Identification and Molecular Characterization of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? as a Novel Target for Covalent Modification by 15-Deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2.
ABSTRACT: PPAR? belongs to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear receptors. Upon activation by an agonist, PPAR? controls a variety of physiological processes via regulation of its target genes. 15-Deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is a cyclopentenone prostaglandin that features an electrophilic, ?,?-unsaturated ketone (an enone) in the cyclopentenone ring. Many of 15d-PGJ2's biological effects result from covalent interaction between C9 and the thiol group of a catalytic cysteine (Cys) in target proteins. In this study, we investigated whether 15d-PGJ2 activates PPAR? by forming a covalent adduct. Our data show that 15d-PGJ2 activates PPAR?'s transcriptional activity through formation of a covalent adduct between its endocyclic enone at C9 and Cys249 in the receptor's ligand-binding domain. As expected, no adduct formation was seen following a Cys-to-Ser mutation at residue 249 (C249S) of PPAR? or with a PGD2/PGJ2 analogue that lacks the electrophilic C9. Furthermore, the PPAR? C249S mutation weakened induction of the receptor's DNA binding activity by 15d-PGJ2, which highlights the biological significance of our findings. Calculated chemical properties as well as data from molecular orbital calculations, reactive molecular dynamics simulations, and intrinsic reaction coordinate modeling also supported the selectivity of 15d-PGJ2's C9 toward PPAR?'s Cys thiol. In summary, our results provide the molecular, chemical, and structural basis of 15d-PGJ2-mediated PPAR? activation, designating 15d-PGJ2 as the first covalent PPAR? ligand to be identified.
Project description:The cyclopentenone 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) induces cell proliferation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Here, we describe that these effects are mediated by 15d-PGJ(2)-elicited H-Ras activation. We demonstrate that this pathway is specific for H-Ras through the formation of a covalent adduct of 15d-PGJ(2) with Cys-184 of H-Ras, but not with N-Ras or K-Ras. Mutation of C184 inhibited H-Ras modification and activation by 15d-PGJ(2), whereas serum-elicited stimulation was not affected. These results describe a mechanism for the activation of the Ras signaling pathway, which results from the chemical modification of H-Ras by formation of a covalent adduct with cyclopentenone prostaglandins.
Project description:HO-1 (haem oxygenase 1) is an essential antioxidant enzyme in the cell that exerts its effects through removal of pro-oxidant haem groups and the formation of antioxidant molecules and carbon monoxide. The electrophilic cyclopentenone 15d-PGJ2 (15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2) induces the expression of HO-1 protein through the covalent modification of protein thiols. It has been shown that specific thiol residues of the redox-sensor Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) are modified by 15d-PGJ2, leading to activation of the transcription factor Nrf-2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2) and up-regulation of genes under control of the electrophile-response element, including HO-1. However, 15d-PGJ2 has also been shown to modify other proteins which comprise the electrophile-responsive proteome. Since 15d-PGJ2 has been shown to localize to the mitochondria in endothelial cells, we hypothesized that mitochondrial protein modification may also be important in Keap1/Nrf-2 signal transduction, leading to HO-1 up-regulation. In order to determine the role of mitochondrial protein thiol modification in HO-1 induction, we used the mitochondrial-targeted thiol-reactive compound IBTP [(4-iodobutyl)triphenylphosphonium]. IBTP had no effect on basal HO-1 levels, but effectively blocked HO-1 induction by a variety of reagents including haemin, iodoacetamide and 15d-PGJ2. Mechanistically, IBTP did not prevent the covalent modification of Keap1 by 15d-PGJ2. However, IBTP prevented the 15d-PGJ2-dependent increases in HO-1 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, IBTP prevented the nuclear accumulation of Nrf-2, suggesting cross-talk between mitochondria and antioxidant-response signal transduction. This effect was independent of reactive oxygen species formation or mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, IBTP significantly enhanced the toxicity of high concentrations of 15d-PGJ2, suggesting that loss of mitochondrial control of HO-1 leads to increased susceptibility to electrophilic stress in endothelial cells. The implications for these studies in understanding the balance between cytoprotection and cytotoxicity in the context of diseases such as atherosclerosis is discussed.
Project description:Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are important for maintaining vascular homeostasis. Dysfunction of ECs contributes to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, and can impair the healing process during vascular injury. An important mediator of EC response to stress is the GTPase Rac1. Rac1 responds to extracellular signals and is involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement, reactive oxygen species generation and cell cycle progression. Rac1 interacts with effector proteins to elicit EC spreading and formation of cell-to-cell junctions. Rac1 activity has recently been shown to be modulated by glutathiolation or S-nitrosation via an active site cysteine residue. However, it is not known whether other redox signaling compounds can modulate Rac1 activity. An important redox signaling mediator is the electrophilic lipid, 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). This compound is a downstream product of cyclooxygenase and forms covalent adducts with specific cysteine residues, and induces cellular signaling in a pleiotropic manner. In this study, we demonstrate that a biotin-tagged analog of 15d-PGJ2 (bt-15d-PGJ2) forms an adduct with Rac1 in vitro at the C157 residue, and an additional adduct was detected on the tryptic peptide associated with C178. Rac1 modification in addition to modulation of Rac1 activity by bt-15d-PGJ2 was observed in cultured ECs. In addition, decreased EC migration and cell spreading were observed in response to the electrophile. These results demonstrate for the first time that Rac1 is a target for 15d-PGJ2 in ECs, and suggest that Rac1 modification by electrophiles such as 15d-PGJ2 may alter redox signaling and EC function.
Project description:An endogenous anticancer agent, 15-deoxy -?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) induces apoptosis in the chemoresistant renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor for 15d-PGJ2, and mediates the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ2 in many cancerous cells. However, 15d-PGJ2 induces apoptosis independently of PPAR? in human RCC cell line such as Caki-2. In the present study, we found that 15d-PGJ2 ameliorated the chemoresistance to one of anthracycline antibiotics, doxorubicin, in Caki-2 cells. Doxorubicin alone exhibited weak cytotoxicity at the concentrations effective for other cancer cells such as Hela cells. In addition, it did not activate caspase 3. However, the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin was increased remarkably and accompanied with the caspase- 3 activation in the presence of 15d-PGJ2. Doxorubicin alone damaged plasma membrane, and the combined application of 15d-PGJ2 with doxorubicin increased the membrane permeability slightly. PPAR? was involved in neither the anti-tumor activity nor the synergistic effect of 15d-PGJ2. 15d-PGJ2 induces apoptosis in Caki-2 cells via suppressing the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. The effect of PI3K inhibitor on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin was additive, but not synergistic. Although the PI3K inhibitor mimicked the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ2, it might not be involved in the synergism between 15d-PGJ2 and doxorubicin. In conclusion, 15d-PGJ2 enhanced the chemosensitivity of doxorubicin via the pathway independent of PPAR? and PI3K.
Project description:15-deoxy-delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory lipid derived from PGD2. One potential mechanism for its activity is the covalent modification of cellular proteins, via a reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group in its cyclopentenone ring, which in turn alters protein function. In order to identify the target proteins covalently modified by 15d-PGJ2 in human aortic endothelial cell (EC), EC were treated with biotinylated-15d-PGJ2, the modified proteins extracted by Neutravidin affinity-purification and the proteins were identified by LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer.
Project description:Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that respond to diverse danger signals by activating caspase-1. The sensor components of the inflammasome, often proteins of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family, detect stress, danger stimuli, and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. We report that the eicosanoid 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) and related cyclopentenone PGs inhibit caspase-1 activation by the NLR family leucine-rich repeat protein (NLRP)1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes. This inhibition was independent of the well-characterized role of 15d-PGJ2 as a peroxisome proliferator receptor-? agonist, its activation of NF erythroid 2-related factor 2, or its anti-inflammatory function as an inhibitor of NF-?B. Instead, 15d-PGJ2 prevents the autoproteolytic activation of caspase-1 and the maturation of IL-1? through induction of a cellular state inhibitory to caspase-1 proteolytic function. The eicosanoid does not directly modify or inactivate the caspase-1 enzyme. Rather, inhibition is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. In a mouse peritonitis model of gout, using monosodium urate crystals to activate NLRP3, 15d-PGJ2 caused a significant inhibition of cell recruitment and associated IL-1? release. Furthermore, in a murine anthrax infection model, 15d-PGJ2 reversed anthrax lethal toxin-mediated NLRP1-dependent resistance. The findings reported in this study suggest a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory properties of the cyclopentenone PGs through inhibition of caspase-1 and the inflammasome.
Project description:PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) is a nuclear receptor that is activated by natural lipid metabolites, including 15d-PGJ2 (15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2). We previously reported that several oxidized lipid metabolites covalently bind to PPARgamma through a Michael-addition to activate transcription. To separate the ligand-entering (dock) and covalent-binding (lock) steps in PPARgamma activation, we investigated the binding kinetics of 15d-PGJ2 to the PPARgamma LBD (ligand-binding domain) by stopped-flow spectroscopy. We analysed the spectral changes of 15d-PGJ2 by multi-wavelength global fitting based on a two-step chemical reaction model, in which an intermediate state represents the 15d-PGJ2-PPARgamma complex without covalent binding. The extracted spectrum of the intermediate state in wild-type PPARgamma was quite similar to the observed spectrum of 15d-PGJ2 in the C285S mutant, which cannot be activated by 15d-PGJ2, indicating that the complex remains in the inactive, intermediate state in the mutant. Thus 'lock' rather than 'dock' is one of the critical steps in PPARgamma activation by 15d-PGJ2.
Project description:15-Deoxy-?-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist, has been explored in some detail over the last 20 years. By triggering the PPAR-? signalling pathway, it plays many roles and exerts antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antioxidation, antifibrosis, and antiangiogenesis effects. Although many synthetic PPAR-? receptor agonists have been developed, as an endogenous product of PPAR-? receptors, 15d-PGJ2 has beneficial characteristics including rapid expression and the ability to contribute to a natural defence mechanism. In this review, we discuss the latest advances in our knowledge of the biological role of 15d-PGJ2 mediated through PPAR-?. It is important to understand its structure, synthesis, and functional mechanisms to develop preventive agents and limit the progression of associated diseases.
Project description:Cortisol, the central stress hormone in humans, activates the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Anti-inflammatory effects are the most important pharmaceutical effects mediated by the GR. Inasmuch as electrophilic cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has potent anti-inflammatory properties and activates the SUMOylation pathway, we have investigated the effect of 15d-PGJ2 on glucocorticoid signaling and receptor SUMOylation. To this end, we studied isogenic HEK293 cells expressing either wild-type GR or SUMOylation-defective GR. Interestingly, 15d-PGJ2 triggered SUMO-2 and -3 (SUMO-2/3) modification in the primary SUMOylation sites of the GR. Gene expression profiling and pathway analyses indicate that 15d-PGJ2 inhibits GR signaling in a genome-wide fashion that is significantly dependent on the GR SUMOylation sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that the repressive effect of 15d-PGJ2 on GR target gene expression occurs in parallel with the inhibition of receptor binding to the target gene chromatin. Furthermore, depletion of UBC9, the sole SUMO E2 conjugase, from HEK293 cells confirmed the involvement of active SUMOylation in the regulatory process. Taken together, our data indicate that GR SUMOylation modulates the glucocorticoid signaling during acute cell stress. Our data also suggest that GR SUMOylation modulates cross talk of the glucocorticoid signaling with other transcription factors that are responsive to cell stress.
Project description:Cortisol, the central stress hormone in humans, activates the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Anti-inflammatory effects are the most important pharmaceutical effects mediated by the GR. Inasmuch as electrophilic cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-M-NM-^T12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has potent anti-inflammatory properties and activates the SUMOylation pathway, we have investigated the effect of 15d-PGJ2 on glucocorticoid signaling and receptor SUMOylation. To this end, we studied isogenic HEK293 cells expressing either wild-type GR or SUMOylation-defective GR. Interestingly, 15d-PGJ2 triggered SUMO-2/3 modification in the primary SUMOylation sites of the GR. Gene expression profiling and pathway analyses indicate that 15d-PGJ2 inhibits GR signaling in a genome-wide fashion that is significantly dependent on the GR SUMOylation sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that the repressive effect of 15d-PGJ2 on GR target gene expression occurs in parallel with the inhibition of receptor binding to the target gene chromatin. Furthermore, depletion of the sole SUMO E2 conjugase UBC9 from HEK293 cells confirmed the involvement of active SUMOylation in the regulatory process. Taken together, our data indicate that GR SUMOylation modulates the glucocorticoid signaling during acute cell stress. Our data also suggest that GR SUMOylation modulates crosstalk of the glucocorticoid signaling with other transcription factors that are responsive to cell stress. Total RNA isolated from isogenic HEK293 cell lines stably expressing either wild-type GR (wtGR) or SUMOylation-defective GR (GR3KR) treated with 100 nM of dexamethasone (dex) in the presence or absence of 5 M-BM-5M 15d-PGJ2 for 6h. All conditions are performed in triplicate