Huge Primary Parasitic Leiomyoma in a Postmenopausal Lady: A Rare Presentation.
ABSTRACT: Although uterine myomas are the most common benign tumours of the female pelvis in the reproductive age group, they rarely grow in menopausal women. Parasitic fibroids without prior history of laparoscopic myomectomy are even a rarer presentation particularly in menopausal women. The case presented is a 58-year-old grand-multiparous, menopausal lady with progressive abdominal swelling of three-year duration. She had excision of a huge parasitic fibroid attached to omentum. She had partial omentectomy, total abdominal hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The parasitic fibroid mass weighed 5.2kg and histopathology confirmed leiomyoma uteri with cystic degeneration and lymph nodes with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. She had uneventful postoperative recovery and follow-up has so far been uneventful.
Project description:Objective. Effect of isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract (iCR) on uterine fibroid size compared with tibolone. Method. The randomized, double-blind, controlled study in China enrolled 244 patients aged 40-60 years with menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopause Index ≥ 15). The participants were treated with either iCR of 40 mg crude drug/day (N = 122) or tibolone 2.5 mg/day (N = 122) orally for 3 months in 2004. Now, we investigated the subset of all women (N = 62) with at least one uterine fibroid at onset of treatment for the effect of iCR (N = 34) on fibroid size compared with tibolone (N = 28) by transvaginal ultrasonography. Results. The median myoma volume decreased upon iCR by as much as -30% (P = 0.016) but increased upon tibolone by +4.7%. The percentage of volume change, mean diameter change and geometric mean diameter change of the iCR group compared to tibolone were statistically significant (P = 0.016, 0.021, 0.016 respectively). Conclusion. Our results suggest that iCR (Remifemin) is a valid herbal medicinal product in patients with uterine myomas as it provides adequate relief from menopausal symptoms and inhibits growth of the myomas in contrast to tibolone.
Project description:The current standard therapy to treat myomas in women wishing to have children consists of minimally invasive surgical myomectomy. Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) has also been discussed as another minimally invasive treatment option to treat myomas. This review evaluates the literature of the past 10 years on fibroid embolisation and its impact on fertility and pregnancy. Potential problems associated with UAE such as radiation exposure of the ovaries, impairment of ovarian function and the impact on pregnancy and child birth are discussed in detail. Previously published reports of at least 337 pregnancies after UAE were evaluated. The review concludes that UAE to treat myomas can only be recommended in women with fertility problems due to myomas who refuse surgery or women with an unacceptably high surgical risk, because the evaluated case reports and studies show that UAE significantly increases the risk of spontaneous abortion; there is also evidence of pathologically increased levels for other obstetric outcome parameters. There are still very few prospective studies which provide sufficient evidence for a definitive statement on the impact of UAE therapy on fertility rates and pregnancy outcomes.
Project description:This report shows that even extremely large nascent uterine myomas can be removed vaginally. A 25-year-old nulligravid and nulliparous patient with malaise, hypermenorrhea, and intermittent cramping pain in the lower abdomen was referred to our clinic. Gynecological examination revealed a round cauliflower-like tumor, 7 cm in diameter, originating from the external cervical os with a rough surface and without a palpable stalk or base. Ultrasound scan showed a hyperechogenic mass within the uterine cavity with two distinct subunits: one (55 × 44 mm) well-demarcated from the surrounding structures and the other (43 × 38 mm) in close proximity to the lower part of the anterior uterine wall and in continuity with the myometrium. At surgery, the myoma was completely removed vaginally. Recovery was prompt, complete, and uneventful. Follow-up at one and three months confirmed normal gynecological and sonographic findings. In conclusion, vaginal myomectomy is the treatment of choice for prolapsed pedunculated submucous myoma; even extremely large nascent myomas can be efficiently removed vaginally.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of an electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing device (LigaSure™) and traditional electrical cauterization in laparoscopic myomectomy (LM). A total of 756 patients with symptomatic uterine myomas who underwent LM were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 225 cases of LM using LigaSure™ (LML group) were compared with a control group treated with traditional electrical cauterization (LME group) under propensity-matched analysis. Outcome measures for both groups were compared, such as operative time, blood loss (BL), complications, need for blood transfusion, hospital expenses, and hospital stay. Six subgroups were divided according to main myoma size and energy source. No cases required switching to abdominal myomectomy. The number of myomas removed, BL, need for blood transfusion, and complications were not significantly different, whereas hospital stay was longer in the LME group than in the LML group and total hospital expenses were higher in the LML group (p < 0.001). The overall operation duration was significantly longer in the LML group but was not significantly different for main myoma >10 cm (LML vs LME, 121.58 ± 41.77 vs 121.69 ± 44.95, p = 0.99); this likely reflects the operative efficiency on using LigaSure™ to manage large tumors. Significant linear correlations between myoma weight and operative time and BL were seen in both groups. Conventional diathermy is more effective for small-to-medium myomas. Use of the LigaSure™ was efficient for myomas >10 cm.
Project description:The aim of this study is to report our experience with a novel technique, the hysteroscopic morcellator (HM), for removal of intrauterine myomas and polyps. We performed a retrospective study on 315 women undergoing operative hysteroscopy with the HM in our university-affiliated teaching hospital. We collected data on installation and operating times, fluid deficit, peri- and postoperative complications. In 37 patients undergoing myomectomy with the HM, mean installation time was 8.7 min, mean operating time, 18.2 min, and median fluid deficit, 440 mL. Three out of 37 HM procedures were converted to resectoscopy, related to a type 2 myoma. In 278 patients, mean installation and operating times for polypectomy with the HM were 7.3 min and 6.6 min, respectively. All procedures were uneventful. Implementation of the HM for removal of type 0 and 1 myomas ?3 cm, and removal of polyps appears safe and effective. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10397-010-0627-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:AIM:To evaluate the cost effectiveness of surgery to remove intramural (IM) fibroids prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS:The decision tree mathematical model along with sensitivity analysis was performed to analyze cost effectiveness of: (1) myomectomy followed by ART or (2) ART with IM myoma(s) in situ. RESULTS:At the median ongoing pregnancy (OP) rate (OPR) reported in the literature for a fresh, autologous ART cycle with IM fibroids in situ vs. post-IM myomectomy, average cost per OP was $72,355 vs. 66,075, indicating a cost savings with myomectomy. Sensitivity analysis over the range of reported OPRs demonstrated that pre-ART IM myomectomy was always cost effective when OPR among women with in situ myomas was <15.4%. However, for OPRs ?15.4%, pre-ART IM myomectomy was only cost effective if it increased OPR by at least 9.6%. At the high end of OPRs reported for patients with IM myomas in situ (31.4%), a 19.5% improvement in OPR was needed to justify IM myomectomy from a cost perspective. CONCLUSION:Myomectomy should be used sparingly in cases where the goal of surgery is to achieve improvement in the outcomes of ART.
Project description:Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumour in women, and an appropriate animal model for leiomyoma would be useful for exploring new therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we have been challenged to develop a new simple mouse model for human leiomyoma. Leiomyoma tissues were harvested from myomas resected by different surgical procedures with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment and were subcutaneously implanted into BALB/c nude mice with an estradiol/progesterone-releasing pellet. The implanted leiomyoma tissues that were obtained from the marginal site of large myomas resected by abdominal myomectomy with GnRHa treatment exhibited sufficient tumour growth in the transplanted mice. The leiomyomas that were treated with GnRHa highly expressed the estrogen/progesterone receptor genes, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and embryonic smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMemb), which suggests that these factors are critical in the establishment of a mouse model of growing leiomyoma. As a result, this model will be useful for the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Although rare, cases of abdominal sarcomatosis (AS) after laparotomy/laparoscopic interventions for uterine smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) have been reported.We describe a rare case of diffuse abdominal sarcomatosis in a patient that some year earlier had undergone myomectomy for a suspected uterine myoma, which was histologically proven to be a STUMP. Once the patient was admitted at our Department, she underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy that confirmed a condition of peritoneal sarcomatosis disseminated through the entire abdomen, and then a laparotomic total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and total omentectomy, achieving a complete cytoreduction. Histological examination showed high-grade uterine leyomiosarcoma (LMS). Since there is no evidence of any clinical benefit of adjuvant treatment, given the risk of disease recurrence, we decided, with the patient's agreement, to conduct close follow-up with a Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) scan every 3months and diagnostic laparoscopy every 6months, even in the absence of PET/CT positivity. After 2years PET/CT showed a relapse of LMS in the perigastric region and, therefore the patient underwent a diagnostic/operative laparoscopy with complete removal of the neoplastic recurrence. To date, the patient is disease-free.STUMPs should be submitted to a frequent surveillance for their risk of recurrence, dissemination and transformation into LMS, even many years after the first diagnosis. A follow-up including surgical re-exploration with laparoscopy and PET/CT imaging may allow early detection and timely treatment of the relapse with good long-term outcome, as demonstrated by our case.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a single versus double dose of prostaglandin E2 "misoprostol, 400 microgram" prior to myomectomy for multiple uterine fibroids. METHODS:This was a prospective randomized controlled trial comprised of 69 patients with multiple myomas undergoing myomectomy. Patients received either an intra-vaginal single dose of 400 microgram misoprostol 1 hr pre-operatively (group A, 34 cases) or 2 doses, 3 and 1 hr prior to surgery (group B, 35 cases). Operation time, intra and post-operative blood loss, hemoglobin concentration, blood pressure and body's temperature were estimated and compared in both groups. The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. The p<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS:In group B, the mean operative time was significantly (p<0.001) shorter than in group A (25.8±4.14 vs. 35.4±5.6 min respectively). The mean value for operative blood loss was significantly (p<0.001) smaller in group B (101.4±25.5 vs. 200.16±18.8 ml). There was a significant (p<0.01) rise of the body temperature in group B (38.5±0.7 vs. 37.18±0.84°C). There were no differences between the two groups regarding hemoglobin levels, post-operative febrile morbidity or length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION:In this study, two doses of pre-operative intra-vaginal misoprostol were more effective than one dose in reducing intra and post-operative blood loss and shortening of operation time during abdominal myomectomy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In fertile women, glycodelin and glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) genes expression rises during the luteal phase, with a peak occurring during the implantation window. The expression of these genes decreases in women with myomas. To determine whether myomectomy would reverse glycodelin and GPx3 expression, we evaluated the transcript levels of these genes in the endometrium of patients before and after myomectomy. METHODS:Expression of glycodelin and GPx3 genes were examined prospectively during the midluteal phase in the endometrium obtained from infertile women with myoma (n = 12) before and three months after myomectomy. Endometrial expression of these genes was evaluated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS:Endometrial glycodelin mRNA expression levels (normalized to 18S rRNA expression) were increased significantly in endometrium of patients after myomectomy (P = 0.02). GPx3 mRNA expression was increased insignificantly after myomectomy (P = 0.43). CONCLUSION:The results showed that myomectomy increased endometrial glycodelin (significantly) and GPx3 (not significantly) gene expression after 3 months. Study at different times and detecting expression of these genes can reveal more details.