Helical Multi-Coordination Anion-Binding Catalysts for the Highly Enantioselective Dearomatization of Pyrylium Derivatives.
ABSTRACT: A general and highly enantioselective synthesis of oxygen heterocycles from readily available in?situ generated pyrylium derivatives has been realized by embracing a multi-coordination approach with helical anion-binding tetrakistriazole catalysts. The high activity of the tetrakistriazole (TetraTri) catalysts, with distinct confined anion-binding pockets, allows for remarkably low catalyst loadings (down to 0.05?mol?%), while providing a simple access to chiral chromanones and dihydropyrones in high enantioselectivities (up to 98:2 e.r.). Moreover, experimental and theoretical studies provide new insights into the hydrogen-donor ability and key binding interactions of the TetraTri catalysts and its host:guest complexes, suggesting the formation of a 1:3 species.
Project description:Phosphothreonine (pThr) was found to constitute a new class of chiral phosphoric acid (CPA) catalyst upon insertion into peptides. To demonstrate the potential of these phosphopeptides as asymmetric catalysts, enantioselective transfer hydrogenations of a previously underexplored substrate class for CPA-catalyzed reductions were carried out. pThr-containing peptides lead to the observation of enantioselectivities of up to 94:6 e.r. with 2-substituted quinolines containing C8-amino functionality. NMR studies indicate that hydrogen-bonding interactions promote strong complexation between substrates and a rigid ?-turn catalyst.
Project description:Highly enantioselective conjugate addition reactions of arylboronic acids to 2-substituted chromones catalyzed by palladium complexes with new chiral Pyridine-Dihydroisoquinoline (PyDHIQ) ligands have been developed. These reactions provide highly enantioselective access to chromanones containing tetrasubstituted stereocenters. Various arylboronic acids and 2-substituted chromones can be used in the catalytic reaction to afford the chiral tetrasubstituted chromanones in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities (25 examples, up to 98% yields, up to 99% ee).
Project description:A mild, asymmetric Heck-Matsuda reaction of five-, six- and seven-membered ring alkenes and aryl diazonium salts is presented. High yields and enantioselectivities were achieved using Pd0 and chiral anion co-catalysts, the latter functioning as a chiral anion phase-transfer (CAPT) reagent. For certain substrate classes, the chiral anion catalysts were modulated to minimize the formation of undesired by-products. More specifically, BINAM-derived phosphoric acid catalysts were shown to prevent alkene isomerization in cyclopentene and cycloheptene starting materials. DFT(B3LYP-D3) computations revealed that increased product selectivity resulted from a chiral anion dependent lowering of the activation barrier for the desired pathway.
Project description:Asymmetric, catalytic reactions of oxocarbenium ions are reported. Simple, chiral urea and thiourea derivatives are shown to catalyze the enantioselective substitution of silyl ketene acetals onto 1-chloroisochromans. A mechanism involving anion binding by the chiral catalyst to generate a reactive oxocarbenium ion is invoked. Catalysts bearing tertiary benzylic amide groups afforded highest enantioselectivities, with the optimal structure being derived from enantioenriched 2-arylpyrrolidine derivatives.
Project description:Control of absolute stereochemistry in radical and ion radical transformations is a major challenge in synthetic chemistry. Herein, we report the design of a photoredox catalyst system comprised of an oxidizing pyrilium salt bearing a chiral N-triflyl phosphoramide anion. This class of chiral organic photoredox catalysts is able to catalyze the formation of cation radical-mediated Diels-Alder transformations in up to 75:25 e.r. in both intramolecular and intermolecular examples.
Project description:Herein, we report a radical borylation of aromatic amines through a homolytic C(sp2 )-N bond cleavage. This method capitalizes on a simple and mild activation via a pyrylium reagent (Sc Pyry-OTf) thus priming the amino group for reactivity. The combination of terpyridine and a diboron reagent triggers a radical reaction which cleaves the C(sp2 )-N bond and forges a new C(sp2 )-B bond. The unique non-planar structure of the pyridinium intermediate, provides the necessary driving force for the aryl radical formation. The method permits borylation of a wide variety of aromatic amines indistinctively of the electronic environment.
Project description:Highly enantioselective intermolecular [5+2] cycloadditions of pyrylium ion intermediates with electron-rich alkenes are promoted by a dual catalyst system composed of an achiral thiourea and a chiral primary aminothiourea. The observed enantioselectivity is highly dependent on the substitution pattern of the 5? component, and the basis for this effect is analyzed using experimental and computational evidence. The resultant 8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivatives possess a scaffold common in natural products and medicinally active compounds and are also versatile chiral building blocks for further manipulations. Several stereoselective complexity-generating transformations of the 8-oxabicyclooctane products are presented.
Project description:meso-Cyclopropyl carbaldehydes are treated in the presence of an organocatalyst with sulfenyl and selenyl chlorides to afford 1,3-chlorochalcogenated products. The transformation is achieved by a merged iminium-enamine activation. The enantioselective desymmetrization reaction, leading to three adjacent stereocenters, furnished the target products in complete regioselectivity and moderate to high diastereo- and enantioselectivities (d.r. up to 15:1 and e.r. up to 93:7).
Project description:Multicomponent self-assembly in one pot provides an efficient way for constructing complex architectures using multiple types of building blocks with different levels of interactions orthogonally. The preparation of multiple types of building blocks typically includes tedious synthesis. Here, we developed a multicomponent synthesis/self-assembly strategy, which combined covalent interaction (C-N bond, formed through condensation of pyrylium salt with primary amine) and metal-ligand interaction (N ? Zn bond, formed through 2,2':6',2?-terpyridine-Zn coordination) in one pot. The high compatibility of this pair of interactions smoothly and efficiently converted three and four types of components into the desired complex structures, which are supramolecular Kandinsky Circles and spiderwebs, respectively.
Project description:An intramolecular enantioselective metal-catalyzed dearomatization reaction is described. This procedure allows the dearomatization of naphthalene derivatives through an electrophilic aromatic substitution-type reaction on a Pd(II) intermediate. The high yields and enantioselectivities achieved make this procedure a valuable method for synthetic chemists.