Electronic properties of several two dimensional halides from ab initio calculations.
ABSTRACT: Using density functional theory, we study the electronic properties of several halide monolayers. We show that their electronic bandgaps, as obtained with the HSE hybrid functional, range between 3.0 and 7.5 eV and that their phonon spectra are dynamically stable. Additionally, we show that under an external electric field some of these systems exhibit a semiconductor-to-metal transition.
Project description:Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron-phonon relaxation times at the onset of the ?, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron-phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron-phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials.
Project description:Lead (Pb) free non-toxic perovskite solar cells have become more important in the commercialization of the photovoltaic devices. In this study the structural, electronic, optical and mechanical properties of Pb-free inorganic metal halide cubic perovskites CsBX3 (B?=?Sn, Ge; X?=?I, Br, Cl) for perovskite solar cells are simulated using first-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT). These compounds are semiconductors with direct band gap energy and mechanically stable. Results suggest that the materials have high absorption coefficient, low reflectivity and high optical conductivity with potential application in solar cells and other optoelectronic energy devices. On the basis of the optical properties, one can expect that the Germanium (Ge) would be a better replacement of Pb as Ge containing compounds have higher optical absorption and optical conductivity than that of Pb containing compounds. A combinational analysis of the electronic, optical and mechanical properties of the compounds suggests that CsGeI3 based perovskite is the best Pb-free inorganic metal halide semiconductor for the solar cell application. However, the compound with solid solution of CsGe(I0.7Br0.3)3 is found to be mechanically more ductile than CsGeI3. This study will also guide to obtain Pb-free organic perovskites for optoelectronic devices.
Project description:The state-of-the-art Density Functional Theory (DFT) is utilized to investigate the structural, electronic, vibrational, thermal and thermoelectric properties of gallium pnictides GaX (X?=?P, As, Sb) in cubic zincblende (ZB) and hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) phases. The lattice parameters, bulk modulus, energy band nature and bandgap values, phonon, thermal and thermoelectric properties are revisited for ZB phase while for WZ phase they are predictive. Our results agree reasonably well with the experimental and theoretical data wherever they are available. The phonon dispersion curves are computed to validate the dynamic stability of these two polytypes and for further investigating the thermal and thermoelectric properties. Our computed thermoelectric figure of merit ZT gives consistent results with highest observed magnitude of 0.72 and 0.56 for GaSb compound in ZB and WZ phases respectively. The first time calculated temperature variation of lattice thermal conductivity for WZ phase shows lower value than ZB phase and hence an important factor to enhance the figure of merit of considered gallium pnictides in WZ phase. Present results validate the importance of GaX in high temperature thermoelectric applications as the figure of merit ZT shows enhancement with significant reduction in thermal conductivity at higher temperature values.
Project description:We report the results of experimental and theoretical studies of phonon modes in GaN/AlN superlattices (SLs) with a period of several atomic layers, grown by submonolayer digital plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy, which have a great potential for use in quantum and stress engineering. Using detailed group-theoretical analysis, the genesis of the SL vibrational modes from the modes of bulk AlN and GaN crystals is established. <i>Ab initio</i> calculations in the framework of the density functional theory, aimed at studying the phonon states, are performed for SLs with both equal and unequal layer thicknesses. The frequencies of the vibrational modes are calculated, and atomic displacement patterns are obtained. Raman spectra are calculated and compared with the experimental ones. The results of the <i>ab initio</i> calculations are in good agreement with the experimental Raman spectra and the results of the group-theoretical analysis. As a result of comprehensive studies, the correlations between the parameters of acoustic and optical phonons and the structure of SLs are obtained. This opens up new possibilities for the analysis of the structural characteristics of short-period GaN/AlN SLs using Raman spectroscopy. The results obtained can be used to optimize the growth technologies aimed to form structurally perfect short-period GaN/AlN SLs.
Project description:Despite more than 20 years of development, the underlying physics of the laser-induced demagnetization process is still debated. We present a fast, real-time time-dependent density functional theory (rt-TDDFT) algorithm together with the phenomenological atomic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert model to investigate this problem. Our Hamiltonian considers noncollinear magnetic moment, spin-orbit coupling (SOC), electron-electron, electron-phonon, and electron-light interactions. The algorithm for time evolution achieves hundreds of times of speedup enabling calculation of large systems. Our simulations yield a demagnetization rate similar to experiments. We found that (i) the angular momentum flow from light to the system is not essential and the spin Zeeman effect is negligible. (ii) The phonon can play a role but is not essential. (iii) The initial spin disorder and the self-consistent update of the electron-electron interaction play dominant roles and enhance the demagnetization to the experimentally observed rate. The spin disorder connects the electronic structure theory with the phenomenological three-temperature model.
Project description:The recently developed SOGGA11 and M11-L density functionals have been tested for the prediction of bandgaps and lattice constants by comparing to databases containing 31 bandgaps and 34 lattice constants. To make a comparative assessment we also test several other density functionals against the same databases; in particular, we test the local spin density approximation, PBE, PBEsol, SOGGA, TPSS, revTPSS, and M06-L local density functionals and the HSE screened-exchange hybrid nonlocal density functional; and for a subset of 13 lattice constants we also compare the mean errors to those of the AM05 and WC local density functionals and the HISS and HSEsol nonlocal density functionals. The tests show that, of the ten functionals tested against all 65 data, the SOGGA, PBEsol, and HSE functionals are the most accurate for lattice constants, whereas the HSE, M11-L, and M06-L density functionals are the most accurate for bandgaps. However, the SOGGA11 density functional is the most accurate generalized gradient approximation for bandgaps.
Project description:In "Lattice dynamics and structure of the new langasites Ln3CrGe3Be2O14 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd): vibrational spectra and ab initio calculations" , experimental and calculated results on lattice dynamics of the recently discovered new compounds La3CrGe3Be2O14, Pr3CrGe3Be2O14, and Nd3CrGe3Be2O14 are reported. These compounds belong to the langasite series and constitute a new class of low-dimensional antiferromagnets. The data presented in this article includes IR diffuse transmission spectra of powder samples of Ln3CrGe3Be2O14 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd) registered at room temperature with a Bruker 125HR Fourier spectrometer, Raman spectra taken in the backscattering geometry (also at room temperature) with a triple monochromator using the line 514, 5 nm of an argon laser as an excitation, results of the DFT calculations with the B3LYP and PBE0 hybrid functionals on the optimized crystal structures, eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors of the normal vibrational modes. These data can be used to analyse electron-phonon interaction and multiferroic properties of the new langasites and to compare the lattice dynamics of different langasites. The dataset is available on mendeley data public repository at https://doi.org/10.17632/32grbb4p82.1.
Project description:Understanding the properties of defects is crucial to design higher performance semiconductor materials because they influence the electronic and optical properties significantly. Using ab initio calculations, the dynamics properties of nitrogen interstitial in GaN material, including the configuration, migration, and interaction with vacancy were systematically investigated in the present work. By introducing different sites of foreign nitrogen atom, the most stable configuration of nitrogen interstitial was calculated to show a threefold symmetry in each layer and different charge states were characterized, respectively. In the researches of migration, two migration paths, in-plane and out-of-plane, were considered. With regards to the in-plane migration, an intermediated rotation process was observed first time. Due to this rotation behavior, two different barriers were demonstrated to reveal that the migration is an anisotropic behavior. Additionally, charged nitrogen Frenkel pair was found to be a relatively stable defect complex and its well separation distance was about 3.9 Å. Part of our results are in good agreement with the experimental results, and our work provides underlying insights of the identification and dynamics of nitrogen interstitial in GaN material. This study of defects in GaN material is useful to establish a more complete theory and improve the performance of GaN-based devices.
Project description:Although the thermoelectric figure of merit zT above 300 K has seen significant improvement recently, the progress at lower temperatures has been slow, mainly limited by the relatively low Seebeck coefficient and high thermal conductivity. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, success in first-principles computation of the phonon drag effect--a coupling phenomenon between electrons and nonequilibrium phonons--in heavily doped region and its optimization to enhance the Seebeck coefficient while reducing the phonon thermal conductivity by nanostructuring. Our simulation quantitatively identifies the major phonons contributing to the phonon drag, which are spectrally distinct from those carrying heat, and further reveals that although the phonon drag is reduced in heavily doped samples, a significant contribution to Seebeck coefficient still exists. An ideal phonon filter is proposed to enhance zT of silicon at room temperature by a factor of 20 to ? 0.25, and the enhancement can reach 70 times at 100 K. This work opens up a new venue toward better thermoelectrics by harnessing nonequilibrium phonons.
Project description:Raman spectra obtained by the inelastic scattering of light by crystalline solids contain contributions from first-order vibrational processes (e.g. the emission or absorption of one phonon, a quantum of vibration) as well as higher-order processes with at least two phonons being involved. At second order, coupling with the entire phonon spectrum induces a response that may strongly depend on the excitation energy, and reflects complex processes more difficult to interpret. In particular, excitons (i.e. bound electron-hole pairs) may enhance the absorption and emission of light, and couple strongly with phonons in resonance conditions. We design and implement a first-principles methodology to compute second-order Raman scattering, incorporating dielectric responses and phonon eigenstates obtained from density-functional theory and many-body theory. We demonstrate our approach for the case of silicon, relating frequency-dependent relative Raman intensities, that are in excellent agreement with experiment, to different vibrations and regions of the Brillouin zone. We show that exciton-phonon coupling, computed from first principles, indeed strongly affects the spectrum in resonance conditions. The ability to analyze second-order Raman spectra thus provides direct insight into this interaction.