Tobacco Use Prevalence and Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapy Prescription Patterns Among Hospitalized Patients by Medical Specialty.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Effective smoking cessation medications are readily available but may be underutilized in hospital settings. In our large, tertiary care hospital, we aimed to (1) characterize patient tobacco use prevalence across medical specialties, (2) determine smoking cessation pharmacotherapy prescription variation across specialties, and (3) identify opportunities for improvement in practice. METHODS:Using electronic health records at Barnes Jewish Hospital, we gathered demographic data, admitting service, admission route, length of stay, self-reported tobacco use, and smoking cessation prescriptions over a 6-year period, from 2010 to 2016. We then compared tobacco use prevalence and smoking cessation prescriptions across medical specialties using a cross-sectional, retrospective design. RESULTS:Past 12-month tobacco use was reported by patients in 27.9% of inpatient admissions; prescriptions for smoking cessation pharmacotherapy were provided during 21.5% of these hospitalizations. The proportion of patients reporting tobacco use was highest in psychiatry (55.3%) and lowest in orthopedic surgery (17.1%). Psychiatric patients who reported tobacco use were most likely to receive pharmacotherapy (71.8% of admissions), and plastic surgery patients were least likely (4.7% of admissions). Compared with Caucasian tobacco users, African American patients who used tobacco products were less likely to receive smoking cessation medications (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62 to 0.68). CONCLUSIONS:Among hospitalized tobacco users, safe and cost-effective pharmacotherapies are under-prescribed. We identified substantial variation in prescribing practices across different medical specialties and demographic groups, suggesting the need for an electronic medical record protocol that facilitates consistent tobacco use cessation pharmacotherapy treatment. IMPLICATIONS:Tobacco use cessation pharmacotherapy is underutilized during hospitalization, and prescription rates vary greatly across medical specialties and patient characteristics. Hospitals may benefit from implementing policies and practices that standardize and automate the offer of smoking pharmacotherapy for all hospitalized patients who use tobacco.
Project description:Tobacco use is still the leading preventable cause of death and morbidity in the U.S. Web-assisted tobacco interventions are an effective but underutilized tool in assisting smokers with quitting. The dental visit is an excellent opportunity to assist smokers in quitting by referring them to these tobacco-cessation online programs.The study purpose was to test two patient referral methods-paper referrals (information prescriptions) versus paper plus e-referrals-to a web-assisted smoking-cessation induction system.RCT that used implementation research methods.A total of 100 community-based dental practices were enrolled and 1814 smokers were referred to the web-assisted tobacco induction system.The study intervention was a proactive e-referral of smokers to a web-assisted tobacco induction system called Decide2Quit.org, and the control group used paper referrals (information prescriptions) to refer smokers to the Decide2Quit.org.The outcome measurements were the referral numbers, Decide2Quit registration numbers, and the smokers' quit rate. Data were collected in 2010-2011 and analyses were completed in 2012.Although total referrals from intervention practices was lower than control, subsequent proportions of registrations among smokers referred to Decide2Quit.org were nearly fourfold higher (adjusted mean percentages: 29.5% vs 7.6%, p<0.01) in intervention compared with control practices. Subsequent rates of cessation among referred smokers were threefold higher (adjusted mean percentages: 3.0% vs 0.8%, p=0.03) in intervention practices as compared with control.Intervention practices using the e-referral system had higher smoker registration numbers and higher quit smoking rates than the control practices. This study finds that e-referrals are effective in getting smokers to the web-assisted smoking-cessation induction system and in assisting with quitting that more than compensates for any additional effort that e-referrals require on the part of the practitioner.DPBRN Hygienists Internet Quality Improvement in Tobacco Cessation (HiQuit); NCT01108432.
Project description:Most smokers do not receive comprehensive, evidence-based treatment for tobacco use that includes intensive behavioral counseling along with pharmacotherapy. Further, the use of proven, tobacco treatments is lower among minorities than among Whites. The primary objectives of this study are to: (1) Assess the effect of a proactive care intervention (PRO) on population-level smoking abstinence rates (i.e., abstinence among all smokers including those who use and do not utilize treatment) and on utilization of tobacco treatment compared to reactive/usual care (UC) among a diverse population of smokers, (2) Compare the effect of PRO on population-level smoking abstinence rates and utilization of tobacco treatments between African American and White smokers, and (3) Determine the cost-effectiveness of the proactive care intervention.This prospective randomized controlled trial identifies a population-based sample of current smokers from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic medical record health factor dataset. The proactive care intervention combines: (1) proactive outreach and (2) offer of choice of smoking cessation services (telephone or face-to-face). Proactive outreach includes mailed invitation materials followed by an outreach call that encourages smokers to seek treatment with choice of services. Proactive care participants who choose telephone care receive VA telephone counseling and access to pharmacotherapy. Proactive care participants who choose face-to-face care are referred to their VA facility's smoking cessation clinic. Usual care participants have access to standard smoking cessation services from their VA facility (e.g., pharmacotherapy, smoking cessation clinic) and from their state telephone quitline. Baseline data is collected from VA administrative databases and participant surveys. Outcomes from both groups are collected 12 months post-randomization from participant surveys and from VA administrative databases. The primary outcome is self-reported smoking abstinence, which is assessed at the population-level (i.e., among those who utilize and those who do not utilize tobacco treatment). Primary analyses will follow intention-to-treat methodology.This randomized trial is testing proactive outreach strategies offering choice of smoking cessation services, an innovation that if proven effective and cost-effective, will transform the way tobacco treatment is delivered. National dissemination of proactive treatment strategies could dramatically reduce tobacco-related morbidity, mortality, and health care costs.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00608426.
Project description:The Affordable Care Act requires state Medicaid programs to cover pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation without cost sharing for pregnant women. Little is known about use of these pharmacotherapies among Medicaid-enrolled women.To describe the prevalence of prescription fills for smoking-cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy and postpartum among Medicaid-enrolled women and to examine whether certain pregnancy complications or copayments are associated with prescription fills.Insurance claims data for women enrolled in a Medicaid managed care plan in Maryland and who used tobacco during pregnancy from 2003 to 2010 were obtained (N=4,709) and analyzed in 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the prevalence of smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy use during pregnancy and postpartum. Generalized estimating equations were employed to examine the relationship of pregnancy complications and copayments with prescription fills of smoking-cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy and postpartum.Few women filled any prescription for a smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy during pregnancy or postpartum (2.6% and 2.0%, respectively). Having any smoking-related pregnancy complication was positively associated with filling a smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy prescription during pregnancy (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.08, 2.65) but not postpartum. Copayments were associated with significantly decreased odds of filling any prescription for smoking-cessation pharmacotherapies in the postpartum period (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.22, 0.66).Smoking-related pregnancy complications and substance use are predictive of filling a prescription for pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Low use of pharmacotherapies during pregnancy is consistent with clinical guidelines; however, low use postpartum suggests an unmet need for cessation aids in Medicaid populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND: High tobacco prices, typically achieved through taxation, are an evidence-based strategy to reduce tobacco use. However, the presence of inexpensive contraband tobacco could undermine this effective intervention by providing an accessible alternative to quitting. We assessed whether the use of contraband tobacco negatively affects smoking cessation outcomes. METHODS: We evaluated data from 2786 people who smoked, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the population-based longitudinal Ontario Tobacco Survey. We analyzed associations between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes (attempting to quit, 30-d cessation and long-term cessation at 1 yr follow-up). RESULTS: Compared with people who smoked premium or discount cigarettes, people who reported usually smoking contraband cigarettes at baseline were heavier smokers, perceived greater addiction, identified more barriers to quitting and were more likely to have used pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. People who smoked contraband cigarettes were less likely to report a period of 30-day cessation during the subsequent 6 months (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.61) and 1 year (adjusted RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14-0.61), but they did not differ significantly from other people who smoked regarding attempts to quit (at 6 mo, adjusted RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43-1.20) or long-term cessation (adjusted RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.04-1.34). INTERPRETATION: Smoking contraband cigarettes was negatively associated with short-term smoking cessation. Access to contraband tobacco may therefore undermine public health efforts to reduce the use of tobacco at the population level.
Project description:Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and disability. New payment and delivery system models including global payment and accountable care have the potential to increase use of cost-effective tobacco cessation services.To examine how the Alternative Quality Contract (AQC) established in 2009 by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts (BCBSMA) has affected tobacco cessation service use.We used 2006-2011 BCBSMA claims and enrollment data to compare adults 18-64 years in AQC provider organizations to adults in non-AQC provider organizations. We examined the AQC's effects on all enrollees; a subset at high risk of tobacco-related complications due to certain medical conditions; and behavioral health service users.We examined use of: (1) any cessation treatment (pharmacotherapy or counseling); (2) varenicline or bupropion; (3) nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs); (4) cessation counseling; and (4) combination therapy (pharmacotherapy plus counseling). We also examined duration of pharmacotherapy use and number of counseling visits among users.Rates of tobacco cessation treatment use were higher following implementation of the AQC relative to the comparison group overall (2.02 vs. 1.87 %, p?<?0.0001), among enrollees at risk for tobacco-related complications (4.97 vs. 4.66 %, p?<?0.0001), and among behavioral health service users (3.67 vs. 3.25 %, p?<?0.0001). Statistically significant increases were found for use of varenicline or bupropion alone, counseling alone, and combination therapy, but not for NRT use, pharmacotherapy duration, or number of counseling visits among users.In its initial three years, the AQC was associated with increases in use of tobacco cessation services.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, but evidence-based smoking cessation therapy is underutilized. Financial incentive strategies represent an innovative approach for increasing the use of counseling and pharmacotherapy. If effective, they could supplement or supplant resource-intensive policy options, particularly in populations for whom smoking has substantial societal costs. FIESTA (Financial IncEntives for Smoking TreAtment) will randomize hospitalized smokers to receive usual smoking cessation care alone or usual smoking care augmented with financial incentives. We aim to compare the impact of these two strategies on 1) smoking abstinence, 2) use of counseling and nicotine replacement therapy, and 3) quality of life of participants. We also will evaluate the short-term and long-term return on the investment of incentives. The FIESTA Oral Microbiome Substudy will compare the oral microbiome of smokers and nonsmokers to longitudinally assess whether smoking cessation changes oral microbiome composition. METHODS:We will enroll 182 inpatient participants from the Manhattan campus of the Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System. All participants receive enhanced usual care, including screening for tobacco use, counseling while hospitalized, access to nicotine replacement therapy, and referral to a state Quitline. Patients in the financial incentive arm receive enhanced usual care and up to $550 for participating in the New York Smoker's Quitline, using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and achieving biochemically confirmed smoking cessation at 2 months and 6 months. In the microbiome substudy, we enroll nonsmoking control participants matched to each recruited smoker's hospital ward, sex, age, diabetes status, and antibiotic use. After discharge, participants are asked to complete periodic phone interviews at 2 weeks, 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months and provide expired carbon monoxide and saliva samples at 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months for cotinine testing and oral microbiome analysis. DISCUSSION:The incentive interventions of FIESTA may benefit hospitalized smokers, an objective made all the more critical because smoking rates among hospitalized patients are higher than those in the general population. Moreover, the focus of FIESTA on evidence-based therapy and bioconfirmed smoking cessation can help guide policy efforts to reduce smoking-related healthcare costs in populations with high rates of tobacco use and costly illnesses. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02506829 . Registered on 1 July 2014.
Project description:Medical students represent a primary target for tobacco cessation training. This study assessed the prevalence of medical students' tobacco use, attitudes, clinical skills, and tobacco-related curricula in two countries, the US and Italy, with known baseline disparities in hopes of identifying potential corrective interventions.From September to December 2013, medical students enrolled at the University of Bologna and at Brown University were recruited via email to answer survey questions assessing the prevalence of medical students' tobacco use, attitudes and clinical skills related to patients' smoking, and elements of medical school curricula related to tobacco use.Of the 449 medical students enrolled at Brown and the 1426 enrolled at Bologna, 174 Brown students (38.7%) and 527 Bologna students (36.9%) participated in this study. Italian students were more likely to smoke (29.5% vs. 6.1%; p<0.001) and less likely to receive smoking cessation training (9.4% vs. 80.3%; p<0.001) than their American counterparts, even though the majority of students in both countries desired smoking cessation training (98.6% at Brown, 85.4% at Bologna; p<0.001). Additionally, negative beliefs regarding tobacco usage, the absence of formal training in smoking cessation counseling, and a negative interest in receiving specific training on smoking cessation were associated with a higher risk of not investigating a patient's smoking status during a routine history and not offering tobacco cessation treatment to patients.Medical curricula on tobacco-related health hazards and on smoking cessation should be mandatory in order to reduce smoking among medical students, physicians, and patients, thereby improving tobacco-related global health.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association of the duration of use of prescription medications and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with smoking cessation using a national sample of the general population in the USA, controlling for nicotine dependence and sociodemographic variables. SETTING USA PARTICIPANTS:We used data from the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the US Current Population Survey. We limited the analysis to current daily smokers who made a quit attempt in the past year and former smokers who were a daily smoker 1?year prior to the survey (n=8263). Respondents were asked about duration of use of prescription medication (varenicline, bupropion, other) and NRT (nicotine patch, gum/lozenges, nasal spray and inhaler) for smoking cessation. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE:Successful smoking cessation. Individuals who reported to have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime but were not smoking at all at the time of the interview and were a daily smoker 1?year prior to the interview were considered to have successfully quit smoking. RESULTS:After adjusting for daily cigarette consumption and sociodemographic covariates, we found evidence for an association between duration of pharmacotherapy use and smoking cessation (p<0.001). Adjusted cessation rates for those who used prescription medication or NRT for 5+ weeks were 28.8% and 27.8%, respectively. Adjusted cessation rates for those who used prescription medication or NRT for less than 5?weeks varied from 6.2% to 14.5%. Adjusted cessation rates for those who used only behavioural counselling and those who attempted to quit smoking unassisted were 16.1% and 16.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Use of pharmacotherapy for at least 5?weeks is associated with increased likelihood of successful smoking cessation. Results suggest that encouraging smokers who intend to quit to use pharmacotherapy and to adhere to treatment duration can help improve chances of successful cessation.
Project description:Introduction:Smokers benefit from ongoing cessation support upon leaving the hospital and returning to their home environment. This study examined the impact of telephone-delivered care coordination on utilization of and adherence to cessation pharmacotherapy after hospital discharge. Methods:Inpatient smokers (n = 606) were randomized to receive counseling with care coordination (CCC) or counseling alone (C) for smoking cessation. Both groups received written materials and telephone-based cessation counseling during hospitalization and postdischarge. CCC recipients received help in selecting, obtaining, and refilling affordable pharmacotherapy prescriptions during and after hospitalization. Study outcomes included self-reported utilization, duration of use, and type of medication during the 3 months postdischarge. Results:Of the 487 (80%) of participants completing 3-month follow-up, 211 (43.3%) reported using cessation pharmacotherapy postdischarge; this did not differ by study arm (CCC: 44.7%, C: 42.0%, p = .55). Use of pharmacotherapy postdischarge was associated with smoking at least 20 cigarettes/day at baseline (odds ratio [OR]: 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-2.19) and receipt of pharmacotherapy during hospitalization (OR: 4.00; 95% CI: 2.39-6.89). Smokers with Medicaid (OR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.32-4.02) or other insurance (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.01-2.86) were more likely to use pharmacotherapy postdischarge than those with no health care coverage. Less than one in four (23.8% of CCC; 22.2% of C) continued pharmacotherapy beyond 4 weeks. Conclusions:Supplemental care coordination did not improve use of postdischarge pharmacotherapy beyond that of inpatient treatment and behavioral counseling. Insurance coverage and use of medications during the hospitalization are associated with higher use of evidence-based treatment postdischarge. Implications:Many hospitalized smokers do not receive the benefits of cessation pharmacotherapy postdischarge and telephone quitline programs often fail to help smokers procure pharmacotherapy. Thus, effective strategies are needed to improve utilization and adherence to evidence-based cessation therapies when smokers leave the hospital. We found that use of postdischarge pharmacotherapy was strongly associated with receipt of pharmacotherapy during the hospitalization and with the availability of insurance to cover the costs of treatment. Additional efforts to coordinate pharmacotherapy services did not improve either utilization or adherence to therapy.
Project description:Evidence-based smoking cessation guidelines recommend nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion SR and varenicline as first-line therapy in combination with behavioural interventions. However, there are limited data to guide clinicians in recommending one form over another, using combinations, or matching individual smokers to particular forms.To develop decision rules for clinicians to guide differential prescribing practices and tailoring of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.A Delphi approach was used to build consensus among a panel of 37 international experts from various health disciplines. Through an iterative process, panellists responded to three rounds of questionnaires. Participants identified and ranked "best practices" used by them to tailor pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation. An independent panel of 10 experts provided cross-validation of findings.There was a 100% response rate to all three rounds. A high level of consensus was achieved in determining the most important priorities: (1) factors to consider in prescribing pharmacotherapy: evidence, patient preference, patient experience; (2) combinations based on: failed attempt with monotherapy, patients with breakthrough cravings, level of tobacco dependence; (3) specific combinations, main categories: (a) two or more forms of NRT, (b) bupropion + form of NRT; (4) specific combinations, subcategories: (1a) patch + gum, (1b) patch + inhaler, (1c) patch + lozenge; (2a) bupropion + patch, (2b) bupropion + gum; (5) impact of comorbidities on selection of pharmacotherapy: contraindications, specific pharmacotherapy useful for certain comorbidities, dual purpose medications; (6) frequency of monitoring determined by patient needs and type of pharmacotherapy.An algorithm and guide were developed to assist clinicians in prescribing pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. There appears to be good justification for "off-label" use such as higher doses of NRT or combination therapy in certain circumstances. This practical tool reflects best evidence to date of experts in tobacco cessation.