One-Pot FDCA Diester Synthesis from Mucic Acid and Their Solvent-Free Regioselective Polytransesterification for Production of Glycerol-Based Furanic Polyesters.
ABSTRACT: A one pot-two step procedure for the synthesis of diethyl furan-2,5-dicarboxylate (DEFDC) starting from mucic acid without isolation of the intermediate furan dicarboxylic acid (FDCA) was studied. Then, the production of three different kinds of furan-based polyesters- polyethylene-2,5-furan dicarboxylate (PEF), polyhydropropyl-2,5-furan dicarboxylate(PHPF) and polydiglycerol-2,5-furandicarboxylate (PDGF)-was realized through a Co(Ac)₂·4H₂O catalyzed polytransesterification performed at 160 °C between DEFDC and a defined diol furan-based prepolymer or pure diglycerol. In parallel to polymerization process, an unattended regioselective 1-OH acylation of glycerol by direct microwave-heated FDCA diester transesterification led to the formation of a symmetric prepolymer ready for further polymerization and clearly identified by 2D NMR sequences. Furthermore, the synthesis of a more soluble and hydrophilic diglycerol-based furanic polyester was also achieved. The resulting biobased polymers were characterized by NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC, TGA and XRD. The morphologies of the resulted polymers were observed by FE-SEM and the purity of the material by EDX.
Project description:Previously, we have synthesized a diverse range of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA)-based semiaromatic polyamides via enzymatic polymerization. This novel class of polymers are biobased alternatives to polyphthalamides, which are petrol-based semiaromatic polyamides. From a commercial perspective, they have interesting properties as high-performance materials and engineering thermoplastics. It is even more appealing to explore novel FDCA-based polyamides with added functionality, for the development of sustainable functional materials. Here, a set of FDCA-based heteroatom polyamides have been successfully produced via Novozyme 435 (N435)-catalyzed polymerization of biobased dimethyl 2,5-furandicarboxylate with (potentially)heteroatom diamines, namely, 4,9-dioxa-1,12-dodecanediamine (DODA), diethylenetriamine, and 3,3-ethylenediiminopropylamine. We performed the enzymatic polymerization in solution and bulk. The latter approach is more sustainable and results in higher molecular weight products. Among the tested heteroatom diamines, N435 shows the highest catalytic activity toward DODA. Furthermore, we find that all obtained FDCA-based heteroatom polyamides are amorphous materials with a relatively high thermal stability. These heteroatom polyamides display a glass-transition temperature ranging from 41 to 107 °C.
Project description:Nanoparticulate gold has emerged as a promising catalyst for diverse mild and efficient selective aerobic oxidations. However, the mechanism of such atom-economical transformations, and synergy with functional supports, remains poorly understood. Alkali-free Mg-Al hydrotalcites are excellent solid base catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid (FDCA), but only in concert with high concentrations of metallic gold nanoparticles. In the absence of soluble base, competitive adsorption between strongly-bound HMF and reactively-formed oxidation intermediates site-blocks gold. Aqueous NaOH dramatically promotes solution phase HMF activation, liberating free gold sites able to activate the alcohol function within the metastable 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxylic acid (HMFCA) reactive intermediate. Synergistic effects between moderate strength base sites within alkali-free hydrotalcites and high gold surface concentrations can afford highly selective and entirely heterogeneous catalysts for aqueous phase aldehyde and alcohol cascade oxidations pertinent to biomass transformation.
Project description:2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is the top-12 value-added chemicals derived from biomass that may serve as a 'green' substitute for terephthalate acid (TPA) in polyesters. FDCA can be synthesized chemically from 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF), which is produced from fructose or glucose. To investigate impact of the production chain of FDCA on terrestrial ecosystem and unravel molecular pathways invoked and the biological process affected in the animal, a microarray analysis was applied to measure the transcriptome-wide response in soil invertebrates Folsomia candida. Microarrays examined transcriptional changes at EC50 concentrations of FDCA, HMF and TPA spiked in sterilized LUFA 2.2 soils. The results indicated FDCA and TPA caused no significant change in gene expression, which may due to the low chemical water solubility leading to slow uptake by the animal from the pore water after. A substantial number of genes were significantly regulated in F. candida after exposure to HMF. Gene Ontology analysis showed many biological process were significantly affected, such as nucleic acid metabolism, transcriptional metabolic process, cell developmental process and oxidation-reduction process. Transcriptional profile also indicated HMF can be biotransformed by F. candida into SMF which is genotoxic and mutagenic. The current research shows that environmental risk of the FDCA production chain from biomass is not due to the final product but to the intermediate HMF. We used a one-color microarray design where each sample was hybridized to a single array
Project description:The biological production of FDCA is of considerable value as a potential replacement for petrochemical-derived monomers such as terephthalate, used in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics. HmfF belongs to an uncharacterized branch of the prenylated flavin (prFMN) dependent UbiD family of reversible (de)carboxylases and is proposed to convert 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) to furoic acid in vivo. We present a detailed characterization of HmfF and demonstrate that HmfF can catalyze furoic acid carboxylation at elevated CO2 levels in vitro. We report the crystal structure of a thermophilic HmfF from Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum, revealing that the active site located above the prFMN cofactor contains a furoic acid/FDCA binding site composed of residues H296-R304-R331 specific to the HmfF branch of UbiD enzymes. Variants of the latter are compromised in activity, while H296N alters the substrate preference to pyrrole compounds. Solution studies and crystal structure determination of an engineered dimeric form of the enzyme revealed an unexpected key role for a UbiD family wide conserved Leu residue in activity. The structural insights into substrate and cofactor binding provide a template for further exploitation of HmfF in the production of FDCA plastic precursors and improve our understanding of catalysis by members of the UbiD enzyme family.
Project description:In the present study, three new biobased furanoate polyesters with potential use in food packaging applications, named poly(isosorbide furanoate) (PIsF), poly(methyl-propylene furanoate) (PMePF) and poly(1,4-cyclohexane-dimethylene 2,5-furanoate) (PCHDMF) were synthesized. As monomers for the preparation of the polyesters, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and diols with irregular or complicated structure were used, including isosorbide (IS), 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol (MPD) and 1,4-cyclohexane-dimethanol (CHDM). The polymerization process was carried out via melt polycondensation method. The structural characteristics and thermal behavior of the polymers were studied. The kinetic fragility of the amorphous phase of the polymers was evaluated. The thermal degradation was studied by means of thermogravimetry and a pyrolysis Py-GC/MS (Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy) system to estimate the degradation mechanism.
Project description:Enzymatic polymerization provides an excellent opportunity for the conversion of renewable resources into polymeric materials in an effective and sustainable manner. A series of furan-based copolyesters was synthesized with Mw‾ up to 35 kg mol-1 , by using Novozyme 435 as a biocatalyst and dimethyl 2,5-furandicarboxylate (DMFDCA), 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan (BHMF), aliphatic linear diols, and diacid ethyl esters as monomers. The synthetic mechanism was evaluated by the variation of aliphatic linear monomers and their feed compositions. Interestingly, there was a significant decrease in the molecular weight if the aliphatic monomers were changed from diols to diacid ethyl esters. The obtained copolyesters were thoroughly characterized and compared with their polyester analogs. These findings provide a closer insight into the application of enzymatic polymerization techniques in designing sustainable high-performance polymers.
Project description:Enzymatic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and its oxidized derivatives was studied using three fungal enzymes: wild-type aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO) from three fungal species, wild-type peroxygenase from Agrocybe aegerita (AaeUPO), and recombinant galactose oxidase (GAO). The effect of pH on different reaction steps was evaluated and apparent kinetic data (Michaelis-Menten constants, turnover numbers, specific constants) were calculated for different enzyme-substrate ratios and enzyme combinations. Finally, the target product, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), was prepared in a multi-enzyme cascade reaction combining three fungal oxidoreductases at micro-scale. Furthermore, an oxidase-like reaction is proposed for heme-containing peroxidases, such as UPO, horseradish peroxidase, or catalase, causing the conversion of 5-formyl-2-furancarboxylic acid into FDCA in the absence of exogenous hydrogen peroxide.
Project description:Biomass-derived polyester coatings for coil applications have been successfully developed and characterized. The coatings were constituted by carbohydrate-derived monomers, namely 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, isosorbide, succinic acid, 1,3-propanediol, and 1,5-pentanediol, the latter having previously been used as a plasticizer rather than a structural building unit. The effect of isosorbide on the coatings is widely studied. The inclusion of these monomers diversified the mechanical properties of the coatings, and showed an improved performance against common petrochemical derived coatings. This research study provides a range of fully bio-derived polyester coil coatings with tunable properties of industrial interest, highlighting the importance of renewable polymers towards a successful bioeconomy.
Project description:Bio-based polyesters derived from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), including poly (ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF), poly(propylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PPF), and poly(butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PBF) have been synthesized and modified with 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol (CBDO). Copolyesters with increased glass transition temperature, good barrier and better mechanical properties, as well as higher transparency were reported in this work. The chemical structures, composition, and sequence distribution of the copolyesters were determined by ¹H NMR and 13C NMR. The degree of random (R) was close to 1 for all the copolyesters, indicating their random chemical structures. With the introduction of 10% CBDO units, the semi-crystalline PEF and PPF were changed into completely amorphous polyesters and the higher transparency was easily achieved. The glass transition temperature was increased from 87 °C for PEF to 91.1 °C for PETF-18, from 55.5 °C for PPF to 63.5 °C for PPTF-18, and from 39.0 °C for PBF to 43.5 °C for PBTF-18. The barrier properties investigation demonstrated that although the O₂ and CO₂ barrier of PEF/PPF/PBF were decreased by the addition of CBDO units, the modified copolyesters still showed good barrier properties.
Project description:Recently, we have developed an eco-friendly method for the preparation of a renewable dicarboxylic acid 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) from biomass-based 5-hydroxymethylfrufural (HMF). In the present work, we optimized our reported method, which used phosphate buffer and Fe(OH)₃ as the stabilizer to improve the stability of potassium ferrate, then got a purified FDCA (up to 99%) in high yield (91.7 wt %) under mild conditions (25 °C, 15 min, air atmosphere). Subsequently, the obtained FDCA, along with 1,6-hexanediol (HDO), which was also made from HMF, were used as monomers for the synthesis of poly(hexylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PHF) via direct esterification, and triphenyl phosphite was used as the antioxidant to alleviate the discoloration problem during the esterification. The intrinsic viscosity, mechanical properties, molecular structure, thermal properties, and degradability of the PHFs were measured or characterized by Koehler viscometer, universal tensile tester, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Derivative Thermogravimetry (DTG), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and weight loss method. The experimental evidence clearly showed that the furan-aromatic polyesters prepared from biomass-based HMF are viable alternatives to the petrochemical benzene-aromatic polyesters, they can serve as low-melting heat bondable fiber, high gas-barrier packaging material, as well as specialty material for engineering applications.