Mendelian randomization reveals unexpected effects of CETP on the lipoprotein profile.
ABSTRACT: According to the current dogma, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) decreases high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C) and increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C. However, detailed insight into the effects of CETP on lipoprotein subclasses is lacking. Therefore, we used a Mendelian randomization approach based on a genetic score for serum CETP concentration (rs247616, rs12720922 and rs1968905) to estimate causal effects per unit (µg/mL) increase in CETP on 159 standardized metabolic biomarkers, primarily lipoprotein subclasses. Metabolic biomarkers were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in 5672 participants of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study. Higher CETP concentrations were associated with less large HDL (largest effect XL-HDL-C, P?=?6?×?10-22) and more small VLDL components (largest effect S-VLDL cholesteryl esters, P?=?6?×?10-6). No causal effects were observed with LDL subclasses. All these effects were replicated in an independent cohort from European ancestry (MAGNETIC NMR GWAS; n ~20,000). Additionally, we assessed observational associations between ELISA-measured CETP concentration and metabolic measures. In contrast to results from Mendelian randomization, observationally, CETP concentration predominantly associated with more VLDL, IDL and LDL components. Our results show that CETP is an important causal determinant of HDL and VLDL concentration and composition, which may imply that the CETP inhibitor anacetrapib decreased cardiovascular disease risk through specific reduction of small VLDL rather than LDL. The contrast between genetic and observational associations might be explained by a high capacity of VLDL, IDL and LDL subclasses to carry CETP, thereby concealing causal effects on HDL.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Sitosterolemia displays high plasma total sterols [high plant sterols (PS) + normal to high total cholesterol (TC)] with normal to moderately elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. High LDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and increased non-HDL and the ratios of TC and triglycerides (TG) to HDL can increase the risk for atherosclerosis. Ezetimibe (EZE) can reduce plasma PS and TC levels in sitosterolemia, but its effect on lipoprotein subclasses has not been previously reported. METHODS:Sitosterolemia patients (n = 8) were taken off EZE for 14 weeks (OFF EZE) and placed on EZE (10 mg/d) for 14 weeks (ON EZE). Serum lipids were measured enzymatically and lipoprotein subclasses were assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS:EZE reduced (p < 0.05) total sterols (-12.5 ± 4.1%) and LDL-sterol (-22.7 ± 5.7%) and its sterol mass of large VLDL (-24.4 ± 4.5%), VLDL remnants (-21.1 ± 7.9%) and large IDL (-22.4 ± 7.2%) compared to OFF EZE. EZE did not affect large LDL subclasses or mean LDL particle size (273.8 ± 0.6 vs. 274.6 ± 0.3 Å). EZE increased HDL-sterol (25.5 ± 8.0%, p = 0.008) including intermediate (34 ± 14%, p = 0.02) and large (33 ± 16%, p = 0.06) HDL. EZE reduced non-HDL-sterol (-21.8± 5.0%), total sterols/HDL (-28.2 ± 5.5%) and TG/HDL (-27.4 ± 6.5%, all p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:EZE improves VLDL and HDL subfraction distribution, thereby reducing the atherogenic lipid profile, thus providing potential clinical benefit in sitosterolemia beyond TC and PS reduction.
Project description:Disturbance in lipid metabolism has been suggested as a major pathogenic factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Conventional lipid measures have been inconsistently associated with AMD. Other factors that can alter lipid metabolism include lipoprotein phenotype and genetic mutations. We performed a case-control study to examine the association between lipoprotein profile and neovascular AMD (nAMD) and whether the cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP) D442G mutation modulates these associations. Patients with nAMD had significantly higher concentrations of HDL and IDL compared with controls. The increase in HDL particles in nAMD patients was driven by an excess of medium-sized particles. Concurrently, patients with nAMD also had lower Apo A-1, lower VLDL and chylomicron lipoprotein. Many of these associations showed a dose-dependent association between controls, early AMD cases, and nAMD cases. Adjustment for the presence of the D442G mutation at the CETP locus did not significantly alter the increased AMD risk associated with HDL particle concentration. AMD is associated with variation in many lipoprotein subclasses, including increased HDL and IDL particles and decreased Apo A-1, VLDL, and chylomicron particles. These data suggest widespread systemic disturbance in lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of AMD, including possible alterations in lipoprotein carrier capacity.
Project description:Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) may exert an important protective role by preventing the oxidative transformation of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively). The activity of both enzymes is influenced by lipidome and proteome of the lipoprotein carriers. T2DM typically presents significant changes in the molecular composition of the lipoprotein subclasses. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand the interaction of PON1 and Lp-PLA2 with the subspecies of HDL, LDL, and other lipoproteins in T2DM. Serum levels of PON1-arylesterase and PON1-lactonase and Lp-PLA2 activities and lipoprotein subclasses were measured in 202 nondiabetic subjects (controls) and 92 T2DM outpatients. Arylesterase, but not lactonase or Lp-PLA2 activities, was inversely associated with TD2M after adjusting for potential confounding factors such as age, sex, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, and lipoprotein subclasses (odds ratio?=?3.389, 95% confidence interval 1.069-14.756). Marked difference between controls and T2DM subjects emerged from the analyses of the associations of the three enzyme activities and lipoprotein subclasses. Arylesterase was independently related with large HDL-C and small intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C) in controls while, along with lactonase, it was related with small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C, all IDL-C subspecies, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in T2DM (p < 0.05 for all). Concerning Lp-PLA2, there were significant relationships with small LDL-C, large IDL-C, and VLDL-C only among T2DM subjects. Our study showed that T2DM subjects have lower levels of PON1-arylesterase compared to controls and that T2DM occurrence may coincide with a shift of PON1 and Lp-PLA2 towards the more proatherogenic lipoprotein subclasses. The possibility of a link between the two observed phenomena requires further investigations.
Project description:We investigated the effects of the cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer protein inhibitor anacetrapib (ANA) on plasma lipids, lipoprotein subfraction concentrations, and lipoprotein composition in 30 healthy individuals. Participants (n = 30) were randomized to ANA 20 mg/day, 150 mg/day, or placebo for 2 weeks. Changes in concentration of lipoprotein subfractions were assessed using ion mobility, and compositional analyses were performed on fractions separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation. ANA 150 mg/day versus placebo resulted in significant decreases in LDL-cholesterol (26%) and apo B (29%) and increases in HDL-cholesterol (82%). Concentrations of medium and small VLDL, large intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and medium and small LDL (LDL2a, 2b, and 3a) decreased whereas levels of very small and dense LDL4b were increased. There was enrichment of triglycerides and reduction of CE in VLDL, IDL, and the densest LDL fraction. Levels of large buoyant HDL particles were substantially increased, and there was enrichment of CE, apo AI, and apoCIII, but not apoAII or apoE, in the mid-HDL density range. Changes in lipoprotein subfraction concentrations and composition with ANA 20 mg/day were similar to those for ANA 150 mg/day but were generally smaller in magnitude. The impact of these changes on cardiovascular risk remains to be determined.
Project description:Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition reduces vascular event risk, but confusion surrounds its effects on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Here, we clarify associations of genetic inhibition of CETP on detailed lipoprotein measures and compare those to genetic inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). We used an allele associated with lower CETP expression (rs247617) to mimic CETP inhibition and an allele associated with lower HMGCR expression (rs12916) to mimic the well-known effects of statins for comparison. The study consists of 65,427 participants of European ancestries with detailed lipoprotein subclass profiling from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Genetic associations were scaled to 10% reduction in relative risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We also examined observational associations of the lipoprotein subclass measures with risk of incident CHD in 3 population-based cohorts totalling 616 incident cases and 13,564 controls during 8-year follow-up. Genetic inhibition of CETP and HMGCR resulted in near-identical associations with LDL cholesterol concentration estimated by the Friedewald equation. Inhibition of HMGCR had relatively consistent associations on lower cholesterol concentrations across all apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In contrast, the associations of the inhibition of CETP were stronger on lower remnant and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, but there were no associations on cholesterol concentrations in LDL defined by particle size (diameter 18-26 nm) (-0.02 SD LDL defined by particle size; 95% CI: -0.10 to 0.05 for CETP versus -0.24 SD, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.18 for HMGCR). Inhibition of CETP was strongly associated with lower proportion of triglycerides in all high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. In observational analyses, a higher triglyceride composition within HDL subclasses was associated with higher risk of CHD, independently of total cholesterol and triglycerides (strongest hazard ratio per 1 SD higher triglyceride composition in very large HDL 1.35; 95% CI: 1.18-1.54). In conclusion, CETP inhibition does not appear to affect size-specific LDL cholesterol but is likely to lower CHD risk by lowering concentrations of other atherogenic, apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (such as remnant and VLDLs). Inhibition of CETP also lowers triglyceride composition in HDL particles, a phenomenon reflecting combined effects of circulating HDL, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B-containing particles and is associated with a lower CHD risk in observational analyses. Our results reveal that conventional composite lipid assays may mask heterogeneous effects of emerging lipid-altering therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The ever-increasing prevalence of obesity constitutes a major health problem worldwide. A subgroup of obese individuals has been described as "metabolically healthy obese" (MHO). In contrast to metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO), the MHO phenotype has a favorable risk profile. Despite this, the MHO phenotype is still sub-optimally characterized with respect to a comprehensive risk assessment. Our aim was to increase the understanding of metabolic alterations associated with healthy and unhealthy obesity. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, men and women (18-70?years) with obesity (body mass index (BMI)???30?kg/m2) or normal weight (NW) (BMI???25?kg/m2) were classified with MHO (n?=?9), MUO (n?=?10) or NW (n?=?11) according to weight, lipid profile and glycemic regulation. We characterized individuals by comprehensive metabolic profiling using a commercial available high-throughput proton NMR metabolomics platform. Plasma fatty acid profile, including short chain fatty acids, was measured using gas chromatography. RESULTS:The concentrations of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses were overall significantly higher, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses lower in MUO compared with MHO. VLDL and IDL subclasses were significantly lower and HDL subclasses were higher in NW compared with MHO. The concentration of isoleucine, leucine and valine was significantly higher in MUO compared with MHO, and the concentration phenylalanine was lower in NW subjects compared with MHO. The fatty acid profile in MHO was overall more favorable compared with MUO. CONCLUSIONS:Comprehensive metabolic profiling supports that MHO subjects have intermediate-stage cardiovascular disease risk marker profile compared with NW and MUO subjects. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01034436, Fatty acid quality and overweight (FO-study).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP) modulates the composition of various lipoproteins associated with cardiovascular disease. Despite its central role in lipoprotein metabolism, its mode of action is still not fully understood. Here we present a simple way to estimate CETP-mediated lipid fluxes between different lipoprotein fractions. RESULTS:The model derived adequately describes the observed findings, especially regarding low- and high dense lipoproteins (LDL and HDL), delivering correlation coefficients of R2?=?0.567 (p?<?0.001) and R2?=?0.466 (p?<?0.001), respectively. These estimated fluxes correlate best among all other measured concentrations and 'lipid per lipoprotein' ratios to the observed fluxes. CONCLUSION:Our model approach is independent of CETP-action's exact mechanistic mode. It is simple and easy to apply, and may be a useful tool in revealing CETP's ambiguous role in lipid metabolism. The model mirrors a diffusion-like exchange of triglycerides between lipoproteins. Cholesteryl ester and triglyceride concentrations measured in HDL, LDL and VLDL are sufficient to apply the model on a plasma sample.
Project description:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with increased synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol coupled with increased VLDL synthesis in the liver. In addition, increased cholesterol content in the liver associates with NASH. Here we study the association of lipoprotein subclass metabolism with NASH. To this aim, liver biopsies from 116 morbidly obese individuals [age 47.3 ± 8.7 (mean ± SD) years, BMI 45.1 ± 6.1 kg/m², 39 men and 77 women] were used for histological assessment. Proton NMR spectroscopy was used to measure lipid concentrations of 14 lipoprotein subclasses in native serum samples at baseline and after obesity surgery. We observed that total lipid concentration of VLDL and LDL subclasses, but not HDL subclasses, associated with NASH [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.1]. More specifically, total lipid and cholesterol concentration of VLDL and LDL subclasses associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and cell injury (FDR < 0.1), independent of steatosis. Cholesterol concentration of all VLDL subclasses also correlated with total and free cholesterol content in the liver. All NASH-related changes in lipoprotein subclasses were reversed by obesity surgery. High total lipid and cholesterol concentration of serum VLDL and LDL subclasses are linked to cholesterol accumulation in the liver and to liver cell injury in NASH.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. A risk factor-independent association of arterial stiffness with traditional lipids has been described extensively, but it is still unclear whether an independent relationship exists between arterial stiffness and particles of lipoprotein subclasses. METHODS:The Baptist Employee Healthy Heart Study (BEHHS) is a lifestyle intervention study examining the effects of web-based programs on reducing CVD risk in high-risk persons. Participants had their brachial arterial augmentation index (AI, a measure arterial stiffness) assessed using the EndoPAT 2000 device. Cardio IQ™ ion mobility lipoprotein fractionation was utilized for measurement of particles of lipoprotein subclasses. RESULTS:The population consisted of 182 participants, (74% women, 49% Hispanic) with a mean age of 52 ± 9?years. There was a significant trend association between quartiles of AI and total cholesterol, HDL-c, large LDL-p, small IDL-p, large IDL-p, and all subclasses of HDL particles (total HDL-p, small HDL-p, and large HDL-p). In logistic regression analysis, only HDL-c, total LDL-p, large LDL-p, small IDL-p, large IDL-p, total HDL-p, small HDL-p, and large HDL-p demonstrated significant independent association with AI. CONCLUSION:Several lipoprotein subclasses demonstrate independent significant associations with arterial stiffness. A safe and relatively inexpensive blood test may be useful in identifying subclinical atherosclerosis process in a relatively young high CVD risk population. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01912209. Registered July 31, 2013.
Project description:BACKGROUND: CETP is a plasma protein that modulates atherosclerosis risk through its HDL-cholesterol reducing action. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of the PPARalpha agonist, ciprofibrate, on the CETP gene expression, in the presence and absence of apolipoprotein (apo) CIII induced hypertriglyceridemia, and its impact on the HDL metabolism. RESULTS: Mice expressing apo CIII and/or CETP and non-transgenic littermates (CIII, CIII/CETP, CETP, non-Tg) were treated with ciprofibrate during 3 weeks. Drug treatment reduced plasma triglycerides (30-43%) and non-esterified fatty acids (19-47%) levels. Cholesterol (chol) distribution in plasma lipoprotein responses to ciprofibrate treatment was dependent on the genotypes. Treated CIII expressing mice presented elevation in VLDL-chol and reduction in HDL-chol. Treated CETP expressing mice responded with reduction in LDL-chol whereas in non-Tg mice the LDL-chol increased. In addition, ciprofibrate increased plasma post heparin lipoprotein lipase activity (1.3-2.1 fold) in all groups but hepatic lipase activity decreased in treated CETP and non-Tg mice. Plasma CETP activity and liver CETP mRNA levels were significantly increased in treated CIII/CETP and CETP mice (30-100%). Kinetic studies with 3H-cholesteryl ether (CEt) labelled HDL showed a 50% reduction in the 3H-CEt found in the LDL fraction in ciprofibrate treated compared to non-treated CETP mice. This means that 3H-CEt transferred from HDL to LDL was more efficiently removed from the plasma in the fibrate treated mice. Accordingly, the amount of 3H-CEt recovered in the liver 6 hours after HDL injection was increased by 35%. CONCLUSION: Together these data showed that the PPARalpha agonist ciprofibrate stimulates CETP gene expression and changes the cholesterol flow through the reverse cholesterol transport, increasing plasma cholesterol removal through LDL.