Where is the family voice? Examining the relational dimensions of the family- healthcare professional and its perceived impact on patient care outcomes in mental health and addictions.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:We explored the relationship between family members and healthcare professionals (HCPs), specifically how family members can influence the course and outcome of patient care for youth. Exploring this under-researched area provided an opportunity to understand the tripartite relationship between the family, the youth experiencing mental health problems or substance use concerns and their HCP. METHODS:A qualitative research design was used to gain a full understanding of how family members experience relationships with HCPs. We interviewed 21 family members using semi-structure questions to explore the type of relationships formed between HCPs and family members throughout a patient's course of care, the family member's perceived role in the care of their youth accessing mental health or addiction services and the family member's awareness of formalized structures (i.e., hospital rules, policies) and resources that support family involvement. RESULTS:Within a relationship-centred framework, four themes, with various sub-themes emerged from the interviews: 1) The family member-HCP relationship regarding creating a positive impression, being an extension of the patient and the discovery of "pink flags"; 2) The family member-youth-HCP relationship regarding the receptivity of youth to family involvement and a youth's individual right to privacy; 3)The family member's relationship to self with regard to the situation being a family illness; and 4) The family member's relationship with friends, family and peers regarding the feelings of loneliness, stigma and shame and the lack of understanding about mental health problems and substance use. CONCLUSIONS:Our study provided in-depth information about the importance of family involvement in the care and health outcomes of youth who are accessing mental health and addiction services. Family members experienced and conceptualized their relationships with HCPs, their youth, themselves and their friends and peers as active interactions that influenced the course and outcomes of care. Future studies are needed to collect the multiple perspectives of youth and HCPs alongside with the family perspectives.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate predictors of healthcare professionals' (HCPs) attitudes towards family involvement in safety-relevant behaviours.<h4>Design</h4>A cross-sectional fractional factorial survey that assessed HCPs' attitudes towards family involvement in two error scenarios relating to hand hygiene and medication safety. Each survey comprised two randomised vignettes that described the potential error, how the family member communicated with the HCP about the error and how the HCP responded to the family member's question.<h4>Setting</h4>5 teaching hospitals in London, the Midlands and York. HCPs were approached on a range of medical and surgical wards.<h4>Participants</h4>160 HCPs (73 doctors; 87 nurses) aged between 21 and 65 years (mean 37) 102 were female.<h4>Outcome measures</h4>HCP approval of family member's behaviour; HCP reaction to the family member; anticipated effects on the family member-HCP relationship; HCP support for being questioned about hand hygiene/medication; affective rating responses.<h4>Results</h4>HCPs supported family member's intervening (88%) but only 41% agreed this would have positive effects on the family member/HCP relationship. Across vignettes and error scenarios the strongest predictors of attitudes were how the HCP (in the scenario) responded to the family member and whether an error actually occurred. Doctors (vs nurses) provided systematically more positive affective ratings to the vignettes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Important predictors of HCPs' attitudes towards family members' involvement in patient safety have been highlighted. In particular, a discouraging response from HCP's decreased support for family members being involved and had strong perceived negative effects on the family member/HCP relationship.
Project description:Although military service, and particularly absence due to deployment, has been linked to risk for depression and anxiety among some spouses and children of active duty service members, there is limited research to explain the heterogeneity in family members' reactions to military service stressors. The current investigation introduces the Timeline Followback Military Family Interview (TFMFI) as a clinically useful strategy to collect detailed time-linked information about the service member's absences. Two dimensions of parent absence--the extent to which absences coincide with important family events and cumulative time absent--were tested as potential risks to family members' mental health. Data from 70 mother-adolescent pairs revealed that the number of important family events missed by the service member was linked to elevated youth symptoms of depression, even when accounting for the number of deployments and cumulative duration of the service member's absence. However, youth who reported more frequent contact with the service member during absences were buffered from the effects of extensive absence. Mothers' symptoms were associated with the cumulative duration of the service members' time away, but not with family events missed by the service member. These results identify circumstances that increase the risk for mental health symptoms associated with military family life. The TFMFI provides an interview-based strategy for clinicians wishing to understand military family members' lived experience during periods of service-member absence.
Project description:Advance directives and end of life care are difficult discussions for both patients and health-care providers (HCPs). A HCP requires an accurate understanding of advanced directives to educate patients and their family members to allow them to make an appropriate decision. Misinterpretations of the do not resuscitate (DNR), do not intubate (DNI), and the Physicians Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) form result in ineffective communication and confusion between patients, family members, and HCPs.An anonymous, multiple choice online and paper survey was distributed to patients, family members of patients (PFMs), and HCPs from December 12, 2012 to March 6, 2013. Data regarding demographics, the accuracy of determining the correct definition of DNR and DNI, the familiarity of the POLST form and if a primary care physician had discussed advanced directives with the participants were collected.A total of 687 respondents participated in the survey. Patients and PFMs could not distinguish the definition of DNR (95% confidence interval [CI] [1.453-2.804]) or DNI (95% CI (1.216-2.334)) 52% of the time while HCPs 35% and 39% of the time (P < 0.0005). Regarding the POLST form, 86% of patients and PFMs and 50% of HCPs were not familiar with the POLST form. Sixty-nine percent of patients and family members reported that their primary care physician had not discussed advance directives with them. Twenty-four percent of patients and family members reported that they had previous health-care experience and this was associated with increased knowledge of the POLST form (P < 0.0005). An association was also seen between the type of HCP taking the survey and the ability to correctly identify the correct definition of DNR (P < 0.0005).Discussion of end of life care is difficult for patients and their family members. Often times multiple discussions are required in order to effectively communicate the definition of DNR, DNI, and the POLST form. Education of patients, family members, and HCPs is required to bridge the knowledge gap of advance directives.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:(1) To explore individual perceptions on experiences of people receiving and/or delivering a shared-care clozapine serviceand (2) to gain an understanding of effectiveness and acceptability of shared-care clozapine. DESIGN:Interpretative phenomenological analysis guided the delivery and analysis of a semistructured interview and focus group study designed to explore participant experience of shared-care clozapine. Ethical approval 13/EM/0286 was gained in July 2013 from East Midlands-Nottingham 1 REC. PARTICIPANTS:Eight stakeholder groups from Adult and Forensic Mental Health involved in shared-care clozapine provision delivered in primary care were identified for recruitment from one mental health trust in England (six different groups of healthcare professionals (HCPs), clozapine service users (CSUs) and their carers). To be eligible for recruitment, all potential participants had to be either providing, receiving or the carer of a person receiving clozapine by shared care. RESULTS:32 HCPs and 6 CSUs were recruited and 14 interviews and 6 participant homogenous focus groups were run. Four shared superordinate themes were identified: Clozapine Process, The Sharing of Care, The Provision of Care and Multi-professional Relationships. Differences between Adult and Forensic engagement in shared care were noted and both HCP and CSU relationships were mapped to the Wish conceptual framework of relationships to provide insight into how shared-care clozapine can provide a mechanism for provision of person-centred care, which was present in the Forensic HCP-CSU but not General Adult HCP-CSU relationship. CONCLUSIONS:The Forensic HCP/CSU relationship demonstrated how cross-sector working through shared-care clozapine can provide a mechanism for provision of person-centred care by enabling a person-centred focus to care delivery which supported CSUs to live as independently as possible. Person-centred care demonstrably improves patient care outcomes and wider implementation of shared-care clozapine could provide greater integration of people with serious mental illness and reduce stigma within the community while improving patient outcomes.
Project description:To explore the views of Malaysian healthcare professionals (HCPs) on stakeholders' decision making roles in localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment.Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with HCPs treating PCa. Data was analysed using a thematic approach. Four in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between December 2012 and March 2013 using a topic guide. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically.The participants comprised private urologists (n = 4), government urologists (n = 6), urology trainees (n = 6), government policy maker (n = 1) and oncologists (n = 3). HCP perceptions of the roles of the three parties involved (HCPs, patients, family) included: HCP as the main decision maker, HCP as a guide to patients' decision making, HCP as a facilitator to family involvement, patients as main decision maker and patient prefers HCP to decide. HCPs preferred to share the decision with patients due to equipoise between prostate treatment options. Family culture was important as family members often decided on the patient's treatment due to Malaysia's close-knit family culture.A range of decision making roles were reported by HCPs. It is thus important that stakeholder roles are clarified during PCa treatment decisions. HCPs need to cultivate an awareness of sociocultural norms and family dynamics when supporting non-Western patients in making decisions about PCa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:99DOTS is a cell phone-based strategy for monitoring tuberculosis (TB) medication adherence that has been rolled out to more than 150,000 patients in India's public health sector. A considerable proportion of patients stop using 99DOTS during therapy. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to understand reasons for variability in the acceptance and use of 99DOTS by TB patients and health care providers (HCPs). METHODS:We conducted qualitative interviews with individuals taking TB therapy in the government program in Chennai and Vellore (HIV-coinfected patients) and Mumbai (HIV-uninfected patients) across intensive and continuation treatment phases. We conducted interviews with HCPs who provide TB care, all of whom were involved in implementing 99DOTS. Interviews were transcribed, coded using a deductive approach, and analyzed with Dedoose 8.0.35 software (SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC). The findings of the study were interpreted using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, which highlights 4 constructs associated with technology acceptance: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions. RESULTS:We conducted 62 interviews with patients with TB, of whom 30 (48%) were HIV coinfected, and 31 interviews with HCPs. Acceptance of 99DOTS by patients was variable. Greater patient acceptance was related to perceptions of improved patient-HCP relationships from increased phone communication, TB pill-taking habit formation due to SMS text messaging reminders, and reduced need to visit health facilities (performance expectancy); improved family involvement in TB care (social influences); and from 99DOTS leading HCPs to engage positively in patients' care through increased outreach (facilitating conditions). Lower patient acceptance was related to perceptions of reduced face-to-face contact with HCPs (performance expectancy); problems with cell phone access, literacy, cellular signal, or technology fatigue (effort expectancy); high TB- and HIV-related stigma within the family (social influences); and poor counseling in 99DOTS by HCPs or perceptions that HCPs were not acting upon adherence data (facilitating conditions). Acceptance of 99DOTS by HCPs was generally high and related to perceptions that the 99DOTS adherence dashboard and patient-related SMS text messaging alerts improve quality of care, the efficiency of care, and the patient-HCP relationship (performance expectancy); that the dashboard is easy to use (effort expectancy); and that 99DOTS leads to better coordination among HCPs (social influences). However, HCPs described suboptimal facilitating conditions, including inadequate training of HCPs in 99DOTS, unequal changes in workload, and shortages of 99DOTS medication envelopes. CONCLUSIONS:In India's government TB program, 99DOTS had high acceptance by HCPs but variable acceptance by patients. Although some factors contributing to suboptimal patient acceptance are modifiable, other factors such as TB- and HIV-related stigma and poor cell phone accessibility, cellular signal, and literacy are more difficult to address. Screening for these barriers may facilitate targeting of 99DOTS to patients more likely to use this technology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Online health care services effectively supplement traditional medical treatment. The development of online health care services depends on sustained interactions between health care professionals (HCPs) and patients. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the demands and gains of health care stakeholders in HCP-patient online interactions and determine an agenda for future work. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to present a systematic review of the antecedents and consequences of HCP-patient online interactions. It seeks to reach a better understanding of why HCPs and patients are willing to interact with each other online and what the consequences of HCP-patient online interactions are for health care stakeholders. Based on this, we intend to identify the gaps in existing studies and make recommendations for future research. METHODS:In accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, a systematic retrieval was carried out from the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus electronic databases. The search results were confined to those papers published in English between January 1, 2000 and June 30, 2018. Selected studies were then evaluated for quality; studies that did not meet quality criteria were excluded from further analysis. Findings of the reviewed studies related to our research questions were extracted and synthesized through inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS:A total of 8440 records were found after the initial search, 28 papers of which were selected for analysis. Accessibility to HCPs, self-management, and unmet needs were the main triggers for patients to participate in online interaction. For HCPs, patient education, career needs, and self-promotion were the major reasons why they took the online approach. There were several aspects of the consequences of HCP-patient online interactions on health care stakeholders. Consequences for patients included patient empowerment, health promotion, and acquisition of uncertain answers. Consequences for HCPs included social and economic returns, lack of control over their role, and gaining more appointments. HCP-patient online interactions also improved communication efficiency in offline settings and helped managers of online health care settings get a better understanding of patients' needs. Health care stakeholders have also encountered ethical and legal issues during online interaction. CONCLUSIONS:Through a systematic review, we sought out the antecedents and consequences of HCP-patient online interactions to understand the triggers for HCPs and patients to participate and the consequences of participating. Potential future research topics are the influences on the chain of online interaction, specifications and principles of privacy design within online health care settings, and roles that sociodemographic and psychological characteristics play. Longitudinal studies and the adoption of text-mining method are worth encouraging. This paper is expected to contribute to the sustained progress of online health care settings.
Project description:PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW:To identify and assess factors that affect the decisions to initiate advance care planning (ACP) amongst people living with dementia (PwD). METHODS:A narrative review was conducted. A keyword search of Medline, CINAHL PsycINFO, and Web of Sciences databases produced 22,234 articles. Four reviewers independently applying inclusion/exclusion criteria resulted in 39 articles. Discrepancies were settled in discussion. RESULTS:Twenty-eight primary studies and eleven review articles remained. Narrative analysis generated five categories of facilitating and inhibitory factors: people with dementia, family orientation, healthcare professionals (HCP), systemic and contextual factors, and time factors. Key facilitators of ACP initiation were (i) healthcare settings with supportive policies and guidelines, (ii) family members and HCPs who have a supportive relationship with PwD, and (iii) HCPs who received ACP education. Key inhibitors were: (i) lack of knowledge about the dementia trajectory in stakeholders, (ii) lack of ACP knowledge, and (iii) unclear timing to initiate an ACP. CONCLUSION:This review highlighted the main challenges associated with optimal ACP initiation with PwD. To encourage effective ACP initiation with PwD, succinct policies and guidelines for clinical commissioners are needed. ACP also needs to be discussed with family members in an informal, iterative manner. More research is required on initiation timing given the disease trajectory and changing family dynamics.
Project description:Objective: This survey aimed to explore knowledge and experience on novel psychoactive substances (NPS) of healthcare professionals (HCPs). The study also aimed to assess how HCPs would like to improve their knowledge of NPS. Methods: Seventy paper questionnaires were disseminated in 2017 within continuing education events to pharmacists, nurses and general practitioners (GPs). Additionally, 127 online surveys were completed using the Qualtrics platform by other HCPs and mental health nurses in six United Kingdom (UK) independent mental health hospitals long-stay in-patient rehabilitation services. Two educational sessions involving pharmacists and GPs were also held in late 2017 and mid-2018. Knowledge of NPS by HCPs was evaluated prior to the start of the educational events. Evaluation forms were handed out post-sessions to garner feedback, especially on areas for improvement for future sessions. Statistical analysis of data was undertaken using SPSS (V.25). Results: Most HCPs reported only 'basic' to 'intermediate' NPS knowledge. Substance misuse service staff felt more informed, were more often consulted and had greater confidence regarding NPS compared to hospital and primary care professionals. A negative association was found between the age of the HCP and knowledge of NPS. Most participants expressed a need for regular training and updates as insufficient NPS-related information is currently received. Conclusions: An improvement within the self-reported knowledge of HCPs on NPS is evident in comparison to previous studies. Continued education of HCPs on NPS is fundamental for the provision of improved harm reduction services, which can enhance overall care for NPS service users.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic has placed healthcare professionals (HCP) in stressful circumstances with increased patient loads and a high risk of exposure. We sought to assess the mental health and quality of life (QoL) of Indian HCPs, the fourth highest-burden country for COVID-19. METHOD:Using snowball sampling, we conducted an online survey in May 2020 among HCPs. Data were collected on demographics, depression, and anxiety using validated tools, quality of life, and perceived stressors. Multivariable logistic regression and principal component analysis were performed to assess risk factors associated with mental health symptoms. FINDINGS:Of 197 HCPs assessed, 157 (80%) were from Maharashtra, 130 (66%) from public hospitals, 47 (24%) nurses, 66 (34%) physicians, 101 (52%) females, and 81 (41%) ?30 years. Eighty-seven percent provided direct COVID-19 care with 43% caring for >10 patients/day. A large proportion reported symptoms of depression (92, 47%), anxiety (98, 50%), and low QoL (89, 45%). Odds of combined depression and anxiety were 2.37 times higher among single HCPs compared to married (95% CI: 1.03-4.96). Work environment stressors were associated with 46% increased risk of combined depression and anxiety (95% CI: 1.15-1.85). Moderate to severe depression and anxiety were independently associated with increased risk of low QoL [OR: 3.19 (95% CI: 1.30-7.84), OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.29-6.29)]. CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety and low QoL among Indian HCPs during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need to prevent and treat mental health symptoms among frontline HCPs.