Procyanidin-Cell Wall Interactions within Apple Matrices Decrease the Metabolization of Procyanidins by the Human Gut Microbiota and the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Resulting Microbial Metabolome In Vitro.
ABSTRACT: B-type oligomeric procyanidins in apples constitute an important source of polyphenols in the human diet. Their role in health is not known, although it is suggested that they generate beneficial bioactive compounds upon metabolization by the gut microbiota. During apple processing, procyanidins interact with cell-wall polysaccharides and form stable complexes. These interactions need to be taken into consideration in order to better assess the biological effects of fruit constituents. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of these interactions on the microbial metabolization of cell walls and procyanidins, and to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the resulting metabolome, in addition to analyzing the taxonomical changes which the microbiota undergo. In vitro fermentation of three model apple matrices with microbiota from 4 healthy donors showed that the binding of procyanidins to cell-wall polysaccharides, whether covalently or non-covalently, substantially reduced procyanidin degradation. Although cell wall-unbound procyanidins negatively affected carbohydrate fermentation, they generated more hydroxyphenylvaleric acid than bound procyanidins, and increased the abundance of Adlercreutzia and Gordonibacter genera. The best results in terms of production of anti-inflammatory bioactive metabolites were observed from the apple matrix with no bonds between procyanidins and cell wall polysaccharides, although the matrix with non-covalent bonds was not far behind.
Project description:Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of apple polyphenols escape absorption in the small intestine and together with non-digestible polysaccharides reach the colon, where they can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation. Animal studies suggest a synergistic interaction between apple polyphenols and the soluble fiber pectin; however, the effects of whole apples on human gut microbiota are less extensively studied. Three commercial apple varieties-Renetta Canada, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady-were digested and fermented in vitro using a batch culture colonic model (pH 5.5-6.0, 37 °C) inoculated with feces from three healthy donors. Inulin and cellulose were used as a readily and a poorly fermentable plant fiber, respectively. Fecal microbiota composition was measured by 16S rRNA gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing (V3-V4 region) and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and polyphenol microbial metabolites were determined. The three apple varieties significantly changed bacterial diversity, increased Actinobacteria relative abundance, acetate, propionate and total SCFAs (p < 0.05). Renetta Canada and Golden Delicious significantly decreased Bacteroidetes abundance and increased Proteobacteria proportion and bifidobacteria population (p < 0.05). Renetta Canada also increased Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, butyrate levels and polyphenol microbial metabolites (p < 0.05). Together, these data suggest that apples, particularly Renetta Canada, can induce substantial changes in microbiota composition and metabolic activity in vitro, which could be associated with potential benefits to human health. Human intervention studies are necessary to confirm these data and potential beneficial effects.
Project description:Apples are well known to have various benefits for the human body. Procyanidins are a class of polyphenols found in apples that have demonstrated effects on the circulatory system and skeletal organs. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a locomotive syndrome that is histologically characterized by cartilage degeneration associated with the impairment of proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes. However, no useful therapy for cartilage degeneration has been developed to date. In the present study, we detected beneficial effects of apple polyphenols or their procyanidins on cartilage homeostasis. An in vitro assay revealed that apple polyphenols increased the activities of mitochondrial dehydrogenases associated with an increased copy number of mitochondrial DNA as well as the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-? (PGC-1?), suggesting the promotion of PGC-1?-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis. Apple procyanidins also enhanced proteoglycan biosynthesis with aggrecan upregulation in primary chondrocytes. Of note, oral treatment with apple procyanidins prevented articular cartilage degradation in OA model mice induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in chondrocytes. Our findings suggest that apple procyanidins are promising food components that inhibit OA progression by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes.
Project description:Previously, we reported that apple polyphenols and their major active compounds, the flavan-3-ols and the procyanidins, can result in various health benefits in animals and humans, according to clinical studies. Here, we developed a rapid method for quantifying flavan-3-ols and procyanidins using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, where we investigated the amounts of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins in the Japanese major apple production centre, the Aomori Prefecture, from 2016 to 2018. The non-bagged 'Fuji (<i>n</i> = 609)', the bagged 'Fuji (<i>n</i> = 1101)', and the 'Orin (<i>n</i> = 504)' apples were evaluated in terms of their differences in flavan-3-ols and procyanidins based on apple variety and the controlled atmosphere storage. The bagging treatments of the 'Fuji' apples resulted in significantly higher concentrations of procyanidins, while changes in flavan-3-ols concentrations were not clearly observed by treatment. In addition, 'Orin' had a significantly higher concentration of procyanidins than that of 'Fuji'. In contrast, the controlled atmosphere storage hardly caused any changes in the flavan-3-ol and procyanidin contents. Hence, we present the concentrations of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins in major Japanese apples using the rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection.
Project description:Dietary fiber provides growth substrates for bacterial species that belong to the colonic microbiota of humans. The microbiota degrades and ferments substrates, producing characteristic short-chain fatty acid profiles. Dietary fiber contains plant cell wall-associated polysaccharides (hemicelluloses and pectins) that are chemically diverse in composition and structure. Thus, depending on plant sources, dietary fiber daily presents the microbiota with mixtures of plant polysaccharides of various types and complexity. We studied the extent and preferential order in which mixtures of plant polysaccharides (arabinoxylan, xyloglucan, ?-glucan, and pectin) were utilized by a coculture of five bacterial species (Bacteroides ovatus, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies longum, Megasphaera elsdenii, Ruminococcus gnavus, and Veillonella parvula). These species are members of the human gut microbiota and have the biochemical capacity, collectively, to degrade and ferment the polysaccharides and produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). B. ovatus utilized glycans in the order ?-glucan, pectin, xyloglucan, and arabinoxylan, whereas B. longum subsp. longum utilization was in the order arabinoxylan, arabinan, pectin, and ?-glucan. Propionate, as a proportion of total SCFAs, was augmented when polysaccharide mixtures contained galactan, resulting in greater succinate production by B. ovatus and conversion of succinate to propionate by V. parvula Overall, we derived a synthetic ecological community that carries out SCFA production by the common pathways used by bacterial species for this purpose. Systems like this might be used to predict changes to the emergent properties of the gut ecosystem when diet is altered, with the aim of beneficially affecting human physiology.IMPORTANCE This study addresses the question as to how bacterial species, characteristic of the human gut microbiota, collectively utilize mixtures of plant polysaccharides such as are found in dietary fiber. Five bacterial species with the capacity to degrade polymers and/or produce acidic fermentation products detectable in human feces were used in the experiments. The bacteria showed preferential use of certain polysaccharides over others for growth, and this influenced their fermentation output qualitatively. These kinds of studies are essential in developing concepts of how the gut microbial community shares habitat resources, directly and indirectly, when presented with mixtures of polysaccharides that are found in human diets. The concepts are required in planning dietary interventions that might correct imbalances in the functioning of the human microbiota so as to support measures to reduce metabolic conditions such as obesity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:the CYP2D6 gene is clinically important and is known to have a number of variants. This gene has four distinct metabolization profiles that are determined by the different allelic forms present in the individual. The relative frequency of these profiles varies considerably among human populations around the world. Populations from more isolated regions, such as Native Americans, are still relatively poorly studied, however. Even so, recent advances in genotyping techniques and increasing interest in the study of these populations has led to a progressive increase in publication rates. Given this, the review presented here compiled the principal papers published on the CYP2D6 gene in Amerindian populations to determine the metabolic profile of this group. METHODS:a systematic literature review was conducted in three scientific publication platforms (Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Pubmed). The search was run using the keywords "CYP2D6 Amerindians" and "CYP2D6 native Americans". RESULTS:a total of 13 original papers met the inclusion criteria established for this study. All the papers presented frequencies of the different CYP2D6 alleles in Amerindian populations. Seven of the papers focused specifically on Amerindian populations from Mexico, while the others included populations from Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and the United States. The results of the papers reviewed here showed that the extensive metabolization profile was the most prevalent in all Amerindian populations studied to date, followed by the intermediate, slow, and ultra-rapid, in that order. CONCLUSION:the metabolization profiles of the Amerindian populations reviewed in the present study do not diverge in any major way from those of other populations from around the world. Given the paucity of the data available on Amerindian populations, further research is required to better characterize the metabolization profile of these populations to ensure the development of adequate therapeutic strategies.
Project description:We used microarrays to investigate changes in gene expression of human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to an apple extract enriched in procyanidins of low-medium molecular weight (dp3.9) to determine possible protective effects induced by these plant derived compounds on the endothelial cells. Keywords: Comparative gene expression, Control vs Treated cells (response to exposure with xenobiotics plant polyphenols) Overall design: We used unstimulated and TNF-α-inflamed confluent monolayers of HUVEC exposed to low doses of oligomeric procyanidins extracted from apple, to determine whether these apple polyphenols exerted any protective effects on human endothelial cells.
Project description:The viscoelastic mechanical properties of water-rich plant tissues are fundamental for many aspects of organ physiology and plant functioning. These properties are determined partly by the water in cellular vacuole and partly by the mechanical properties of the cell wall, the latter varying according to the composition and organization of its polysaccharides. In this study, relationships between the viscoelastic properties of apple cortex parenchyma tissue and cell wall pectin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose structures were studied by infusing the tissue with selected sets of purified enzymes in a controlled osmoticum. The results showed that tissue elasticity and viscosity were related, and controlled to variable extents by all the targeted polysaccharides. Among them, pectic homogalacturonan domains, crystalline cellulose, and fucosylated xyloglucan were revealed as being of prime importance in determining the viscoelastic mechanical properties of apple cortex tissue.
Project description:Du ring on-tree ripening, the pectin distribution changed from polydispersed in cell wall to cumulated in cell wall corners. During apple storage, the pectin distribution returned to evenly dispersed along the cell wall. The plant cell wall influences the texture properties of fruit tissue for example apples become softer during ripening and postharvest storage. This softening process is believed to be mainly connected with changes in the cell wall composition due to polysaccharides undergoing an enzymatic degradation. These changes in polysaccharides are currently mainly investigated via chemical analysis or monoclonal labeling. Here, we propose the application of Raman microscopy for evaluating the changes in the polysaccharide distribution in the cell wall of apples during both ripening and postharvest storage. The apples were harvested 1 month and 2 weeks before optimal harvest date as well as at the optimal harvest date. The apples harvested at optimal harvest date were stored for 3 months. The Raman maps, as well as the chemical analysis were obtained for each harvest date and after 1, 2 and 3 months of storage, respectively. The analysis of the Raman maps showed that the pectins in the middle lamella and primary cell wall undergo a degradation. The changes in cellulose and hemicellulose were less pronounced. These findings were confirmed by the chemical analysis results. During development changes of pectins from a polydispersed form in the cell walls to a cumulated form in cell wall corners could be observed. In contrast after 3 months of apple storage we could observe an substantial pectin decrease. The obtained results demonstrate that Raman chemical imaging might be a very useful tool for a first identification of compositional changes in plant tissue during their development. The great advantage Raman microspectroscopy offers is the simultaneous localization and identification of polysaccharides within the cell wall and plant tissue.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose, apple fiber and sugar beet pectin on the composition and activity of human colonic microbiota of lean and obese healthy subjects using an in vitro model of the proximal colon: TIM-2. Substrate fermentation was assessed by measuring the production of short-chain and branched-chain fatty acids, lactate and ammonia and by studying the composition of the bacterial communities over time. The results suggest that energy harvest (in terms of metabolites) of lean and obese microbiotas is different and may depend on the fermentable substrate. For galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose, the cumulative amount of short-chain fatty acids plus lactate produced in TIM-2 was lower in the fermentation experiments with the lean microbiota (123 and 155 mmol, respectively) compared to the obese (162 and 173 mmol, respectively). This was reversed for the pectin and the fiber. The absolute amount produced of short-chain fatty acids including lactate was higher after 72 h in the fermentation experiments with apple fiber-L (108 mmol) than with apple fiber-O (92 mmol). Sugar beet-L was also higher (130 mmol) compared to sugar beet-O (103 mmol). Galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose boosted the balance of health-promoting over toxic metabolites produced by the microbiota from obese subjects. Firmicutes were more predominant in the inoculum prepared from feces of obese subjects compared to lean subjects. The average abundance at time zero was 92% and 74%, respectively. On the other hand, Bacteroidetes were more dominant in the microbiota prepared with homogenates from lean subjects with an average abundance of 22% compared with the microbiota prepared with homogenates from obese subjects (3.6%). This study brings evidence that different fermentable carbohydrates are fermented differently by lean and obese microbiotas, which contributes to the understanding of the role of diet and the microbiota in tackling obesity.
Project description:Many fruits soften during ripening, which is important commercially and in rendering the fruit attractive to seed-dispersing animals. Cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolases may contribute to softening, but sometimes appear to be absent. An alternative hypothesis is that hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) non-enzymically cleave wall polysaccharides. We evaluated this hypothesis by using a new fluorescent labelling procedure to 'fingerprint' (•)OH-attacked polysaccharides.We tagged fruit polysaccharides with 2-(isopropylamino)-acridone (pAMAC) groups to detect (a) any mid-chain glycosulose residues formed in vivo during (•)OH action and (b) the conventional reducing termini. The pAMAC-labelled pectins were digested with Driselase, and the products resolved by high-voltage electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography.Strawberry, pear, mango, banana, apple, avocado, Arbutus unedo, plum and nectarine pectins all yielded several pAMAC-labelled products. GalA-pAMAC (monomeric galacturonate, labelled with pAMAC at carbon-1) was produced in all species, usually increasing during fruit softening. The six true fruits also gave pAMAC·UA-GalA disaccharides (where pAMAC·UA is an unspecified uronate, labelled at a position other than carbon-1), with yields increasing during softening. Among false fruits, apple and strawberry gave little pAMAC·UA-GalA; pear produced it transiently.GalA-pAMAC arises from pectic reducing termini, formed by any of three proposed chain-cleaving agents ((•)OH, endopolygalacturonase and pectate lyase), any of which could cause its ripening-related increase. In contrast, pAMAC·UA-GalA conjugates are diagnostic of mid-chain oxidation of pectins by (•)OH. The evidence shows that (•)OH radicals do indeed attack fruit cell wall polysaccharides non-enzymically during softening in vivo. This applies much more prominently to drupes and berries (true fruits) than to false fruits (swollen receptacles). (•)OH radical attack on polysaccharides is thus predominantly a feature of ovary-wall tissue.