TKO6: A Peptide Standard To Assess Interference for Unit-Resolved Isobaric Labeling Platforms.
ABSTRACT: Protein abundance profiling using isobaric labeling is a well-established quantitative mass spectrometry technique. However, ratio distortion resulting from coisolated and cofragmented ions, commonly referred to as interference, remains a drawback of this strategy. Tribrid mass spectrometers, such as the Orbitrap Fusion and the Orbitrap Fusion Lumos with a triple mass analyzer configuration, facilitate methods (namely, SPS-MS3) that can help alleviate interference. However, few standards are available to measure interference and thereby aid in method development. Here we introduce the TKO6 standard that assesses ion interference and is designed specifically for data acquired at low (unit) mass resolution. We use TKO6 to compare interference in MS2- versus MS3-based quantitation methods, data acquisition methods of different lengths, and ion-trap-based tandem mass tag reporter ion analysis (IT-MS3) with conventional Orbitrap-based analysis (OT-MS3). We show that the TKO6 standard is a valuable tool for assessing quantification accuracy in isobaric-tag-based analyses.
Project description:Isobaric tagging is a powerful strategy for global proteome profiling. A caveat of isobaric-tag-based quantification is "interference", which may be caused by coeluting peptides that are coisolated, cofragmented, and coanalyzed, thereby confounding quantitative accuracy. Here, we present a two-proteome standard that challenges the mass spectrometer to measure a range of protein abundance ratios in a background of potential interference. The HYpro16 standard consists of tandem mass tag (TMT) pro16-labeled human peptides at a 1:1 ratio across all channels into which is spiked TMTpro16-labeled yeast peptides in triplicate at 20:1, 10:1, 4:1, and 2:1 ratios. We showcase the HYpro16 standard by (1) altering the MS2 isolation window width and (2) examining different data acquisition methods (hrMS2, SPS-MS3, RTS-MS3). Our data illustrate that wider isolation widths moderately increase the TMT signal, the benefits of which are offset by decreased ratio accuracy. We also show that using real-time database searching (RTS)-MS3 resulted in the most accurate ratios. Additionally, the number of quantified yeast proteins using RTS-MS3 approaches that of hrMS2 when using a yeast-specific database for real-time searching. In short, this quality control standard allows for the assessment of multiple quantitative measurements within a single run, which can be compared across instruments to benchmark and track performance.
Project description:Multiplexed quantitation via isobaric chemical tags (e.g., tandem mass tags (TMT) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)) has the potential to revolutionize quantitative proteomics. However, until recently the utility of these tags was questionable due to reporter ion ratio distortion resulting from fragmentation of coisolated interfering species. These interfering signals can be negated through additional gas-phase manipulations (e.g., MS/MS/MS (MS3) and proton-transfer reactions (PTR)). These methods, however, have a significant sensitivity penalty. Using isolation waveforms with multiple frequency notches (i.e., synchronous precursor selection, SPS), we coisolated and cofragmented multiple MS2 fragment ions, thereby increasing the number of reporter ions in the MS3 spectrum 10-fold over the standard MS3 method (i.e., MultiNotch MS3). By increasing the reporter ion signals, this method improves the dynamic range of reporter ion quantitation, reduces reporter ion signal variance, and ultimately produces more high-quality quantitative measurements. To demonstrate utility, we analyzed biological triplicates of eight colon cancer cell lines using the MultiNotch MS3 method. Across all the replicates we quantified 8,378 proteins in union and 6,168 proteins in common. Taking into account that each of these quantified proteins contains eight distinct cell-line measurements, this data set encompasses 174,704 quantitative ratios each measured in triplicate across the biological replicates. Herein, we demonstrate that the MultiNotch MS3 method uniquely combines multiplexing capacity with quantitative sensitivity and accuracy, drastically increasing the informational value obtainable from proteomic experiments.
Project description:Multiplexing strategies are at the forefront of mass-spectrometry-based proteomics, with SPS-MS3 methods becoming increasingly commonplace. A known caveat of isobaric multiplexing is interference resulting from coisolated and cofragmented ions that do not originate from the selected precursor of interest. The triple knockout (TKO) standard was designed to benchmark data collection strategies to minimize interference. However, a limitation to its widespread use has been the lack of an automated analysis platform. We present a TKO Visualization Tool (TVT). The TVT viewer allows for automated, web-based, database searching of the TKO standard, returning traditional figures of merit, such as peptide and protein counts, scan-specific ion accumulation times, as well as the TKO-specific metric, the IFI (interference-free index). Moreover, the TVT viewer allows for plotting of two TKO standards to assess protocol optimizations, compare instruments, or measure degradation of instrument performance over time. We showcase the TVT viewer by probing the selection of (1) stationary phase resin, (2) MS2 isolation window width, and (3) number of synchronous precursor selection (SPS) ions for SPS-MS3 analysis. Using the TVT viewer will allow the proteomics community to search and compare TKO results to optimize user-specific data collection workflows.
Project description:Isobaric labeling quantification by mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a powerful technology for multiplexed large-scale protein profiling, but measurement accuracy in complex mixtures is confounded by the interference from coisolated ions, resulting in ratio compression. Here we report that the ratio compression can be essentially resolved by the combination of pre-MS peptide fractionation, MS2-based interference detection, and post-MS computational interference correction. To recapitulate the complexity of biological samples, we pooled tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled Escherichia coli peptides at 1:3:10 ratios and added in ?20-fold more rat peptides as background, followed by the analysis of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS. Systematic investigation shows that quantitative interference was impacted by LC fractionation depth, MS isolation window, and peptide loading amount. Exhaustive fractionation (320 × 4 h) can nearly eliminate the interference and achieve results comparable to the MS3-based method. Importantly, the interference in MS2 scans can be estimated by the intensity of contaminated y1 product ions, and we thus developed an algorithm to correct reporter ion ratios of tryptic peptides. Our data indicate that intermediate fractionation (40 × 2 h) and y1 ion-based correction allow accurate and deep TMT profiling of more than 10?000 proteins, which represents a straightforward and affordable strategy in isobaric labeling proteomics.
Project description:As a driver for many biological processes, phosphorylation remains an area of intense research interest. Advances in multiplexed quantitation utilizing isobaric tags (e.g., TMT and iTRAQ) have the potential to create a new paradigm in quantitative proteomics. New instrumentation and software are propelling these multiplexed workflows forward, which results in more accurate, sensitive, and reproducible quantitation across tens of thousands of phosphopeptides. This study assesses the performance of multiplexed quantitative phosphoproteomics on the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer. Utilizing a two-phosphoproteome model of precursor ion interference, we assessed the accuracy of phosphopeptide quantitation across a variety of experimental approaches. These methods included the use of synchronous precursor selection (SPS) to enhance TMT reporter ion intensity and accuracy. We found that (i) ratio distortion remained a problem for phosphopeptide analysis in multiplexed quantitative workflows, (ii) ratio distortion can be overcome by the use of an SPS-MS3 scan, (iii) interfering ions generally possessed a different charge state than the target precursor, and (iv) selecting only the phosphate neutral loss peak (single notch) for the MS3 scan still provided accurate ratio measurements. Remarkably, these data suggest that the underlying cause of interference may not be due to coeluting and cofragmented peptides but instead from consistent, low level background fragmentation. Finally, as a proof-of-concept 10-plex experiment, we compared phosphopeptide levels from five murine brains to five livers. In total, the SPS-MS3 method quantified 38?247 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 11?000 phosphorylation sites. With 10 measurements recorded for each phosphopeptide, this equates to more than 628?000 binary comparisons collected in less than 48 h.
Project description:The recently developed and commercially available carbonyl-reactive tandem mass tags (aminoxyTMT) enable multiplexed quantification of glycans through comparison of reporter ion intensities. However, challenges still exist for collision activated dissociation (CAD) MS/MS based quantification of aminoxyTMT due to the relatively low reporter ion yield especially for glycans with labile structures. To circumvent this limitation, we utilized the unique structural features of N-glycan molecules, the common core sugar sequence (HexNAc)2(Man)3, and common m/z of Yn ions generated from different types of precursors by MS/MS and designed a Y1 ion triggered, targeted MultiNotch MS3 relative quantification approach based on aminoxyTMT labeling. This approach was implemented on a nanoHILIC-Tribrid quadrupole-ion trap-Orbitrap platform, which enables prescreening of aminoxyTMT labeled N-glycan precursor ions by Y1 ion fragment ion mass in a higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) MS/MS scan and coisolation and cofragmentation of multiple Yn fragment ions that carry the isobaric tags from the inclusion list in the MS/MS/MS scan. Through systematical optimization and evaluation using N-glycans released from several glycoprotein standards and human serum proteins, we demonstrated that the Y1 ion triggered, targeted MultiNotch MS3 approach offers improved accuracy, precision, and sensitivity for relative quantification compared to traditional data-dependent MS2 and Y1 ion MS3 quantification methods.
Project description:Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification with a vital role in cellular signaling. Isobaric labeling-based strategies, such as tandem mass tags (TMT), can measure the relative phosphorylation states of peptides in a multiplexed format. However, the low stoichiometry of protein phosphorylation constrains the depth of phosphopeptide analysis by mass spectrometry. As such, robust and sensitive workflows are required. Here we evaluate and optimize high-Field Asymmetric waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) coupled to Orbitrap Tribrid mass spectrometers for the analysis of TMT-labeled phosphopeptides. We determined that using FAIMS-MS3 with three compensation voltages (CV) in a single method (e.g., CV = -40/-60/-80 V) maximizes phosphopeptide coverage while minimizing inter-CV overlap. Furthermore, consecutive analyses using MSA-CID (multistage activation collision-induced dissociation) and HCD (higher-energy collisional dissociation) fragmentation at the MS2 stage increases the depth of phosphorylation analysis. The methodology and results outlined herein provide a template for tailoring optimized FAIMS-based methods.
Project description:<i>Coffea arabica</i> is one of the most important crops worldwide. In vitro culture is an alternative for achieving <i>Coffea</i> regeneration, propagation, conservation, genetic improvement, and genome editing. The aim of this work was to identify proteins involved in auxin homeostasis by isobaric tandem mass tag (TMT) and the synchronous precursor selection (SPS)-based MS3 technology on the Orbitrap Fusion™ Tribrid mass spectrometer™ in three types of biological materials corresponding to <i>C. arabica</i>: plantlet leaves, calli, and suspension cultures. Proteins included in the β-oxidation of indole butyric acid and in the signaling, transport, and conjugation of indole-3-acetic acid were identified, such as the indole butyric response (IBR), the auxin binding protein (ABP), the ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC), the Gretchen-Hagen 3 proteins (GH3), and the indole-3-acetic-leucine-resistant proteins (ILR). A more significant accumulation of proteins involved in auxin homeostasis was found in the suspension cultures vs. the plantlet, followed by callus vs. plantlet and suspension culture vs. callus, suggesting important roles of these proteins in the cell differentiation process.
Project description:Isobaric tagging enables the acquisition of highly multiplexed proteome quantification, but it is hindered by the pervasive problem of precursor interference. The elimination of coisolated contaminants prior to reporter tag generation can be achieved through the use of gas-phase purification via proton transfer ion/ion reactions (QuantMode); however, the original QuantMode technique was implemented on the high-resolution linear ion-trap-Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer enabled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD). Here we extend this technology to stand-alone linear ion-trap systems (trapQuantMode, trapQM). Facilitated by the use of inlet beam-type activation (i.e., trapHCD) for production and observation of the low mass-to-charge reporter region, this scan sequence comprises three separate events to maximize peptide identifications, minimize duty cycle requirements, and increase quantitative accuracy, precision, and dynamic range. Significant improvements in quantitative accuracy were attained over standard methods when using trapQM to analyze an interference model system comprising tryptic peptides of yeast that we contaminated with human peptides. Finally, we demonstrate practical benefits of this method by analysis of the proteomic changes that occur during mouse skeletal muscle myoblast differentiation. While the reduced duty cycle of trapQM led to the identification of fewer proteins than conventional operation (4050 vs 2964), trapQM identified more significant differences (>1.5 fold, 1362 vs 1132, respectively; p < 0.05) between the proteomes of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiated myotubes and nearly 10-fold more differences with changes greater than 5-fold (96 vs 12). We further show that our trapQM dataset is superior for identifying changes in protein abundance that are consistent with the metabolic and structural changes known to accompany myotube formation.
Project description:Isobaric labeling is a powerful strategy for quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic investigations. A complication of such analyses has been the co-isolation of multiple analytes of similar mass-to-charge resulting in the distortion of relative protein abundance measurements across samples. When properly implemented, synchronous precursor selection and triple-stage mass spectrometry (SPS-MS3) can reduce the occurrence of this phenomenon, referred to as ion interference. However, no diagnostic tool is available currently to rapidly and accurately assess ion interference. To address this need, we developed a multiplexed tandem mass tag (TMT)-based standard, termed the triple knockout (TKO). This standard is comprised of three yeast proteomes in triplicate, each from a strain deficient in a highly abundant protein (Met6, Pfk2, or Ura2). The relative abundance patterns of these proteins, which can be inferred from dozens of peptide measurements can demonstrate ion interference in peptide quantification. We expect no signal in channels where the protein is knocked out, permitting maximum sensitivity for measurements of ion interference against a null background. Here, we emphasize the need to investigate further ion interference-generated ratio distortion and promote the TKO standard as a tool to investigate such issues. Graphical Abstract ?.