Advanced Patient-Centered Communication for Health Behavior Change: Motivational Interviewing Workshops for Medical Learners.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Medical settings are critical access points for behavior change counseling, and lifestyle behavior change is considered a key component of chronic disease management. The Association of American Medical Colleges recommends that future physicians be competent in shared decision making and patient-centered behavioral guidance to prevent illness and improve patient self-management of chronic disease. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered, directive method of communication to enhance behavior change. Specific teachable strategies underlie the collaborative MI communication style that aims to reduce discord and build motivation for change. Methods:We present our three-session 12-hour MI curriculum as an advanced form of patient-centered communication. Each session includes presession assignment, large-group interactive lecture, and small-group activities for practice. An interdisciplinary team consisting of medical educators and health behavior change research-educators who are also members of the Motivational Interviewing Network of Trainers created the submission. The purpose of this resource is to provide medical educators with a short curriculum that incorporates materials and learning activities to promote skill in MI. Results:In addition to positive feedback from student evaluations including the areas of relevance to training and self-rated skills improvement, preliminary pre- and posttraining scores from the medical students show significant improvement in expression of empathy and the ratio of reflections to questions. Discussion:Implementation of the curriculum allows learners the opportunity to practice evidence-based communication that promotes intrinsic motivation for health behavior change in patients, a key treatment focus in chronic disease management.
Project description:Veterinarians often give advice in a persuasive form, a style that has been shown to evoke resistance to change in clients experiencing psychological ambivalence (i.e. those who see both advantages and disadvantages to changing). With this style of communication, veterinarians run the risk of counteracting their purpose to encourage clients to follow recommendations. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centered communication methodology that aims to facilitate clients' internal motivation to change. In MI, Change Talk represents clients' own statements expressing consideration of, motivation for or commitment to behavior change and has been shown to be strongly correlated with behavior change. Sustain Talk is corresponding statements related to maintaining the status quo. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the potential of MI to facilitate behavior change in veterinary herd health management (VHHM) by investigating the effect of dairy cattle veterinarians' MI skills on client Change and Sustain Talk. We recorded VHHM consultancies on 170 Swedish cattle farms performed by 36 veterinarians, randomly distributed into 2 groups: MI veterinarians (n = 18) had received 6-month training in MI and control veterinarians (n = 18) had not received any training. Veterinarians' MI skills were assessed using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity coding system 4.2.1 and categorized as poor_untrained, poor_trained, near moderate and moderate. Client communication was coded using the Client Language Easy Rating coding system. The effect of MI skills on Change Talk, Sustain Talk and Proportion of Change Talk(Change Talk divided by the sum of Sustain Talk plus Change Talk) was investigated using cross-classified regression models with random intercepts for veterinarian and client (farm). The models also included additional explanatory variables (e.g. type of veterinarian and client's satisfaction with the consultation). The veterinarian's MI skills were associated with the client's Change Talk, but results regarding Sustain Talk or Proportion of Change Talk were inconclusive. Clients of veterinarians reaching the highest (i.e. moderate) MI skills expressed 1.5 times more Change Talk than clients of untrained veterinarians. Clients of general large animal practitioners expressed less Sustain Talk than clients of animal health veterinarians and had higher Proportion of Change Talk. Results indicate that learning to practice MI may be one means to improve adherence to veterinary recommendations and to improve efficiency in VHHM services.
Project description:Introduction:Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counseling method that utilizes a patient's own motivation to effect personal change. MI has been applied routinely and successfully to managing medical conditions (e.g., substance abuse). Employing MI techniques to engage medical learners (termed motivational advising [MA]) may help them overcome professional and/or personal challenges limiting their career development. Methods:Medical educators from four academic medical centers developed a module focused on teaching fellow educators MI theory and techniques for MA using didactic and interactive components. Participants participated in facilitated role-plays to practice MA delivery techniques and observed videos of a traditional advisor-advisee interaction as well as an MA-focused engagement. A postworkshop survey was used to evaluate the workshop. Results:In a survey of 48 educators attending the workshop at two medical conferences, over 80% of respondents demonstrated an interest in learning more about MA. Additionally, over 60% indicated that they would seek opportunities to practice and/or implement MA with their advisees. Knowledge of the technical components of MA also increased significantly in pre- and posttest analysis. Discussion:This module introducing the concept of MA was well received by medical educators and was viewed as a valuable tool in advising medical learners. The provided components enable replication of this workshop in other settings with or without an expert in MI techniques. Although the workshop has been conducted with physicians involved in medical education, it would be applicable to other health professionals who advise trainees such as nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, or veterinary medicine.
Project description:Introduction:Motivational interviewing (MI) is a well-established evidence-based method of working with patients to promote health behavior change. Standardized patient (SP) simulation allows trainees to practice and receive feedback on clinical and communication skills and may be useful in applying MI techniques to address tobacco use and exposure. Methods:We developed two SP cases for pediatric residents to practice addressing tobacco use with parents of their patients. Results:Thirty-six residents participated, 26 of whom had prior MI training. Resident postencounter self-reflection identified MI-specific skills, including eliciting the SP's view on positive/negative aspects of smoking, identifying stressors/triggers associated with smoking, eliciting reasons for smoking, asking about motivation/willingness to quit, eliciting benefits of quitting smoking, letting the SP do the talking, and guiding the SP in making a quit plan. On paired-samples t tests, resident self-evaluation checklist scores averaged 6.79 out of 8.00 (SD = 1.018, SEM = 0.165), compared with SP checklist scores, which averaged 7.08 out of 8.00 (SD = 1.217, SEM = 0.197). Discussion:These two SP cases were useful in many ways, allowing residents with prior MI training the opportunity for practice/feedback on skills learned and introducing residents with no prior MI training to MI concepts through experience/feedback. Residents consistently identified using MI concepts on postencounter self-reflection; resident self-evaluation and SP evaluation of residents showed agreement. These sessions could be utilized within a communication/MI curriculum or as stand-alone sessions to introduce MI concepts/techniques for addressing tobacco cessation in the pediatric setting.
Project description:Lack of engagement in self-care is common among patients needing to follow a complex treatment regimen, especially patients with heart failure who are affected by comorbidity, disability and side effects of poly-pharmacy. The purpose of Motivational Interviewing Tailored Interventions for Heart Failure (MITI-HF) is to test the feasibility and comparative efficacy of an MI intervention on self-care, acute heart failure physical symptoms and quality of life.We are conducting a brief, nurse-led motivational interviewing randomized controlled trial to address behavioral and motivational issues related to heart failure self-care. Participants in the intervention group receive home and phone-based motivational interviewing sessions over 90-days and those in the control group receive care as usual. Participants in both groups receive patient education materials. The primary study outcome is change in self-care maintenance from baseline to 90-days.This article presents the study design, methods, plans for statistical analysis and descriptive characteristics of the study sample for MITI-HF. Study findings will contribute to the literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing to promote heart failure self-care.We anticipate that using an MI approach can help patients with heart failure focus on their internal motivation to change in a non-confrontational, patient-centered and collaborative way. It also affirms their ability to practice competent self-care relevant to their personal health goals.
Project description:Introduction:Motivational interviewing (MI) is an interviewing style with extensive evidence to support its use in clinical encounters. Physicians and other health professionals require dedicated education to learn MI techniques. Methods:We developed a replicable, 1-hour session to refresh MI skills for internal medicine residents. The session focused on utilizing MI to address health behavior change during ambulatory visits. Using mixed presentation methods, the session offered a review of the conceptual background of MI followed by the introduction of a brief interview structure adapted from the SBIRT (Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment) technique. Learners then conducted peer interviews to discuss a health-promoting behavior and were observed by a peer and the instructor. Methods:Based on immediate pre- and postfeedback, resident learners expressed enjoyment of the sessions and reported a perception of improved skills and confidence in MI, suggesting the session met its objectives. The session was refined over 2 years to fit standard 1-hour learning sessions in an internal medicine residency curriculum. Though the adaptations are not presented here, the slides and supporting materials were used in multiple settings with other levels and disciplines of learners. Discussion:We offered a 1-hour session to refresh skills in MI. The session accommodated the learning needs of resident physicians working in primary care but could be adapted to other groups of learners. This refresher session is not intended for nor likely to be successful with learners who have not had prior training in MI.
Project description:Lifestyle is one of the main determinants of people's health. It is essential to find the most effective prevention strategies to be used to encourage behavioral changes in their patients. Many theories are available that explain change or adherence to specific health behaviors in subjects. In this sense the named Motivational Interviewing has increasingly gained relevance. Few well-validated instruments are available for measuring doctors' communication skills, and more specifically the Motivational Interviewing.The hypothesis of this study is that the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills (EVEM questionnaire) is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals skills to get behavior change in patients. To test the hypothesis we have designed a prospective, observational, multi-center study to validate a measuring instrument. -Thirty-two primary care centers in Spain. -Sampling and Size: a) face and consensual validity: A group composed of 15 experts in Motivational Interviewing. b) Assessment of the psychometric properties of the scale; 50 physician- patient encounters will be videoed; a total of 162 interviews will be conducted with six standardized patients, and another 200 interviews will be conducted with 50 real patients (n=362). Four physicians will be specially trained to assess 30 interviews randomly selected to test the scale reproducibility. -Measurements for to test the hypothesis: a) Face validity: development of a draft questionnaire based on a theoretical model, by using Delphi-type methodology with experts. b) Scale psychometric properties: intraobservers will evaluate video recorded interviews: content-scalability validity (Exploratory Factor Analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), intra-/inter-observer reliability (Kappa index, intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland & Altman methodology), generalizability, construct validity and sensitivity to change (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient).The verification of the hypothesis that EVEM is a valid and reliable tool for assessing motivational interviewing would be a major breakthrough in the current theoretical and practical knowledge, as it could be used to assess if the providers put into practice a patient centered communication style and can be used both for training or researching purposes. TRIALS REGISTRATION Dislip-EM study: NCT01282190 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
Project description:Heavy drinking by college students is exceedingly harmful to the individuals and to the overall college environment. Current interventions to reduce drinking and negative consequences are infrequently utilized. This randomized clinical trial examined an alternative approach that sought to increase exercise behavior, a substance free activity, in sedentary heavy drinking college students. Participants (N = 70) were randomized to an 8-week exercise intervention: (a) motivational interviewing plus weekly exercise contracting (MI + EC) or (b) motivational interviewing and weekly contingency management for exercise (MI + CM). Follow-up evaluations occurred at posttreatment (2 months) and 6 months post baseline. Participants in both interventions significantly increased exercise frequency initially, and the MI + CM participants exercised significantly more than the MI + EC intervention participants during the intervention period (d = 1.70). Exercise behavior decreased during the follow-up period in both groups. Significant reductions in drinking behaviors and consequences were noted over time, but were not related to changes in exercise or the interventions (ds ? 0.01). This study underscores the complex nature of promoting 1 specific health behavior change with the goal of changing another. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:The purpose of this study was to describe the components and use of motivational interviewing (MI) within a behavior change intervention to promote healthful eating and family meals and prevent childhood obesity. The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus intervention was part of a two-arm randomized-controlled trial and included 81 families (children 8-12 years old and their parents) in the intervention condition. The intervention included 10 monthly, 2-hour group sessions and 5 bimonthly motivational/goal-setting phone calls. Data were collected for intervention families only at each of the goal-setting calls and a behavior change assessment was administered at the 10th/final group session. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the MI call data and behavior assessment. Overall group attendance was high (68% attending ?7 sessions). Motivational/goal-setting phone calls were well accepted by parents, with an 87% average completion rate. More than 85% of the time, families reported meeting their chosen goal between calls. Families completing the behavioral assessment reported the most change in having family meals more often and improving home food healthfulness. Researchers should use a combination of delivery methods using MI when implementing behavior change programs for families to promote goal setting and healthful eating within pediatric obesity interventions.
Project description:Despite limitations in evidence, the current Clinical Practice Guideline advocates Motivational Interviewing for smokers not ready to quit. This study evaluated the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing for inducing cessation-related behaviors among smokers with low motivation to quit.Randomized clinical trial.Two-hundred fifty-five daily smokers reporting low desire to quit smoking were recruited from an urban community during 2010-2011 and randomly assigned to Motivational Interviewing, health education, or brief advice using a 2:2:1 allocation. Data were analyzed from 2012 to 2014.Four sessions of Motivational Interviewing utilized a patient-centered communication style that explored patients' own reasons for change. Four sessions of health education provided education related to smoking cessation while excluding elements characteristic of Motivational Interviewing. A single session of brief advice consisted of brief, personalized advice to quit.Self-reported quit attempts; smoking abstinence (biochemically verified); use of cessation pharmacotherapies; motivation; and confidence to quit were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-ups.Unexpectedly, no significant differences emerged between groups in the proportion who made a quit attempt by 6-month follow-up (Motivational Interviewing, 52.0%; health education, 60.8%; brief advice, 45.1%; p=0.157). Health education had significantly higher biochemically verified abstinence rates at 6 months (7.8%) than brief advice (0.0%) (8% risk difference, 95% CI=3%, 13%, p=0.003), with the Motivational Interviewing group falling in between (2.9% abstinent, 3% risk difference, 95% CI=0%, 6%, p=0.079). Both Motivational Interviewing and health education groups showed greater increases in cessation medication use, motivation, and confidence to quit relative to brief advice (all p<0.05), and health education showed greater increases in motivation relative to Motivational Interviewing (Cohen's d=0.36, 95% CI=0.12, 0.60).Although Motivational Interviewing was generally more efficacious than brief advice in inducing cessation behaviors, health education appeared the most efficacious. These results highlight the need to identify the contexts in which Motivational Interviewing may be most efficacious and question recommendations to use Motivational Interviewing rather than other less complex cessation induction interventions.This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01188018.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Community pharmacists' roles in the UK are evolving; pharmacists currently deliver a wider range of clinical services with more patient-focused care. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate UK community pharmacists' views on their current communication skills in pharmacist-patient facing consultations, and (ii) to explore the perceptions of UK community pharmacists towards the application of motivational interviewing (MI) in a pharmacy consultation. In-depth qualitative face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with ten practicing community pharmacists were carried out, ranging from 30-60 minutes in length. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was employed. Four themes emerged from the data: (1) the fight for time; (2) wrestling with consultation styles; (3) a personal communication evolution; and (4) unfamiliar but engaging motivational interviewing. These themes demonstrated the juxtaposition between the desire for patient-centred care and the pressures of managing broader dispensing work. Participants were critical of academic and continuous professional learning (CPD) training in communication skills and there was a strong recognition of the potential role of MI in promoting patient autonomy and outcomes. Participants recognized a few elements of MI techniques in their current consultations, but welcomed further training on behavioral change for effective consultations, expressing a desire for practical MI-specific training. Face-to-face CPD of consultation skills is needed to avoid the feeling of isolation among UK practicing pharmacists and rigidity in consultation delivery. Support for community pharmacists from other pharmacy staff could relieve current pressures and allow pharmacists time to develop and acquire effective skills for patient facing roles. Behavioural change consultation skills training for pharmacists could be an effective strategy to address these current challenges.