Enzyme activity and selectivity filter stability of ancient TRPM2 channels were simultaneously lost in early vertebrates.
ABSTRACT: Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a cation channel important for the immune response, insulin secretion, and body temperature regulation. It is activated by cytosolic ADP ribose (ADPR) and contains a nudix-type motif 9 (NUDT9)-homology (NUDT9-H) domain homologous to ADPR phosphohydrolases (ADPRases). Human TRPM2 (hsTRPM2) is catalytically inactive due to mutations in the conserved Nudix box sequence. Here, we show that TRPM2 Nudix motifs are canonical in all invertebrates but vestigial in vertebrates. Correspondingly, TRPM2 of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (nvTRPM2) and the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta (srTRPM2) are active ADPRases. Disruption of ADPRase activity fails to affect nvTRPM2 channel currents, reporting a catalytic cycle uncoupled from gating. Furthermore, pore sequence substitutions responsible for inactivation of hsTRPM2 also appeared in vertebrates. Correspondingly, zebrafish (Danio rerio) TRPM2 (drTRPM2) and hsTRPM2 channels inactivate, but srTRPM2 and nvTRPM2 currents are stable. Thus, catalysis and pore stability were lost simultaneously in vertebrate TRPM2 channels.
Project description:Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel essential for immunocyte activation, insulin secretion, and postischemic cell death. TRPM2 is activated by ADP ribose (ADPR) binding to its C-terminal cytosolic NUDT9-homology (NUDT9H) domain, homologous to the soluble mitochondrial ADPR pyrophosphatase (ADPRase) NUDT9. Reported ADPR hydrolysis classified TRPM2 as a channel-enzyme, but insolubility of isolated NUDT9H hampered further investigations. Here we developed a soluble NUDT9H model using chimeric proteins built from complementary polypeptide fragments of NUDT9H and NUDT9. When expressed in E.coli, chimeras containing up to ~90% NUDT9H sequence remained soluble and were affinity-purified. In ADPRase assays the conserved Nudix-box sequence of NUDT9 proved essential for activity (kcat~4-9s(-1)), that of NUDT9H did not support catalysis. Replacing NUDT9H in full-length TRPM2 with soluble chimeras retained ADPR-dependent channel gating (K1/2~1-5 ?M), confirming functionality of chimeric domains. Thus, TRPM2 is not a 'chanzyme'. Chimeras provide convenient soluble NUDT9H models for structural/biochemical studies.
Project description:The human non-selective cation channel TRPM2 represents a mediator of apoptosis triggered by oxidative stress. The principal agonist ADP-ribose binds to the cytosolic domain of TRPM2, which is homologous to the human ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase NUDT9. To further elucidate the structure-function relationship of this channel, we characterised a TRPM2 orthologue from the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, after its expression in a human cell line. This far distant relative shows only 31% total sequence similarity to hTRPM2, while its C-terminal domain has a greater resemblance to the NUDT9 enzyme. Current through nvTRPM2 was induced by ADPR, with a more pronounced sensitivity and faster kinetics than in hTRPM2. In contrast to hTRPM2, there was no response to H2O2 and hardly any modulatory effect by intracellular Ca(2+). The deletion of a stretch of 15 residues from the NUDT9 domain of nvTRPM2, which is absent in hTRPM2, did not change the response to ADPR but enabled activation of the channel by H2O2 and increased the effects of intracellular Ca(2+). These findings shed new light on the evolution of TRPM2 and establish nvTRPM2 as a promising tool to decipher its complex gating mechanisms.
Project description:NvTRPM2 (Nematostella vectensis Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2), the species variant of the human apoptosis-related cation channel hTRPM2, is gated by ADP-ribose (ADPR) independently of the C-terminal NUDT9H domain that mediates ADPR-directed gating in hTRPM2. The decisive binding site in NvTRPM2 is likely to be identical with the N-terminal ADPR binding pocket in zebra fish DrTRPM2. Our aim was a characterization of this binding site in NvTRPM2 with respect to its substrate specificity, in comparison to the classical ADPR interaction site within NUDT9H that is highly homologous in hTRPM2 and NvTRPM2, although only in NvTRPM2, catalytic (ADPRase) activity is conserved. With various ADPR analogues, key differences of the two sites were identified. Particularly, two reported antagonists on hTRPM2 were agonists on NvTRPM2. Moreover, IDP-ribose (IDPR) induced currents both in hTRPM2 and NvTRPM2 but not in NvTRPM2 mutants in which NUDT9H was absent. Thus, IDPR acts on NUDT9H rather than N-terminally, revealing a regulatory function of NUDT9H in NvTRPM2 opposed to that in hTRPM2. We propose that IDPR competitively inhibits the ADPRase function of NUDT9H and evokes ADPR accumulation. The findings provide important insights into the structure-function relationship of NvTRPM2 and will allow further characterization of the novel ADPR interaction site.
Project description:Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel expressed in immune cells of phagocytic lineage, pancreatic ? cells, and brain neurons and is activated under oxidative stress. TRPM2 activity is required for immune cell activation and insulin secretion and is responsible for postischemic neuronal cell death. TRPM2 is opened by binding of ADP ribose (ADPR) to its C-terminal cytosolic nudix-type motif 9 (NUDT9)-homology (NUDT9-H) domain, which, when expressed in isolation, cleaves ADPR into AMP and ribose-5-phosphate. A suggested coupling of this enzymatic activity to channel gating implied a potentially irreversible gating cycle, which is a unique feature of a small group of channel enzymes known to date. The significance of such a coupling lies in the conceptually distinct pharmacologic strategies for modulating the open probability of channels obeying equilibrium versus nonequilibrium gating mechanisms. Here we examine the potential coupling of TRPM2 enzymatic activity to pore gating. Mutation of several residues proposed to enhance or eliminate NUDT9-H catalytic activity all failed to affect channel gating kinetics. An ADPR analog, ?-?-methylene-ADPR (AMPCPR), was shown to be entirely resistant to hydrolysis by NUDT9, but nevertheless supported TRPM2 channel gating, albeit with reduced apparent affinity. The rate of channel deactivation was not slowed but, rather, accelerated in AMPCPR. These findings, as well as detailed analyses of steady-state gating kinetics of single channels recorded in the presence of a range of concentrations of ADPR or AMPCPR, identify TRPM2 as a simple ligand-gated channel that obeys an equilibrium gating mechanism uncoupled from its enzymatic activity.
Project description:The archetypal TRPM2-like channel of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is gated by ADPR like its human orthologue but additionally exhibits properties of other vertebrate TRPM channels. Thus it can help towards an understanding of gating and regulation of the whole subfamily. To elucidate further the role of Ca<sup>2+</sup> as a co-factor of ADPR, we exploited 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB), previously shown to exert either inhibitory or stimulatory effects on diverse TRPM channels, or both in a concentration-dependent manner. 2-APB in high concentrations (1?mM) induced large, non-inactivating currents through nvTRPM2. In lower concentrations (?0.5?mM), it prevented the fast current inactivation typical for nvTRPM2 stimulated with ADPR. Both these effects were rapidly reversed after wash-out of 2-APB, in contrast to a considerable lag time of their onset. A detailed analysis of nvTRPM2 mutants with modified selectivity filter or reduced ADP-ribose sensitivity revealed that the actions of 2-APB depend on its access to the pore which is enhanced by channel opening. Moreover, access of Ca<sup>2+</sup> to the pore is decisive which again depends on the open state of the channel. We conclude that separate regulatory processes by Ca<sup>2+</sup> on the pore can be discriminated with the aid of 2-APB.
Project description:Bacterial NadM-Nudix is a bifunctional enzyme containing a nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) adenylyltransferase and an ADP-ribose (ADPR) pyrophosphatase domain. While most members of this enzyme family, such as that from a model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp., are involved primarily in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage/recycling pathways, its close homolog in a category-A biodefense pathogen, Francisella tularensis, likely plays a central role in a recently discovered novel pathway of NAD de novo synthesis. The crystal structures of NadM-Nudix from both species, including their complexes with various ligands and catalytic metal ions, revealed detailed configurations of the substrate binding and catalytic sites in both domains. The structure of the N-terminal NadM domain may be exploited for designing new antitularemia therapeutics. The ADPR binding site in the C-terminal Nudix domain is substantially different from that of Escherichia coli ADPR pyrophosphatase, and is more similar to human NUDT9. The latter observation provided new insights into the ligand binding mode of ADPR-gated Ca2+ channel TRPM2.
Project description:Activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel occurs during the response to oxidative stress under physiological conditions as well as in pathological processes such as ischemia and diabetes. Accumulating evidence indicates that adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is the most important endogenous ligand of TRPM2. However, although it is known that ADPR binds to the NUDT9 homology (NUDT9-H) domain in the intracellular C-terminal region, the molecular mechanism underlying ADPR binding and activation of TRPM2 remains unknown. In this study, we generate a structural model of the NUDT9-H domain and identify the binding pocket for ADPR using induced docking and molecular dynamics simulation. We find a subset of 11 residues-H1346, T1347, T1349, L1379, G1389, S1391, E1409, D1431, R1433, L1484, and H1488-that are most likely to directly interact with ADPR. Results from mutagenesis and electrophysiology approaches support the predicted binding mechanism, indicating that ADPR binds tightly to the NUDT9-H domain, and suggest that the most significant interactions are the van der Waals forces with S1391 and L1484, polar solvation interaction with E1409, and electronic interactions (including ?-? interactions) with H1346, T1347, Y1349, D1431, and H1488. These findings not only clarify the roles of a range of newly identified residues involved in ADPR binding in the TRPM2 channel, but also reveal the binding pocket for ADPR in the NUDT9-H domain, which should facilitate structure-based drug design for the TRPM2 channel.
Project description:Transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a cation channel associated with numerous diseases. It has a C-terminal NUDT9 homology (NUDT9H) domain responsible for binding adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (ADPR), and both ADPR and calcium (Ca2+) are required for TRPM2 activation. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of human TRPM2 alone, with ADPR, and with ADPR and Ca2+ NUDT9H forms both intra- and intersubunit interactions with the N-terminal TRPM homology region (MHR1/2/3) in the apo state but undergoes conformational changes upon ADPR binding, resulting in rotation of MHR1/2 and disruption of the intersubunit interaction. The binding of Ca2+ further engages transmembrane helices and the conserved TRP helix to cause conformational changes at the MHR arm and the lower gating pore to potentiate channel opening. These findings explain the molecular mechanism of concerted TRPM2 gating by ADPR and Ca2+ and provide insights into the gating mechanism of other TRP channels.
Project description:TRPM2 is critically involved in diverse physiological processes including core temperature sensing, apoptosis, and immune response. TRPM2's activation by Ca2+ and ADP ribose (ADPR), an NAD+-metabolite produced under oxidative stress and neurodegenerative conditions, suggests a role in neurological disorders. We provide a central concept between triple-site ligand binding and the channel gating of human TRPM2. We show consecutive structural rearrangements and channel activation of TRPM2 induced by binding of ADPR in two indispensable locations, and the binding of Ca2+ in the transmembrane domain. The 8-Br-cADPR-an antagonist of cADPR-binds only to the MHR1/2 domain and inhibits TRPM2 by stabilizing the channel in an apo-like conformation. We conclude that MHR1/2 acts as a orthostatic ligand-binding site for TRPM2. The NUDT9-H domain binds to a second ADPR to assist channel activation in vertebrates, but not necessary in invertebrates. Our work provides insights into the gating mechanism of human TRPM2 and its pharmacology.
Project description:ADP-ribose (ADPR) is one of the main substrates of Nudix proteins. Among the eight Nudix proteins of Thermus thermophilus HB8, we previously determined the crystal structure of Ndx4, an ADPR pyrophosphatase (ADPRase). In this study we show that Ndx2 of T. thermophilus also preferentially hydrolyzes ADPR and flavin adenine dinucleotide and have determined its crystal structure. We have determined the structures of Ndx2 alone and in complex with Mg2+, with Mg2+ and AMP, and with Mg2+ and a nonhydrolyzable ADPR analogue. Although Ndx2 recognizes the AMP moiety in a manner similar to those for other ADPRases, it recognizes the terminal ribose in a distinct manner. The residues responsible for the recognition of the substrate in Ndx2 are not conserved among ADPRases. This may reflect the diversity in substrate specificity among ADPRases. Based on these results, we propose the classification of ADPRases into two types: ADPRase-I enzymes, which exhibit high specificity for ADPR; and ADPRase-II enzymes, which exhibit low specificity for ADPR. In the active site of the ternary complexes, three Mg2+ ions are coordinated to the side chains of conserved glutamate residues and water molecules. Substitution of Glu90 and Glu94 with glutamine suggests that these residues are essential for catalysis. These results suggest that ADPRase-I and ADPRase-II enzymes have nearly identical catalytic mechanisms but different mechanisms of substrate recognition.