding to a C-terminal domain of the channel that is highly homologous to the ADPR pyrophosphatase NudT9. Over the years it has been controversially discussed whether the Ca2+ mobilizing second messenger cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) might also directly activate Ca2+ entry via TRPM2. Here we will review the status of this discussion.