Isolation and molecular characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida associated with pneumonia of goats in Chhattisgarh.
ABSTRACT: Aim:The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize the Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from blood, nasal discharge, and lung tissue of pneumonic goats. Materials and Methods:A total of 14 goats were investigated for pneumonic pasteurellosis. Of 14 goats, nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from 10 clinically diseased animals. Moreover, lung tissue and heart blood samples were collected during necropsy of four goats died with pneumonia. All the samples were processed for the isolation of M. haemolytica and P. multocida in the laboratory. Bacterial isolates were identified by cultural and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. All the isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing using commonly used antimicrobials. M. haemolytica isolates were characterized by PHSSA gene detection. P. multocida isolates were characterized by KMT1 gene detection and capsule typing. Results:On necropsy of dead goats, the pneumonia was characterized as acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Bacterial culture revealed the isolation of M. haemolytica (7) and P. multocida (5) of 10 clinical cases. Moreover, M. haemolytica and P. multocida were coisolated from two of the lung tissues. Furthermore, one of the other two lung tissues showed the isolation of M. haemolytica while the other showed recovery of P. multocida. Bacterial isolates were specifically identified by the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolates showed reduced susceptibility to ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Moreover, the PHSSA and KMT1 genes were specifically detected among M. haemolytica, and P. multocida isolates, respectively. All P. multocida isolates belonged to serogroup A. Conclusion:The present study reported an occurrence of pneumonic pasteurellosis caused by M. haemolytica and P. multocida in a goat flock.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mannheimia haemolytica has been recognized as the principal cause of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep and goats. It is one of the important diseases of small ruminants in Ethiopia. While annual vaccination using a monovalent vaccine (inactivated Pasteurella multocida biotype A) is common, respiratory diseases are still reported in various parts of Ethiopia. This suggests the need for further investigation into the species and strains responsible for the disease, which is vital information for development of a multivalent vaccine. The objective of the current study was to isolate M. heamolytica associated with pneumonic cases of sheep in selected areas of Central Ethiopia, determine its role and the strains/genotypes of the bacterium circulating in the study area. RESULTS:Bacteriological analysis of nasal swab samples collected from a total of 76 pneumonic cases of sheep showed that M. haemolytica was isolated from 26 of them while B.trehalosi from two cases. Further molecular analyses of the isolates using M. haemolytica species-specific and M.haemolytica serotype-1 antigen specific PCR assays revealed, 26 of the isolates were identified as M. haemolytica of which 21 of them were M. haemolytica serotype-1. Both M. haemolytica and B.trehalosi isolates were not detected in a PCR assay targeting capsular biosynthesis gene (capA) of P.multocida despite the non-specific products observed in M. haemolytica isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of M. haemolytica isolates included in this study in comparison with the reference strains with respect to PHSSA and Rpt2 genes revealed that the Ethiopian M. haemolytica isolates constituted three distinct genotypes consistent with site of origin. CONCLUSION:The study indicated that M.haemolytica is commonly associated with cases of pneumonia in sheep in the study areas of central Ethiopia although the remaining other pathogens responsible for majority of the cases are yet to be determined. Molecular characterization revealed the existence of three genotypes of M. haemolytica circulating in the study areas consistent to the site of isolation. The findings suggest further extensive work to determine all pathogens associated with sheep pneumonia and the strain distribution of M. heamolytica to understand its molecular epidemiology at national level and design cost effective prevention and control methods.
Project description:A cross-sectional study was employed with the aim to explore the serological status of goats; we evaluated the presence of serum antibodies of the circulating serotypes of the genus Pasteurella. A total of 124 serum samples were collected from randomly selected goats and subsequently serotyped using indirect haemagglutination test.In the current study, the overall prevalence of pasteurellosis in goats was 31.4%. Additionally, a total of eight serotypes of Pasteurella were serotyped. It is evident that 25% out of 124 sampled animals were found infected by four or more circulating serotypes and 6.4% animals were also found positive for all serotypes. Accordingly, the prevalence of Pasteurella multocida serotype A were 16.9%, Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 26.6%, M. haemolytica serotype A2 18.5%, M. haemolytica serotype A7 16.1%, Bibersteinia trehalosi serotype T3 20.9%, B. trehalosi serotype T4 21.7%, B. trehalosi serotype T10 27.4%, and B. trehalosi serotype T15 was 25.8%. Therefore, although there has been vaccination campaign with monovalent vaccine P. multocida type A, the diseases still exerts negative impacts through death of goats to smallholder farmers. Therefore, to control the disease the government should provide multivalent vaccine of the above serotypes.
Project description:<i>Pasteurella</i> (<i>P</i>.) <i>multocida</i> and <i>Mannheimia</i> (<i>M.</i>) <i>haemolytica</i> are the most two common pathogenic bacterial agents causing pneumonia in calves. Both bacteria are associated with significant economic losses in the cattle industry due to high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in the case of severe infections. The objectives of the present study were to perform serotyping and genotyping, as well as characterization of the virulence-associated genes in 48 bacterial isolates; 33 <i>P. multocida</i> and 15 <i>M. haemolytica</i>. All strains were isolated from pneumonic cattle calves showing respiratory manifestations such as fever, nasal discharges, and rapid breathing in North Upper Egypt governorates (Beni-Suef and El-Fayoum). PCR was applied as a confirmatory test using a specific universal gene, <i>kmt</i>1, and <i>rpt</i>2 for <i>P. multocida</i> and <i>M. haemolytica</i>, respectively. The results show that 29 (87.9%) <i>P. multocida</i> and 15 (100%) <i>M. haemolytica</i> isolates were positive for the corresponding universal gene. The results of serotyping indicate that 86.2% of <i>P. multocida</i> isolates belonged to serotype B:2, while 13.8% were untyped. Meanwhile, 60% and 40% of <i>M. haemolytica</i> isolates belonged to serotype 2 and serotype 1, respectively. Investigation of virulence-associated genes showed that all the tested <i>P. multocida</i> isolates harbored <i>nan</i>B, <i>omp</i>87, and <i>tox</i>A genes. Four <i>M. haemolytica</i> isolates harbored both <i>gcp</i> and <i>lkt</i>C genes and of these, three isolates harbored the <i>ssa</i> gene. Sequencing of <i>tox</i>A gene of <i>P. multocida</i> and <i>lkt</i>C gene of <i>M. haemolytica</i> in the current strains indicated a great homology with strains uploaded in gene banks from different hosts and localities worldwide.
Project description:Pasteurella multocida causes pneumonic pasteurellosis and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) in large ruminants. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 capsular serotype A isolated from buffaloes that died of septicemia.
Project description:Background and Aim:Respiratory infection due to Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are responsible for huge economic losses in livestock sector globally and it is poorly understood in ovine population. The study aimed to investigate and characterize M. haemolytica and P. multocida from infected and healthy sheep to rule out the involvement of these bacteria in the disease. Materials and Methods:A total of 374 healthy and infected sheep samples were processed for isolation, direct detection by multiplex PCR (mPCR), and antibiotic susceptibility testing by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Results:Overall, 55 Pasteurella isolates (27 [7.2%] M. haemolytica and 28 [7.4%] P. multocida) were recovered and identified by bacteriological tests and species-specific PCR assays. Significant correlation between the detection of M. haemolytica (66.6%) with disease condition and P. multocida (19.1%) exclusively from infected sheep was recorded by mPCR. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing of 55 isolates revealed higher multidrug resistance in M. haemolytica (25.9%) than P. multocida (7.1%) isolates. Descending resistance towards penicillin (63.6%), oxytetracycline (23.6%), streptomycin (14.5%), and gentamicin (12.7%) and absolute sensitivity towards chloramphenicol were observed in both the pathogens. The antibiotic resistance genes such as strA (32.7%) and sul2 (32.7%) associated with streptomycin and sulfonamide resistance, respectively, were detected in the isolates. Conclusion:The study revealed the significant involvement of M. haemolytica together with P. multocida in ovine respiratory infection and is probably responsible for frequent disease outbreaks even after vaccination against hemorrhagic septicemia in sheep population of Karnataka, southern province of India.
Project description:Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes economically significant infections of a broad range of animal species. Pneumonic and septicaemic pasteurellosis caused by this bacterium remain important problems in pigs, cattle, and water buffaloes in Thailand. The aim of this study was to characterise the virulence-associated gene profiles and to develop an OmpA molecular typing scheme for classifying 191 bovine and porcine isolates of P. multocida collected between 1989 and 2012 in Thailand using polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), nucleotide sequencing, and sequence and structural bioinformatics analyses.PCR screening successfully characterised the profiles of 25 virulence-associated genes in all isolates. The gene profiles separated these isolates into bovine and porcine clusters based on eight genes (hgbB, hsf1, tadD, nanH, pfhA, plpE, pmHAS, and tbpA). Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide and protein sequences corresponding to the ompA gene, which encodes a major outer membrane surface protein, showed two major bovine and porcine clusters. Structural prediction and analysis of the dN/dS ratio revealed four hypervariable extracellular loops of the OmpA transmembrane domains. These four loops were used to develop an OmpA typing scheme. This scheme classified 186 isolates into five major loop sequence types (LST8, LST12, LST15, LST18, and LST19), consistent with the phylogenetic results. The loop regions of the bovine isolates were predicted to be more antigenic than those of the porcine isolates. Thus, molecular evolution of the OmpA proteins could be used to classify P. multocida isolates into different capsular types, host types, and, possibly, pathogenicity levels.Together with the virulence-associated gene profiles, the typing reported in this work provides a better understanding of P. multocida virulence. Effective monitoring and potential strain-specific subunit vaccines could be developed based on these loop oligopeptides.
Project description:The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 56 sheep (36 naturally infected with Pasteurella multocida and 20 healthy controls) belonging to one farm in Eastern region, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples were evaluated for acute phase proteins (Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen (Fb)), and the proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins (IL-1?, IL-1?, and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and interferon-gamma (IFN-?)). Additionally, nasopharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavages were collected from all animals for bacteriological examinations. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of each parameter. All parameters showed moderate to high degree of positive correlation with case-control status. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve (AUC) among acute phase proteins; however, both Hp and SAA showed better sensitivity and specificity than Fb. The proinflammatory cytokines (IL1-?, IL1-?, and IL6) showed similar and highly accurate diagnostic performance (AUC > 0.9), whereas IFN-? was moderately accurate (AUC = 0.79). In conclusion, this study confirms the value of acute phase proteins and cytokines as diagnostic biomarkers of naturally occuring pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep.
Project description:A yet-undescribed bacterial species, tentatively named "Porphyromonas katsikii," was isolated from individuals of a small goat herd with pyogranulomatous pneumonia during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease. The isolated bacteria grew in the form of black-pigmented colonies after 14 days of incubation under anaerobic conditions at 37°C on a tryptic soy blood agar medium. The bacteria were identified as a yet-undescribed Porphyromonas species by determination of the nucleotide sequence of the rrs 16S rRNA gene, and this species was tentatively named Porphyromonas katsikii. PCR amplification with specific primers for this yet-undescribed species revealed the presence of P. katsikii in the lung tissue of all affected animals, while no PCR signals were evidenced from the lungs of healthy goats or from goats with pasteurellosis caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. These data indicate P. katsikii as the causative agent of acute respiratory distress. P. katsikii is phylogenetically related to Porphyromonas somerae and Porphyromonas levii, which cause pathologies in humans and animals, respectively. P. katsikii was not detected by PCR from samples of the gingival pockets or of the faces of healthy goats.
Project description:Background and Aim:Different species of Mycoplasma are associated with many pathological problems in small ruminants including respiratory manifestation, this problem results in significant losses, especially in African countries. This study aimed to (I) study some epidemiological aspects of Mycoplasma species infections in Egyptian sheep and goats at Giza Governorate, (II) diagnosis of Mycoplasma species affections using bacterial isolation and identification, (III) apply the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for typing of different Mycoplasma species, and (IV) illustrate the phylogenetic tree for the isolated Mycoplasma species and other species from GenBank using the purified PCR product. Materials and Methods:A total of 335 samples were collected from sheep and goats from Giza Governorate in Egypt as 142 nasal swabs from clinically affected animals, 167 pneumonic lungs, 18 samples from tracheal bifurcation, and 8 samples by bronchial wash were cultured on pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLOs) media for cultivation of Mycoplasma species. PCR and sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were adopted to identify and classify the isolated Mycoplasma species. Results:A total of 24 Mycoplasma isolates were isolated on PPLO media, identified by biochemical tests, and confirmed and typed by PCR using specific primers. 10 isolates were confirmed as Mycoplasma arginini, four isolates as Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae by PCR, and 10 isolates as undifferentiated Mycoplasma species. A purified isolate of M. arginini and M. ovipneumoniae was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was illustrated. Conclusion:M. arginini and M. ovipneumoniae are prevalent in Egyptian sheep and goats. Further studies on M. arginini are required due to its high frequency of isolation from pneumonic sheep and goats and also from animals suffer from different respiratory manifestations.