Hydrangea serrata (Thunb.) Ser. Extract Attenuate UVB-Induced Photoaging through MAPK/AP-1 Inactivation in Human Skin Fibroblasts and Hairless Mice.
ABSTRACT: Skin photoaging is mainly caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, which increases expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and destroys collagen fibers, consequently inducing wrinkle formation. Nutritional factors have received scientific attention for use as agents for normal skin functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot water extracts from the leaves of Hydrangea serrata (Thunb.) Ser. (WHS) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin photoaging and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms in human foreskin fibroblasts (Hs68) and HR-1 hairless mice. WHS recovered UVB-reduced cell viability and ameliorated oxidative stress by inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Hs68 cells. WHS rescued UVB-induced collagen degradation by suppressing MMP expression, and reduced the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines. These anti-photoaging activities of WHS were associated with inhibition of the activator protein 1 (AP-1), signal transduction and activation of transcription 1 (STAT1), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Oral administration of WHS effectively alleviated dorsal skin from wrinkle formation, epidermal thickening, collagen degradation, and skin dehydration in HR-1 hairless mice exposed to UVB. Notably, WHS suppressed UVB activation of the AP-1 and MAPK signaling pathways in dorsal mouse skin tissues. Taken together, our data indicate that WHS prevents UVB-induced skin damage due to collagen degradation and MMP activation via inactivation of MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathway.
Project description:We investigated whether cilostazol, an activator of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent intracellular signaling, could inhibit ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced photoaging in HR-1 hairless mice. Cilostazol decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness in UVB-irradiated mice, as well as increased staining of collagen fibers and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the skin. Moreover, the proteolytic activities of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and collagenase MMP-3 were significantly decreased in UVB-irradiated mice treated with cilostazol. Western blotting showed that UVB-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-?B was significantly inhibited by cilostazol, whereas the activation of Akt was significantly enhanced by cilostazol. Confirmation of localized protein expression in the skin revealed marked p38 MAPK and NF-?B activation that was mainly detected in the dermis. Marked Akt activation was mainly detected in the epidermis. Our results suggest that cilostazol may have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced wrinkle formation by maintaining the extracellular matrix density in the dermis, which occurs via regulation of ROS and related p38 MAPK and NF-?B signaling, and subsequent down-regulation of MMPs. Therefore, cilostazol may protect against photoaging-induced wrinkle formation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Edible insects, including Oxya chinensis sinuosa Mishchenko (Oc), which is consumed as food in Asia, are considered as a human food shortage alternative, and also as a preventive measure against environmental destruction. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, which causes skin photodamage, is considered as an extrinsic skin aging factor. It reduces skin hydration, and increases wrinkle formation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the anti-aging effects of an ethanol extract of Oc (Oc.Ex). METHODS:A UVB-irradiated hairless mouse model was used to examine relevant changes in skin hydration, wrinkle formation, and skin epidermal thickness. Also, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed, and Oc. Ex skin protective effects against UVB irradiation-induced photoaging were examined by determining the levels of skin hydration factors. RESULTS:Oc.Ex improved epidermal barrier dysfunctions such as increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and capacitance reduction in UVB-irradiated mice. It upregulated skin hydration-related markers, including hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and pro-collagen, in UVB-irradiated mice, compared with the vehicle control group. It also reduced UVB-induced wrinkle formation, collagen degradation, and epidermal thickness. Additionally, it remarkably suppressed the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and restored the activity of SOD and CAT in UVB-irradiated mice, compared with the vehicle control group. Furthermore, Oc. Ex treatment downregulated the production of inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway activated by UVB irradiation. CONCLUSION:This study revealed that Oc. Ex reduced skin thickness and the degradation of collagen fibers by increasing hydration markers and collagen-regulating factors in the skin of UVB-irradiated mice. It also inhibited UVB-induced antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammatory cytokine expression via MAPK signaling downregulation, suggesting that it prevents UVB-induced skin damage and photoaging, and has potential for clinical development in skin disease treatment.
Project description:Background. Uncontrolled melanogenesis and wrinkle formation are an indication of photoaging. Our previous studies demonstrated that (Z)-5-(2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (MHY498) inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in vitro. Objective. To examine in vivo effects of MHY498 as an antiaging compound on UVB-induced melanogenesis and wrinkle formation, we topically applied MHY498 on dorsal skin of HRM-2 hairless mice. Methods. Using histological analysis, we evaluated effects of MHY498 on melanogenesis and wrinkle formation after UVB exposure. In addition, related molecular signaling pathways were examined using western blotting, fluorometric assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. MHY498 suppressed UVB-induced melanogenesis by inhibiting phosphorylation of CREB and translocation of MITF protein into the nucleus, which are key factors for tyrosinase expression. Consistently, tyrosinase protein levels were notably reduced in the dorsal skin of the hairless mice by MHY498 treatment. Furthermore, MHY498 inhibited UVB-induced wrinkle formation and collagen fiber destruction by increasing type 1 procollagen concentration and decreasing protein expression levels of MMPs, which play an essential role in collagen fiber degradation. As a mechanism, MHY498 notably ameliorated UVB-induced oxidative stress and NF-?B activation in the dermal skin of the hairless mice. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MHY498 can be used as a therapeutic or cosmetic agent for preventing uncontrolled melanogenesis and wrinkle formation.
Project description:Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light can cause skin photoaging, which is associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and downregulation of collagen synthesis. It has been reported that MMPs, especially MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9, decrease the elasticity of the dermis by degrading collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of Pinus densiflora extract (PDE) on photoaging and investigated its mechanism of action in human skin fibroblast (Hs68) cells after UVB exposure using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activity assays. PDE exhibited an antioxidant activity and inhibited elastase activities in vitro. We also found that PDE inhibited UVB-induced cytotoxicity, MMP-1 production and expression of MMP-1, -3 and -9 mRNA in Hs68 cells. In addition, PDE decreased UVB-induced MMP-2 activity and MMP-2 mRNA expression. Moreover, PDE prevented the decrease of type I procollagen mediated by exposure to UVB irradiation, an effect that is linked to the upregulation and downregulation of Smad3 and Smad7, respectively. Another effect of UV irradiation is to stimulate activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity via overexpression of c-Jun/c-Fos, which, in turn, upregulates MMP-1, -3, and -9. In this study, we found that PDE suppressed UV-induced c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PDE regulates UVB-induced expression of MMPs and type I procollagen synthesis by inhibiting AP-1 activity and restoring impaired Smad signaling, suggesting that PDE may be useful as an effective anti-photoaging agent.
Project description:A number of natural phytochemicals have anti-photoaging properties that appear to be mediated through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression, but their direct target molecule(s) and mechanism(s) remain unclear. We investigated the effect of naringenin, a major flavonoid found in citrus, on UVB-induced MMP-1 expression and identified its direct target. The HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cell line and 3-dimensional (3-D) human skin equivalent cultures were treated or not treated with naringenin for 1 hr before exposure to UVB. The mechanism and target(s) of naringenin were analysed by kinase assay and multiplex molecular assays. Dorsal skins of hairless mice were exposed to UVB 3 times per week, with a dose of irradiation that was increased weekly by 1 minimal erythema dose (MED; 45 mJ/cm(2)) to 4 MED over 15 weeks. Wrinkle formation, water loss and water content were then assessed. Naringenin suppressed UVB-induced MMP-1 expression and AP-1 activity, and strongly suppressed UVB-induced phosphorylation of Fos-related antigen (FRA)-1 at Ser265. Importantly, UVB irradiation-induced FRA1 protein stability was reduced by treatment with naringenin, as well as with a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitor. Naringenin significantly suppressed UVB-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) activity and subsequently attenuated UVB-induced phosphorylation of p90(RSK) by competitively binding with ATP. Constitutively active MEK (CA-MEK) increased FRA1 phosphorylation and expression and also induced MMP-1 expression, whereas dominant-negative ERK2 (DN-ERK2) had opposite effects. U0126, a MEK inhibitor, also decreased FRA1 phosphorylation and expression as well as MMP-1 expression. The photoaging data obtained from mice clearly demonstrated that naringenin significantly inhibited UVB-induced wrinkle formation, trans-epidermal water loss and MMP-13 expression. Naringenin exerts potent anti-photoaging effects by suppressing ERK2 activity and decreasing FRA1 stability, followed by down-regulation of AP-1 transactivation and MMP-1 expression.
Project description:The present study investigated the anti-aging effects of pomegranate juice concentrated powder (PCP) in hairless mice following 15 weeks of UVB irradiation (three times a week; 0.18 J/cm2). Skin moisturizing effects were evaluated through skin water, collagen type I and hyaluronan contents, as well as collagen type I and hyaluronan synthesis-related transcript levels. Wrinkle formation and edema scores (skin weights) were also assessed, along with skin matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-9 and MMP-13 transcript levels. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of PCP, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 contents were observed. Caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were used as an apoptotic index in epidermal keratinocytes. To determine the anti-oxidative effects of PCP, nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal immunoreactive cells were detected and glutathione (GSH) content, malondialdehyde levels, superoxide anion production, Nox2, and GSH reductase mRNA expression were all measured. The results indicated that skin wrinkles induced by photoaging were significantly reduced by PCP, whereas skin water contents, collagen type I and hyaluronan contents all increased. Furthermore, IL-1β levels in the PCP-treated groups were lower than those in the UVB-exposed control group. UVB-induced GSH depletion was also inhibited by PCP. Taken together, the results of the current study suggest that PCP has favorable protective effects against UVB-induced photoaging through anti-apoptotic effects, MMP activity inhibition and ECM (COL1 and hyaluronan) synthesis-related moisturizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) light induces skin photoaging, which is characterized by thickening, wrinkling, pigmentation, and dryness. Astaxanthin (AST), a ketocarotenoid isolated from Haematococcus pluvialis, has been extensively studied owing to its possible effects on skin health as well as UV protection. In addition, AST attenuates the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and capillary regression of the skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated whether AST could protect against UV-induced photoaging and reduce capillary regression in the skin of HR-1 hairless mice. UV light induces wrinkle formation, epidermal thickening, and capillary regression in the dermis of HR-1 hairless mice. The administration of AST reduced the UV-induced wrinkle formation and skin thickening, and increased collagen fibers in the skin. AST supplementation also inhibited the generation of ROS, decreased wrinkle formation, reduced epidermal thickening, and increased the density of capillaries in the skin. We also found an inverse correlation between wrinkle formation and the density of capillaries. An association between photoaging and capillary regression in the skin was also observed. These results suggest that AST can protect against photoaging caused by UV irradiation and the inhibitory effects of AST on photoaging may be associated with the reduction of capillary regression in the skin.
Project description:This study investigated the suppression of photoaging by galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) ingestion following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To investigate its photoprotective effects, GOS along with collagen tripeptide (CTP) as a positive control was orally administered to hairless mice under UVB exposure for 8 weeks. The water holding capacity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and wrinkle parameters were measured. Additionally, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to determine mRNA expression and protein levels, respectively. The GOS or CTP orally-administered group showed a decreased water holding capacity and increased TEWL compared to those of the control group, which was exposed to UVB (CON) only. In addition, the wrinkle area and mean wrinkle length in the GOS and CTP groups significantly decreased. Skin aging-related genes, matrix metalloproteinase, had significantly different expression levels in the CTP and GOS groups. Additionally, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases and collagen type I gene expression in the CTP and GOS groups significantly increased. Oral administration of GOS and CTP significantly lowered the tissue cytokine (interleukin-6 and -12, and tumor necrosis factor-?) levels. There was a significant difference in UVB-induced phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK between the GOS group and the CON group. Our findings indicate that GOS intake can suppress skin damage caused by UV light and has a UV photoprotective effect.
Project description:Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation causes adverse effects on the skin. Corn silk contains flavonoids and other bioactive compounds and antioxidants, which may prevent skin photoaging through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to investigate the potential photoprotective effects of dietary corn silk on UVB-induced skin damage in mice and the mechanisms behind these effects on human skin cells. Oral administration of corn silk water extract (CS) (2 or 4 g/kg/day) for 19 weeks decreased epidermal thickness, wrinkle formation, and positive staining for PCNA, Ki67, and 8-OHdG, and increased collagen staining in UVB-irradiated SKH-1 hairless mice compared with controls. The pro-inflammatory NF-κB target genes (IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2) and MMP-9 expressions were lower in the CS groups, and TGF-β/Smad signaling increased. Low skin lipid peroxidation and blood DNA oxidation levels and high blood glutathione were detected. Antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2-related catalase and SOD1 proteins and glutaredoxin mRNA levels increased. The results of CS extract treatment and UVB irradiation in HaCaT cells showed the same results in Nrf2 and NF-κB target genes. An LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the CS extract contained potential antioxidants, which might have contributed to its anti-photoaging effects in tissues and cells. CS extract may reduce UVB-induced skin damage through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
Project description:Penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (PGG) is a gallotannin polyphenolic compound that occurs naturally in fermented Rhus verniciflua. The present study aimed to examine the effect of PGG on UVB-induced skin aging and its molecular mechanisms in HaCaT human keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice models. PGG suppressed UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in HaCaT cells by inhibiting phosphorylation of RAF/MEK/ERK, MKK3/6/p38, and c-Jun. UVB-induced ERK and p38 signaling pathways that induce the MMP-1 expression were mediated by PAK1 in HaCaT cells. PGG suppressed PAK1 and JNK1 kinase activities, and directly bound both PAK1 in an ATP-competitive manner and JNK1 in an ATP-noncompetitive manner. Consistently, PGG decreased UVB-induced wrinkle formation, epidermal thickness, type 1 collagen and MMP-13 expression in mouse skin. Overall, these results indicate that PGG exhibits anti-photoaging effects in vitro and in vivo by the suppression of PAK1 and JNK1 kinase activities, and may be useful for the prevention of skin aging.