Metabolites can regulate stem cell behavior through the STAT3/AKT pathway in a similar trend to that under hypoxic conditions.
ABSTRACT: Stem cell therapy has long been considered a promising mode of treatment for many incurable diseases. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have provided the most promising results to date for regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, due to several obstacles such as difficulty in sourcing and characterizing hMSCs, they remain largely unavailable for clinical use. The signaling requirements for maintaining stem cell function have been studied widely, but little is known about how metabolism contributes to stem cell function. hMSCs have been shown to promote therapeutic efficacy in hypoxic conditions through metabolic conversion. According to published studies, certain metabolites are able to convert stem cell metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. In this study, we selected several metabolites (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), Phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP) and sodium oxalate (OXA)) to examine the relation between metabolites and stem cell functions. In addition, we investigated the ability of selected metabolites to induce rapid expansion of this cell population. Our results indicate that selected metabolites stimulate stem cell proliferation by induce glycolytic metabolism via AKT/STAT signaling.
Project description:The nutritional requirements of stem cells have not been determined; in particular, the amino acid metabolism of stem cells is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the amino acid metabolism of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), with focus on two questions: Which amino acids are consumed and/or secreted by hMSCs and at what rates? To answer these questions, hMSCs were cultured on tissue culture plastic and in a bioreactor, and their amino acid profile was analyzed. The results showed that the kinetics of hMSCs growth and amino acid metabolism were significantly higher for hMSCs in tissue culture plastic than in the bioreactor. Despite differences in culture conditions, 8 essential and 6 nonessential amino acids were consumed by hMSCs in both tissue culture plastic and bioreactor cultures. Glutamine was the most consumed amino acid with significantly higher rates than for any other amino acid. The metabolism of nonessential amino acids by hMSCs deviated significantly from that of other cell lines. The secretion of alanine, glycine, glutamate, and ornithine by hMSCs showed that there is a strong overflow metabolism that can be due to the high concentrations of amino acids provided in the medium. In addition, the data showed that there is a metabolic pattern for proliferating hMSCs, which can contribute to the design of medium without animal serum for stem cells. Further, this study shows how to implement amino acid rates and metabolic principles in three-dimensional stem cell biology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Perinatally HIV-infected children on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) are reported to have metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance which potentially increase the risk of diabetes, kidney, liver and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE:To elucidate HIV-mediated metabolic complications that sustain even during ART in perinatally HIV-infected children. METHOD:We have carried out metabolic profiling of the plasma of treatment-naïve and ART-suppressed perinatally HIV-infected children and uninfected controls using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy followed by statistical analysis and annotation. RESULT:Validated multivariate analysis showed clear distinction among our study groups. Our results showed elevated levels of lactate, glucose, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, propionic acid, 2-ketobutyric acid and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites in untreated HIV-infected children compared to uninfected controls. ART normalized the levels of several metabolites, however the level of lactate, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, oxoglutaric acid, oxaloacetic acid, myoinositol and glutamine remained upregulated despite ART in HIV-infected children. Pathway analysis revealed perturbed propanoate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis and TCA cycle in untreated and ART-suppressed HIV-infected children. CONCLUSION:Developing therapeutic strategies targeting metabolic abnormalities may be beneficial for preventing diabetes, cardiovascular disease or other associated complications in perinatally HIV-infected children.
Project description:Fibroblasts are important contributors to cancer development. They create a tumor microenvironment and modulate our metabolism and treatment resistance. In the present paper, we demonstrate that healthy fibroblasts induce metabolic coupling with non-small cell lung cancer cells by down-regulating the expression of glycolytic enzymes in cancer cells and increasing the fibroblasts' ability to release lactate and thus support cancer cells with energy-rich glucose-derived metabolites, such as lactate and pyruvate-a process known as the reverse Warburg effect. We demonstrate that these changes result from a fibroblasts-stimulated increase in the expression of fructose bisphosphatase (Fbp) in cancer cells and the consequent modulation of Hif1? function. We show that, in contrast to current beliefs, in lung cancer cells, the predominant and strong interaction with the Hif1? form of Fbp is not the liver (Fbp1) but in the muscle (Fbp2) isoform. Since Fbp2 oligomerization state and thus, its role is regulated by AMP and NAD+-crucial indicators of cellular metabolic conditions-we hypothesize that the Hif1?-dependent regulation of the metabolism in cancer is modulated through Fbp2, a sensor of the energy and redox state of a cell.
Project description:Abstract Implantation of stem cells for tissue regeneration faces significant challenges such as immune rejection and teratoma formation. Cell?free tissue regeneration thus has a potential to avoid these problems. Stem cell derived exosomes do not cause immune rejection or generate malignant tumors. Here, exosomes that can induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are identified and used to decorate 3D?printed titanium alloy scaffolds to achieve cell?free bone regeneration. Specifically, the exosomes secreted by hMSCs osteogenically pre?differentiated for different times are used to induce the osteogenesis of hMSCs. It is discovered that pre?differentiation for 10 and 15 days leads to the production of osteogenic exosomes. The purified exosomes are then loaded into the scaffolds. It is found that the cell?free exosome?coated scaffolds regenerate bone tissue as efficiently as hMSC?seeded exosome?free scaffolds within 12 weeks. RNA?sequencing suggests that the osteogenic exosomes induce the osteogenic differentiation by using their cargos, including upregulated osteogenic miRNAs (Hsa?miR?146a?5p, Hsa?miR?503?5p, Hsa?miR?483?3p, and Hsa?miR?129?5p) or downregulated anti?osteogenic miRNAs (Hsa?miR?32?5p, Hsa?miR?133a?3p, and Hsa?miR?204?5p), to activate the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. Consequently, identification of osteogenic exosomes secreted by pre?differentiated stem cells and the use of them to replace stem cells represent a novel cell?free bone regeneration strategy. Exosomes secreted from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) pre?differentiated for a certain period of time can serve as inducers to induce osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. They can decorate 3D printed titanium alloy scaffolds, which are further implanted into radial bone defect. They are found to enable the scaffolds to achieve efficient cell?free bone regeneration in vivo.
Project description:The timing of gene transfection greatly influences stem cell differentiation. Sequential transfection is crucial for regulation of cell behavior. When transfected several days after differentiation initiation, genes expressed at the late stage of differentiation can regulate cell behaviors and functions. To determine the optimal timing of key gene delivery, we sequentially transfected human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). This method can easily control osteogenesis of stem cells. hMSCs were first transfected with RUNX2 and SP7 using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles to induce osteogenesis, and then with ATF4 after 5, 7, and 14 days. Prior to transfecting hMSCs with all three genes, each gene was individually transfected and its expression was monitored. Transfection of these genes was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy. The pDNAs entered the nuclei of hMSCs, and RUNX2 and SP7 proteins were translated and triggered osteogenesis. Second, the ATF4 gene was delivered when cells were at the pre-osteoblasts stage. To induce the osteogenesis of hMSCs, the optimal timing of ATF4 gene delivery was 14 days after RUNX2/SP7 transfection. Experiments in 2- and 3-dimensional culture systems confirmed that transfection of ATF4 at 14 days after RUNX2/SP7 promoted osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs.
Project description:Engraftment and functional integration of stem cells or stem cell-derived cells within cardiac tissue is an important prerequisite for cell replacement therapy aiming at the treatment of heart disease. Recently, a novel intravenous approach for application of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to cardiac sites has been established using radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA)-guided targeting, bypassing the need for open chest surgery or direct myocardial cell injection. However, little is known about the quantitative efficacy and longevity of this strategy. We performed selective power-controlled RFCA with eight ablation pulses (30 W, 60 s each) to induce heat-mediated lesions at the right atrial appendices (RAAs) of pigs. Different concentrations of human bone marrow-derived MSCs (105 to 1.6 × 106 cells/kg bodyweight) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles were infused intravenously in nine pigs one d after RFCA treatment and hearts were explanted 8 d later to quantify the number of engrafted cells. Prussian blue staining revealed high numbers of SPIO-labeled cells in areas surrounding the RFCA-induced lesions. Cell numbers were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific primers for human MSCs (hMSCs), which indicated that up to 106 hMSCs, corresponding to ?3.9% of the systemically applied human cells, engrafted within the RAAs of RFCA-treated pigs. Of note, infused hMSCs were observed in nontargeted organs, as well, but appeared at very low concentrations. To assess long-term deposition of MSCs, RAAs of three pigs were analyzed after 6 months, which revealed few persisting hMSCs at targeted sites. RFCA-mediated targeting of MSCs provides a novel minimal invasive strategy for cardiac stem cell engraftment. Qualitative and quantitative results of our large animal experiments indicate an efficient guidance of MSCs to selected cardiac regions, although only few cells remained at targeted sites 6 mo after cell transplantation.
Project description:Cell replacement using stem cells is a promising therapeutic approach to treat degenerative motor neuron (MN) disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a desirable cell source for autologous cell replacement therapy to treat nervous system injury due to their plasticity, low immunogenicity, and a lower risk of tumor formation than embryonic stem cells. However, hMSCs are inefficient with regards to differentiating into MN-like cells. To solve this limitation, we genetically engineered hMSCs to express MN-associated transcription factors, Olig2 and Hb9, and then treat the hMSCs expressing Olig2 and Hb9 with optimal MN induction medium (MNIM). This method of induction led to higher expression (>30% of total cells) of MN markers. Electrophysiological data revealed that the induced hMSCs had the excitable properties of neurons and were able to form functional connections with muscle fibers in vitro. Furthermore, when the induced hMSCs were transplanted into an injured organotypic rat spinal cord slice culture, an ex vivo model of spinal cord injury, they exhibited characteristics of MNs. The data strongly suggest that induced Olig2/Hb9-expressing hMSCs were clearly reprogrammed and directed toward a MN-like lineage. We propose that methods to induce Olig2 and Hb9, followed by further induction with MNIM have therapeutic potential for autologous cell replacement therapy to treat degenerative MN disorders.
Project description:Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) from umbilical cord (UC) blood (UCB) and matrix are tested clinically for a variety of pathologies but in vitro expansion using culture media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) is essential to achieve appropriate cell numbers for clinical use. Human UCB plasma (hUCBP) can be used as a supplement for hMSCs culture, since UCB is rich in soluble growth factors and due to worldwide increased number of cryopreserved UCB units in public and private banks, without the disadvantages listed for FBS. On the other hand, the culture media enriched in growth factors produced by these hMSCs in expansion (Conditioned medium--CM) can be an alternative to hMSCs application. The CM of the hMSCs from the UC might be a better therapeutic option compared to cell transplantation, as it can benefit from the local tissue response to the secreted molecules without the difficulties and complications associated to the engraftment of the allo- or xeno-transplanted cells. These facts drove us to know the detailed composition of the hUCBP and CM, by 1H-NMR and Multiplexing LASER Bead Technology. hUCBP is an adequate alternative for the FBS and the CM and hUCBP are important sources of growth factors, which can be used in MSCs-based therapies. Some of the major proliferative, chemotactic and immunomodulatory soluble factors (TGF-?, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8) were detected in high concentrations in CM and even higher in hUCBP. The results from 1H-NMR spectroscopic analysis of CM endorsed a better understanding of hMSCs metabolism during in vitro culture, and the relative composition of several metabolites present in CM and hUCBP was obtained. The data reinforces the potential use of hUCBP and CM in tissue regeneration and focus the possible use of hUCBP as a substitute for the FBS used in hMSCs in vitro culture.
Project description:In most clinical applications, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are expanded in large scale before their administration. Prolonged culture in vitro results in cellular senescenceassociated phenotypes, including accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased cell viabilities. Profiling of stem cell-related genes during in vitro expansion revealed that numerous canonical pathways were significantly changed. To determine the effect of selenocysteine (Sec), a rare amino acid found in several antioxidant enzymes, on the replicative senescence in hMSCs, we treated senescent hMSCs with Sec. Supplementation of Sec in the culture medium in late-passage hMSCs reduced ROS levels and improved the survival of hMSCs. In addition, a subset of key antioxidant genes and Sec-containing selenoproteins showed increased mRNA levels after Sec treatment. Furthermore, ROS metabolism and inflammation pathways were predicted to be downregulated. Taken together, our results suggest that Sec has antioxidant effects on the replicative senescence of hMSCs. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(11): 572-577].
Project description:Human embryo stem cells or adult tissues are excellent models for discovery and characterization of differentiation processes. The aims of regenerative medicine are to define the molecular and physiological mechanisms that govern stem cells and differentiation. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that are able to differentiate into a variety of cell types under controlled conditions both in vivo and in vitro, and they have the remarkable ability of self-renewal. hMSCs derived from amniotic fluid and characterized by the expression of Oct-4 and Nanog, typical markers of pluripotent cells, represent an excellent model for studies on stemness. Unfortunately, the limited amount of cells available from each donation and, above all, the limited number of replications do not allow for detailed studies. Here, we report on the immortalization and characterization of novel mesenchymal progenitor (MePR) cell lines from amniotic fluid-derived hMSCs, whose biological properties are similar to primary amniocytes. Our data indicate that MePR cells display the multipotency potential and differentiation rates of hMSCs, thus representing a useful model to study both mechanisms of differentiation and pharmacological approaches to induce selective differentiation. In particular, MePR-2B cells, which carry a bona fide normal karyotype, might be used in basic stem cell research, leading to the development of new approaches for stem cell therapy and tissue engineering.