Structural comparison of the vacuolar and Golgi V-ATPases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: Proton-translocating vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) are necessary for numerous processes in eukaryotic cells, including receptor-mediated endocytosis, protein maturation, and lysosomal acidification. In mammals, V-ATPase subunit isoforms are differentially targeted to various intracellular compartments or tissues, but how these subunit isoforms influence enzyme activity is not clear. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, isoform diversity is limited to two different versions of the proton-translocating subunit a: Vph1p, which is targeted to the vacuole, and Stv1p, which is targeted to the Golgi apparatus and endosomes. We show that purified V-ATPase complexes containing Vph1p have higher ATPase activity than complexes containing Stv1p and that the relative difference in activity depends on the presence of lipids. We also show that VO complexes containing Stv1p could be readily purified without attached V1 regions. We used this effect to determine structures of the membrane-embedded VO region with Stv1p at 3.1-Å resolution, which we compare with a structure of the VO region with Vph1p that we determine to 3.2-Å resolution. These maps reveal differences in the surface charge near the cytoplasmic proton half-channel. Both maps also show the presence of bound lipids, as well as regularly spaced densities that may correspond to ergosterol or bound detergent, around the c-ring.
Project description:The regulator of ATPase of vacuoles and endosomes (RAVE) complex is implicated in vacuolar H(+)-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) assembly and activity. In yeast, rav1 mutants exhibit a Vma(-) growth phenotype characteristic of loss of V-ATPase activity only at high temperature. Synthetic genetic analysis identified mutations that exhibit a full, temperature-independent Vma(-) growth defect when combined with the rav1 mutation. These include class E vps mutations, which compromise endosomal sorting. The synthetic Vma(-) growth defect could not be attributed to loss of vacuolar acidification in the double mutants, as there was no vacuolar acidification in the rav1 mutant. The yeast V-ATPase a subunit is present as two isoforms, Stv1p in Golgi and endosomes and Vph1p in vacuoles. Rav1p interacts directly with the N-terminal domain of Vph1p. STV1 overexpression suppressed the growth defects of both rav1 and rav1vph1, and allowed RAVE-independent assembly of active Stv1p-containing V-ATPases in vacuoles. Mutations causing synthetic genetic defects in combination with rav1 perturbed the normal localization of Stv1-green fluorescent protein. We propose that RAVE is necessary for assembly of Vph1-containing V-ATPase complexes but not Stv1-containing complexes. Synthetic Vma(-) phenotypes arise from defects in Vph1p-containing complexes caused by rav1, combined with defects in Stv1p-containing V-ATPases caused by the second mutation. Thus RAVE is the first isoform-specific V-ATPase assembly factor.
Project description:The vacuolar-type, proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) is a multisubunit enzyme responsible for organelle acidification in eukaryotic cells. Many organisms have evolved V-ATPase subunit isoforms that allow for increased specialization of this critical enzyme. Differential targeting of the V-ATPase to specific subcellular organelles occurs in eukaryotes from humans to budding yeast. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the two subunit a isoforms are the only difference between the two V-ATPase populations. Incorporation of Vph1p or Stv1p into the V-ATPase dictates the localization of the V-ATPase to the vacuole or late Golgi/endosome, respectively. A duplication event within fungi gave rise to two subunit a genes. We used ancestral gene reconstruction to generate the most recent common ancestor of Vph1p and Stv1p (Anc.a) and tested its function in yeast. Anc.a localized to both the Golgi/endosomal network and vacuolar membrane and acidified these compartments as part of a hybrid V-ATPase complex. Trafficking of Anc.a did not require retrograde transport from the late endosome to the Golgi that has evolved for retrieval of the Stv1p isoform. Rather, Anc.a localized to both structures through slowed anterograde transport en route to the vacuole. Our results suggest an evolutionary model that describes the differential localization of the two yeast V-ATPase isoforms.
Project description:Subunit a of the yeast vacuolar-type, proton-translocating ATPase enzyme complex (V-ATPase) is responsible for both proton translocation and subcellular localization of this highly conserved molecular machine. Inclusion of the Vph1p isoform causes the V-ATPase complex to traffic to the vacuolar membrane, whereas incorporation of Stv1p causes continued cycling between the trans-Golgi and endosome. We previously demonstrated that this targeting information is contained within the cytosolic, N-terminal portion of V-ATPase subunit a (Stv1p). To identify residues responsible for sorting of the Golgi isoform of the V-ATPase, a random mutagenesis was performed on the N terminus of Stv1p. Subsequent characterization of mutant alleles led to the identification of a short peptide sequence, W(83)KY, that is necessary for proper Stv1p localization. Based on three-dimensional homology modeling to the Meiothermus ruber subunit I, we propose a structural model of the intact Stv1p-containing V-ATPase demonstrating the accessibility of the W(83)KY sequence to retrograde sorting machinery. Finally, we characterized the sorting signal within the context of a reconstructed Stv1p ancestor (Anc.Stv1). This evolutionary intermediate includes an endogenous W(83)KY sorting motif and is sufficient to compete with sorting of the native yeast Stv1p V-ATPase isoform. These data define a novel sorting signal that is both necessary and sufficient for trafficking of the V-ATPase within the Golgi/endosomal network.
Project description:Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPases (V-ATPases) are highly conserved, ATP-driven proton pumps regulated by reversible dissociation of its cytosolic, peripheral V1 domain from the integral membrane V(o) domain. Multiple stresses induce changes in V1-V(o) assembly, but the signaling mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here we show that certain stress-responsive changes in V-ATPase activity and assembly require the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2). V-ATPase activation through V1-V(o) assembly in response to salt stress is strongly dependent on PI(3,5)P2 synthesis. Purified V(o) complexes preferentially bind to PI(3,5)P2 on lipid arrays, suggesting direct binding between the lipid and the membrane sector of the V-ATPase. Increasing PI(3,5)P2 levels in vivo recruits the N-terminal domain of V(o)-sector subunit Vph1p from cytosol to membranes, independent of other subunits. This Vph1p domain is critical for V1-V(o) interaction, suggesting that interaction of Vph1p with PI(3,5)P2-containing membranes stabilizes V1-V(o) assembly and thus increases V-ATPase activity. These results help explain the previously described vacuolar acidification defect in yeast fab1 and vac14 mutants and suggest that human disease phenotypes associated with PI(3,5)P2 loss may arise from compromised V-ATPase stability and regulation.
Project description:This review focuses on one of the 16 proteins composing the V-ATPase complex responsible for resorbing bone: the <i>a</i>3 subunit. The rationale for focusing on this biomolecule is that mutations in this one protein account for over 50% of osteopetrosis cases, highlighting its critical role in bone physiology. Despite its essential role in bone remodeling and its involvement in bone diseases, little is known about the way in which this subunit is targeted and regulated within osteoclasts. To this end, this review is broadened to include the three other mammalian paralogues (<i>a</i>1, <i>a</i>2 and <i>a</i>4) and the two yeast orthologs (Vph1p and Stv1p). By examining the literature on all of the paralogues/orthologs of the V-ATPase <i>a</i> subunit, we hope to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms and future research directions specific to <i>a</i>3. This review starts with an overview on bone, highlighting the role of V-ATPases in osteoclastic bone resorption. We then cover V-ATPases in other location/functions, highlighting the roles which the four mammalian <i>a</i> subunit paralogues might play in differential targeting and/or regulation. We review the ways in which the energy of ATP hydrolysis is converted into proton translocation, and go in depth into the diverse role of the <i>a</i> subunit, not only in proton translocation but also in lipid binding, cell signaling and human diseases. Finally, the therapeutic implication of targeting <i>a</i>3 specifically for bone diseases and cancer is discussed, with concluding remarks on future directions.
Project description:Proton-translocating ATPases are ubiquitous protein complexes that couple ATP catalysis with proton translocation via a rotary catalytic mechanism. The peripheral stalks are essential components that counteract torque generated from proton translocation during ATP synthesis or from ATP hydrolysis during proton pumping. Despite their essential role, the peripheral stalks are the least conserved component of the complexes, differing substantially between subtypes in composition and stoichiometry. We have determined the crystal structure of the peripheral stalk of the A-type ATPase/synthase from Thermus thermophilus consisting of subunits E and G. The structure contains a heterodimeric right-handed coiled coil, a protein fold never observed before. We have fitted this structure into the 23 A resolution EM density of the intact A-ATPase complex, revealing the precise location of the peripheral stalk and new implications for the function and assembly of proton-translocating ATPases.
Project description:Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved proton pump responsible for acidification of intracellular organelles and potential drug target. It is a multisubunit complex comprising a cytoplasmic V1 domain responsible for ATP hydrolysis and a membrane-embedded Vo domain that contributes to proton translocation across the membrane. Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase is composed of 14 subunits, deletion of any one of which results in well-defined growth defects. As the structure of V-ATPase and the function of each subunit have been well-characterized in yeast, this organism has been recognized as a preferred model for studies of V-ATPases. In this study, to assess the functional relatedness of the yeast and human V-ATPase subunits, we investigated whether human V-ATPase subunits can complement calcium- or pH-sensitive growth, acidification of the vacuolar lumen, assembly of the V-ATPase complex, and protein sorting in yeast mutants lacking the equivalent yeast genes. These assessments revealed that 9 of the 13 human V-ATPase subunits can partially or fully complement the function of the corresponding yeast subunits. Importantly, sequence similarity was not necessarily correlated with functional complementation. We also found that besides all Vo domain subunits, the V1 F subunit is required for proper assembly of the Vo domain at the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, the human H subunit fully restored the level of vacuolar acidification, but only partially rescued calcium-sensitive growth, suggesting a specific role of the H subunit in V-ATPase activity. These findings provide important insights into functional homologies between yeast and human V-ATPases.
Project description:UNLABELLED:An analysis of the distribution of the Na(+)-translocating ATPases/ATP synthases among microbial genomes identified an atypical form of the F(1)F(o)-type ATPase that is present in the archaea Methanosarcina barkeri and M. acetivorans, in a number of phylogenetically diverse marine and halotolerant bacteria and in pathogens Burkholderia spp. In complete genomes, representatives of this form (referred to here as N-ATPase) are always present as second copies, in addition to the typical proton-translocating ATP synthases. The N-ATPase is encoded by a highly conserved atpDCQRBEFAG operon and its subunits cluster separately from the equivalent subunits of the typical F-type ATPases. N-ATPase c subunits carry a full set of sodium-binding residues, indicating that most of these enzymes are Na(+)-translocating ATPases that likely confer on their hosts the ability to extrude Na(+) ions. Other distinctive properties of the N-ATPase operons include the absence of the delta subunit from its cytoplasmic sector and the presence of two additional membrane subunits, AtpQ (formerly gene 1) and AtpR (formerly gene X). We argue that N-ATPases are an early-diverging branch of membrane ATPases that, similarly to the eukaryotic V-type ATPases, do not synthesize ATP. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) are ATP-powered proton pumps involved in processes such as endocytosis, lysosomal degradation, secondary transport, TOR signalling, and osteoclast and kidney function. ATP hydrolysis in the soluble catalytic V1 region drives proton translocation through the membrane-embedded VO region via rotation of a rotor subcomplex. Variability in the structure of the intact enzyme has prevented construction of an atomic model for the membrane-embedded motor of any rotary ATPase. We induced dissociation and auto-inhibition of the V1 and VO regions of the V-ATPase by starving the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, allowing us to obtain a ~3.9-Å resolution electron cryomicroscopy map of the VO complex and build atomic models for the majority of its subunits. The analysis reveals the structures of subunits ac8c'c?de and a protein that we identify and propose to be a new subunit (subunit f). A large cavity between subunit a and the c-ring creates a cytoplasmic half-channel for protons. The c-ring has an asymmetric distribution of proton-carrying Glu residues, with the Glu residue of subunit c? interacting with Arg735 of subunit a. The structure suggests sequential protonation and deprotonation of the c-ring, with ATP-hydrolysis-driven rotation causing protonation of a Glu residue at the cytoplasmic half-channel and subsequent deprotonation of a Glu residue at a luminal half-channel.
Project description:Proton-translocating rotary ATPases couple proton influx across the membrane domain and ATP hydrolysis/synthesis in the soluble domain through rotation of the central rotor axis against the surrounding peripheral stator apparatus. It is a significant challenge to determine the structure of rotary ATPases due to their intrinsic conformational heterogeneity and instability. Recent progress of single particle analysis of protein complexes using cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has enabled the determination of whole rotary ATPase structures and made it possible to classify different rotational states of the enzymes at a near atomic resolution. Three cryo-EM maps corresponding to different rotational states of the V/A type H+-rotary ATPase from a bacterium Thermus thermophilus provide insights into the rotation of the whole complex, which allow us to determine the movement of each subunit during rotation. In addition, this review describes methodological developments to determine higher resolution cryo-EM structures, such as specimen preparation, to improve the image contrast of membrane proteins.