Trans-Cinnamic Acid Stimulates White Fat Browning and Activates Brown Adipocytes.
ABSTRACT: Recently, pharmacological activation of brown fat and induction of white fat browning (beiging) have been considered promising strategies to treat obesity. To search for natural products that could stimulate the process of browning in adipocytes, we evaluated the activity of trans-cinnamic acid (tCA), a class of cinnamon from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, by determining genetic expression using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and protein expression by immunoblot analysis for thermogenic and fat metabolizing markers. In our study tCA induced brown like-phenotype in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes and activated HIB1B brown adipocytes. tCA increased protein content of brown-fat-specific markers (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1?) and expression levels of beige-fat-specific genes (Cd137, Cidea, Cited1, Tbx1, and Tmen26) in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes, as well as brown-fat-specific genes (Lhx8, Ppargc1, Prdm16, Ucp1, and Zic1) in HIB1B brown adipocytes. Furthermore, tCA reduced expression of key adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP? and PPAR? in white adipocytes, but enhanced their expressions in brown adipocytes. In addition, tCA upregulates lipid catabolism. Moreover, mechanistic study revealed that tCA induced browning in white adipocytes by activating the ?3-AR and AMPK signaling pathways. tCA can induce browning, increase fat oxidation, reduce adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and activate HIB1B adipocytes, suggesting its potential to treat obesity.
Project description:Ginsenoside Rg3, one of the major components in Panax ginseng, has been reported to possess several therapeutic effects including anti-obesity properties. However, its effect on the browning of mature white adipocytes as well as the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we suggested a novel role of Rg3 in the browning of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by upregulating browning-related gene expression. The browning effects of Rg3 on differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were evaluated by analyzing browning-related markers using quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and immunostaining. In addition, the size and sum area of lipid droplets in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were measured using Oil-Red-O staining. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Rg3 dose-dependently induced the expression of browning-related genes such as Ucp1, Prdm16, Pgc1?, Cidea, and Dio2. Moreover, Rg3 induced the expression of beige fat-specific genes (CD137 and TMEM26) and lipid metabolism-associated genes (FASN, SREBP1, and MCAD), which indicated the activation of lipid metabolism by Rg3. We also demonstrated that activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for Rg3-mediated up-regulation of browning gene expression. Moreover, Rg3 inhibited the accumulation of lipid droplets and reduced the droplet size in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Taken together, this study identifies a novel role of Rg3 in browning of white adipocytes, as well as suggesting a potential mechanism of an anti-obesity effect of Panax ginseng.
Project description:Browning is the process of increasing the number of brite cells, which helps to increase energy expenditure and reduce obesity. Consumption of natural and non-toxic herbal extracts that possess the browning effect is an attractive anti-obesity strategy. In this study, we examined the browning effect of cinnamon extract. We found that cinnamon extract (CE) induced typical brown adipocyte multiocular phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The treatment also increased brown adipocytes markers and reduced white adipocytes markers in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In ex vivo studies, we found that CE increased brown adipocytes markers in the subcutaneous adipocytes isolated from db/db mice and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. However, CE did not significantly affect UCP1 expression in the adipocytes isolated from perinephric adipose tissue and epididymal adipose tissue. ?3-adernergic receptor (?3-AR) antagonist reduced the CE-enhanced UCP1 expression, suggesting an involvement of the ?3-AR activity. Oral administration of CE significantly increased UCP1 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo and reduced the body weight of the DIO mice. Taken together, our data suggest that CE has a browning effect in subcutaneous adipocytes. Our study suggests a natural non-toxic herbal remedy to reduce obesity.
Project description:Mitochondria are critical in heat generation in brown and beige adipocytes. Mitochondrial number and function are regulated in response to external stimuli, such as cold exposure and ?3 adrenergic receptor agonist. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial biogenesis during browning, especially by microRNAs, remain unknown. We investigated the role of miR-494-3p in mitochondrial biogenesis during adipogenesis and browning. Intermittent mild cold exposure of mice induced PPAR? coactivator1-? (PGC1-?) and mitochondrial TFAM, PDH, and ANT1/2 expression along with uncoupling protein-1 (Ucp1) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). miR-494-3p levels were significantly downregulated in iWAT upon cold exposure (p?<?0.05). miR-494-3p overexpression substantially reduced PGC1-? expression and its downstream targets TFAM, PDH and MTCO1 in 3T3-L1 white and beige adipocytes (p?<?0.05). miR-494-3p inhibition in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes resulted in increased PDH (p?<?0.05). PGC1-?, TFAM and Ucp1 mRNA levels were robustly downregulated by miR-494-3p overexpression in 3T3-L1 beige adipocytes, along with strongly decreased oxygen consumption rate. PGC1-? and Ucp1 proteins were downregulated by miR-494-3p in primary beige cells (p?<?0.05). Luciferase assays confirmed PGC1-? as a direct gene target of miR-494-3p. Our findings demonstrate that decreased miR-494-3p expression during browning regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis through PGC1-?.
Project description:Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is currently considered a potential therapeutic strategy to treat diet-induced obesity. While some probiotics have protective effects against diet-induced obesity, the role of probiotics in adipose browning has not been explored. Here, we show that administration of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus amylovorus KU4 (LKU4) to mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) enhanced mitochondrial levels and function, as well as the thermogenic gene program (increased Ucp1, PPAR?, and PGC-1? expression and decreased RIP140 expression), in subcutaneous inguinal WAT and also increased body temperature. Furthermore, LKU4 administration increased the interaction between PPAR? and PGC-1? through release of RIP140 to stimulate Ucp1 expression, thereby promoting browning of white adipocytes. In addition, lactate, the levels of which are elevated in plasma of HFD-fed mice following LKU4 administration, elicited the same effect on the interaction between PPAR? and PGC-1? in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, leading to a brown-like adipocyte phenotype that included enhanced Ucp1 expression, mitochondrial levels and function, and oxygen consumption rate. Together, these data reveal that LKU4 facilitates browning of white adipocytes through the PPAR?-PGC-1? transcriptional complex, at least in part by increasing lactate levels, leading to inhibition of diet-induced obesity.
Project description:Induction of brown-like adipocytes (beige/brite cells) in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a new approach for preventing and treating obesity via induction of thermogenesis associated with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, whether diet-derived factors can directly induce browning of white adipocytes has not been well established. In addition, the underlying mechanism of induction of brown-like adipocytes by diet-derived factors has been unclear. Here, we demonstrate that artepillin C (ArtC), which is a typical Brazilian propolis-derived component, significantly induces brown-like adipocytes in murine C3H10T1/2 cells and primary inguinal WAT (iWAT)-derived adipocytes. This significant induction is due to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and stabilization of PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain-containing protein-16 (PRDM16). Furthermore, the oral administration of ArtC (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks significantly induced brown-like adipocytes accompanied by significant expression of UCP1 and PRDM16 proteins in iWAT of mice, and was independent of the ?3-adrenergic signaling pathway via the sympathetic nervous system. These findings may provide insight into browning of white adipocytes including the molecular mechanism mediated by dietary factors and demonstrate that ArtC has a novel biological function with regard to increasing energy expenditure by browning of white adipocytes.
Project description:Ginsenoside Rb2 (Rb2), the most abundant saponin contained in Panax ginseng, has been used to treat variety of metabolic diseases. However, its effects in obesity and potential mechanisms are not well-understood. In the present study, we investigated metabolic performance with a Rb2 supplement in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, focusing on the effects and mechanisms of Rb2 on brown and beige fat functions. Our results demonstrated that Rb2 effectively reduced body weight, improved insulin sensitivity, as well as induced energy expenditure in DIO mice. Histological and gene analysis revealed that Rb2 induced activation of brown fat and browning of white fat by reducing lipid droplets, stimulating uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) staining, and increasing expression of thermogenic and mitochondrial genes, which could be recapitulated in 3T3-L1, C3H10T1/2, and primary adipocytes. In addition, Rb2 induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) both in vitro and in vivo. These effects were shown to be dependent on AMPK since its inhibitor blocked Rb2 from inducing expressions of Pgc1? and Ucp1. Overall, the present study revealed that Rb2 activated brown fat and induced browning of white fat, which increased energy expenditure and thermogenesis, and consequently ameliorated obesity and metabolic disorders. These suggest that Rb2 holds promise in treating obesity.
Project description:Beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are similar to classical brown adipocytes in that they can burn lipids to produce heat. Thus, an increase in beige adipocyte content in WAT browning would raise energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. Here we report that adipose-specific inactivation of Notch1 or its signaling mediator Rbpj in mice results in browning of WAT and elevated expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), a key regulator of thermogenesis. Consequently, as compared to wild-type mice, Notch mutants exhibit elevated energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance and improved insulin sensitivity and are more resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity. By contrast, adipose-specific activation of Notch1 leads to the opposite phenotypes. At the molecular level, constitutive activation of Notch signaling inhibits, whereas Notch inhibition induces, Ppargc1a and Prdm16 transcription in white adipocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling in obese mice ameliorates obesity, reduces blood glucose and increases Ucp1 expression in white fat. Therefore, Notch signaling may be therapeutically targeted to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Project description:The alteration of white adipose tissue (WAT) "browning", a change of white into beige fat, has been considered as a new therapeutic strategy to treat obesity. In this study, we investigated the browning effect of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) using in vitro and in vivo models. Black raspberry water extract (BRWE) treatment inhibited lipid accumulation in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and zebrafish. To evaluate the thermogenic activity, BRWE was orally administered for 2 weeks, and then, the mice were placed in a 4 °C environment. As a result, BRWE treatment increased rectal temperature and inguinal WAT (iWAT) thermogenesis by inducing the expression of beige fat specific markers such as PR domain zinc-finger protein 16 (PRDM16), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), and t-box protein 1 (TBX1) in cold-exposed mice. Furthermore, ellagic acid (EA), a constituent of BRWE, markedly promoted beige specific markers: UCP1, PGC1α, TBX1, and nuclear respiratory factor 1 in beige differentiation media (DM)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings indicate that BRWE can promote beige differentiation/activation, and EA is the active compound responsible for such effect. Thus, we suggest the nature-derived agents BRWE and EA as potential agents for obesity treatment.
Project description:Indomethacin (Indo), a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, has been shown to promote murine brown adipogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, possibly due to its peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?)-agonist activities. However, it is unclear whether Indo induces browning of white adipocytes from both murine and human origins or induces human brown adipogenesis. To bridge the gap, this study investigated the effects of increasing concentrations of Indo on murine 3T3-L1, human primary subcutaneous white adipocytes (HPsubQ), and human brown (HBr) adipocytes. The results show that Indo dose-dependently enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and upregulated both mRNA and protein expression of brown and beige adipocyte markers, while simultaneously suppressing white adipocyte-specific marker mRNA expression. mRNA and protein expression of mitochondrial biogenesis and structural genes were dose-dependently enhanced in Indo treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This was accompanied by augmented mitochondrial DNA, enhanced oxygen consumption, proton leak, and maximal and spare respiratory capacity. Dose-dependent transactivation of PPAR? confirmed Indo's PPAR?-agonist activity in 3T3-L1 cells. Knockdown of PPAR? significantly attenuated Indo's activities in selective browning genes, demonstrating PPAR? dependence of these effects. Moreover, Indo enhanced mRNA and protein expression of brown markers in HPsubQ adipocytes. Interestingly, Indo-induced differential effects on individual PPAR? isoforms with significant dose-dependent induction of PPAR?-2 and suppression of PPAR?-1 protein expression. Finally, Indo significantly promoted brown adipogenesis in HBr cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate Indo to be a potent thermogenic compound in both murine and human fat cells and may be explored as a therapeutic agent for obesity treatment and prevention.
Project description:Obesity and related comorbidities are a major health concern. The drugs used to treat these conditions are largely inadequate or dangerous, and a well-researched approach based on nutraceuticals would be highly useful. Pterostilbene (Pt), i.e., 3,5-dimethylresveratrol, has been reported to be effective in animal models of obesity, acting on different metabolic pathways. We investigate here its ability to induce browning of white adipose tissue. Pt (5 µM) was first tested on 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes, and then it was administered (352 µmol/kg/day) to mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) for 30 weeks, starting at weaning. In the cultured adipocytes, the treatment elicited a significant increase of the levels of Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) protein-a key component of thermogenic, energy-dissipating beige/brown adipocytes. In vivo administration antagonized weight increase, more so in males than in females. Analysis of inguinal White Adipose Tissue (WAT) revealed a trend towards browning, with significantly increased transcription of several marker genes (Cidea, Ebf2, Pgc1?, PPAR?, Sirt1, and Tbx1) and an increase in UCP1 protein levels, which, however, did not achieve significance. Given the lack of known side effects of Pt, this study strengthens the candidacy of this natural phenol as an anti-obesity nutraceutical.