The Stat3-Fam3a axis promotes muscle stem cell myogenic lineage progression by inducing mitochondrial respiration.
ABSTRACT: Metabolic reprogramming is an active regulator of stem cell fate choices, and successful stem cell differentiation in different compartments requires the induction of oxidative phosphorylation. However, the mechanisms that promote mitochondrial respiration during stem cell differentiation are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Stat3 promotes muscle stem cell myogenic lineage progression by stimulating mitochondrial respiration in mice. We identify Fam3a, a cytokine-like protein, as a major Stat3 downstream effector in muscle stem cells. We demonstrate that Fam3a is required for muscle stem cell commitment and skeletal muscle development. We show that myogenic cells secrete Fam3a, and exposure of Stat3-ablated muscle stem cells to recombinant Fam3a in vitro and in vivo rescues their defects in mitochondrial respiration and myogenic commitment. Together, these findings indicate that Fam3a is a Stat3-regulated secreted factor that promotes muscle stem cell oxidative metabolism and differentiation, and suggests that Fam3a is a potential tool to modulate cell fate choices.
Project description:The progressive loss of muscle regenerative capacity with age or disease results in part from a decline in the number and function of satellite cells, the direct cellular contributors to muscle repair. However, little is known about the molecular effectors underlying satellite cell impairment and depletion. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), are associated with both age-related and muscle-wasting conditions. The levels of STAT3, a downstream effector of IL-6, are also elevated with muscle wasting, and STAT3 has been implicated in the regulation of self-renewal and stem cell fate in several tissues. Here we show that IL-6-activated Stat3 signaling regulates satellite cell behavior, promoting myogenic lineage progression through myogenic differentiation 1 (Myod1) regulation. Conditional ablation of Stat3 in Pax7-expressing satellite cells resulted in their increased expansion during regeneration, but compromised myogenic differentiation prevented the contribution of these cells to regenerating myofibers. In contrast, transient Stat3 inhibition promoted satellite cell expansion and enhanced tissue repair in both aged and dystrophic muscle. The effects of STAT3 inhibition on cell fate and proliferation were conserved in human myoblasts. The results of this study indicate that pharmacological manipulation of STAT3 activity can be used to counteract the functional exhaustion of satellite cells in pathological conditions, thereby maintaining the endogenous regenerative response and ameliorating muscle-wasting diseases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) are well known to participate in regeneration and maintenance of the tissue over time. Studies have shown increases in the number of satellite cells after exercise, but their functional role in endurance training remains unexplored.<h4>Methods</h4>Young adult mice were submitted to endurance exercise training and the function, differentiation, and metabolic characteristics of satellite cells were investigated in vivo and in vitro.<h4>Results</h4>We found that injured muscles from endurance-exercised mice display improved regenerative capacity, demonstrated through higher densities of newly formed myofibres compared with controls (evidenced by an increase in embryonic myosin heavy chain expression), as well as lower inflammation (evidenced by quantifying CD68-marked macrophages), and reduced fibrosis. Enhanced myogenic function was accompanied by an increased fraction of satellite cells expressing self-renewal markers, while control satellite cells had morphologies suggestive of early differentiation. The beneficial effects of endurance exercise were associated with satellite cell metabolic reprogramming, including reduced mitochondrial respiration (O<sub>2</sub> consumption) under resting conditions (absence of muscle injury) and increased stemness. During proliferation or activated states (3 days after injury), O<sub>2</sub> consumption was equal in control and exercised cells, while exercise enhanced myogenic colony formation. Surprisingly, inhibition of mitochondrial O<sub>2</sub> consumption was sufficient to enhance muscle stem cell self-renewal characteristics in vitro. Moreover, transplanted muscle satellite cells from exercised mice or cells with reduced mitochondrial respiration promoted a significant reduction in inflammation compared with controls.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results indicate that endurance exercise promotes self-renewal and inhibits differentiation in satellite cells, an effect promoted by metabolic reprogramming and respiratory inhibition, which is associated with a more favourable muscular response to injury.
Project description:The ability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate into skeletal muscle cells is an important criterion in using them as a cell source to ameliorate skeletal muscle impairments. However, differentiation of hESCs into skeletal muscle cells still remains a challenge, often requiring introduction of transgenes. Here, we describe the use of WNT3A protein to promote in vitro myogenic commitment of hESC-derived cells and their subsequent in vivo function. Our findings show that the presence of WNT3A in culture medium significantly promotes myogenic commitment of hESC-derived progenitors expressing a mesodermal marker, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFRA), as evident from the expression of myogenic markers, including DES, MYOG, MYH1, and MF20. In vivo transplantation of these committed cells into cardiotoxin-injured skeletal muscles of NOD/SCID mice reveals survival and engraftment of the donor cells. The cells contributed to the regeneration of damaged muscle fibers and the satellite cell compartment. In lieu of the limited cell source for treating skeletal muscle defects, the hESC-derived PDGFRA(+) cells exhibit significant in vitro expansion while maintaining their myogenic potential. The results described in this study provide a proof-of-principle that myogenic progenitor cells with in vivo engraftment potential can be derived from hESCs without genetic manipulation.
Project description:The impact of glucose metabolism on muscle regeneration remains unresolved. We identify glucose metabolism as a crucial driver of histone acetylation and myogenic cell fate. We use single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) and flow cytometry to characterize the histone acetylation and metabolic states of quiescent, activated, and differentiating muscle stem cells (MuSCs). We find glucose is dispensable for mitochondrial respiration in proliferating MuSCs, so that glucose becomes available for maintaining high histone acetylation via acetyl-CoA. Conversely, quiescent and differentiating MuSCs increase glucose utilization for respiration and have consequently reduced acetylation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity serves as a rheostat for histone acetylation and must be controlled for muscle regeneration. Increased PDH activity in proliferation increases histone acetylation and chromatin accessibility at genes that must be silenced for differentiation to proceed, and thus promotes self-renewal. These results highlight metabolism as a determinant of MuSC histone acetylation, fate, and function during muscle regeneration.
Project description:Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRed (loxP/loxP) Cripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury.
Project description:Somatic stem cells hold attractive potential for the treatment of muscular dystrophies (MDs). Mesoangioblasts (MABs) constitute a myogenic subset of muscle pericytes and have been shown to efficiently regenerate dystrophic muscles in mice and dogs. In addition, HLA-matched MABs are currently being tested in a phase 1 clinical study on Duchenne MD patients (EudraCT #2011-000176-33). Many reports indicate that the Notch pathway regulates muscle regeneration and satellite cell commitment. However, little is known about Notch-mediated effects on other resident myogenic cells. To possibly potentiate MAB-driven regeneration in vivo, we asked whether Notch signaling played a pivotal role in regulating MAB myogenic capacity. Through different approaches of loss- and gain-of-function in murine and human MABs, we determined that the interplay between Delta-like ligand 1 (Dll1)-activated Notch1 and Mef2C supports MAB commitment in vitro and ameliorates engraftment and functional outcome after intra-arterial delivery in dystrophic mice. Furthermore, using a transgenic mouse model of conditional Dll1 deletion, we demonstrated that Dll1 ablation, either on the injected cells, or on the receiving muscle fibers, impairs MAB regenerative potential. Our data corroborate the perspective of advanced combinations of cell therapy and signaling tuning to enhance therapeutic efficaciousness of somatic stem cells.
Project description:Muscle stem cells facilitate the long-term regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. This self-renewing population of satellite cells has only recently been defined through genetic and transplantation experiments. Although muscle stem cells remain in a dormant quiescent state in uninjured muscle, they are poised to activate and produce committed progeny. Unlike committed myogenic progenitor cells, the self-renewal capacity gives muscle stem cells the ability to engraft as satellite cells and capitulate long-term regeneration. Similar to other adult stem cells, understanding the molecular regulation of muscle stem cells has significant implications towards the development of pharmacological or cell-based therapies for muscle disorders. This Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster will review satellite cell characteristics and therapeutic potential, and provide an overview of the muscle stem cell hallmarks: quiescence, self-renewal and commitment.
Project description:Pluripotent stem (PS)-cell-derived cell types hold promise for treating degenerative diseases. However, PS cell differentiation is intrinsically heterogeneous; therefore, clinical translation requires the development of practical methods for isolating progenitors from unwanted and potentially teratogenic cells. Muscle-regenerating progenitors can be derived through transient PAX7 expression. To better understand the biology, and to discover potential markers for these cells, here we investigate PAX7 genomic targets and transcriptional changes in human cells undergoing PAX7-mediated myogenic commitment. We identify CD54, integrin ?9?1, and Syndecan2 (SDC2) as surface markers on PAX7-induced myogenic progenitors. We show that these markers allow for the isolation of myogenic progenitors using both fluorescent- and CGMP-compatible magnetic-based sorting technologies and that CD54+?9?1+SDC2+ cells contribute to long-term muscle regeneration in vivo. These findings represent a critical step toward enabling the translation of PS-cell-based therapies for muscle diseases.
Project description:Commitment of progenitors in the dermomyotome to myoblast fate is the first step in establishing the body musculature. Pax3 is a crucial transcription factor, important for skeletal muscle development and expressed in myogenic progenitors in the dermomyotome of developing somites and in migratory muscle progenitors that populate the limb buds. Down-regulation of Pax3 is essential to ignite the myogenic program, including up-regulation of myogenic regulators, Myf-5 and MyoD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) confer robustness to developmental timing by posttranscriptional repression of genetic programs that are related to previous developmental stages or to alternative cell fates. Here we demonstrate that the muscle-specific miRNAs miR-1 and miR-206 directly target Pax3. Antagomir-mediated inhibition of miR-1/miR-206 led to delayed myogenic differentiation in developing somites, as shown by transient loss of myogenin expression. This correlated with increased Pax3 and was phenocopied using Pax3-specific target protectors. Loss of myogenin after antagomir injection was rescued by Pax3 knockdown using a splice morpholino, suggesting that miR-1/miR-206 control somite myogenesis primarily through interactions with Pax3. Our studies reveal an important role for miR-1/miR-206 in providing precision to the timing of somite myogenesis. We propose that posttranscriptional control of Pax3 downstream of miR-1/miR-206 is required to stabilize myoblast commitment and subsequent differentiation. Given that mutually exclusive expression of miRNAs and their targets is a prevailing theme in development, our findings suggest that miRNA may provide a general mechanism for the unequivocal commitment underlying stem cell differentiation.