Preparation of Sesquiterpene Lactone Derivatives: Cytotoxic Activity and Selectivity of Action.
ABSTRACT: Cancer is one of the most important causes of death worldwide. Solid tumors represent the great majority of cancers (>90%) and the chemotherapeutic agents used for their treatment are still characterized by variable efficacy and toxicity. Sesquiterpene lactones are a group of naturally occurring compounds that have displayed a diverse range of biological activities including cytotoxic activity. A series of oxygenated and oxy-nitrogenated derivatives (4⁻15) from the sesquiterpene lactones cumanin (1), helenalin (2), and hymenin (3) were synthesized. The silylated derivatives of helenalin, compounds 13 and 14, were found to be the most active against tumor cell lines, with GI50 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.59 μM. The ditriazolyl cumanin derivative (11) proved to be more active and selective than cumanin in the tested breast, cervix, lung, and colon tumor cell lines. This compound was the least toxic against splenocytes (CC50 = 524.1 µM) and exhibited the greatest selectivity on tumor cell lines. This compound showed a GI50 of 2.3 µM and a SI of 227.9 on WiDr human colon tumor cell lines. Thus, compound 11 can be considered for further studies and is a candidate for the development of new antitumor agents.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a majority of acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients, but resistance of leukaemic cells to ATRA and its toxicity, such as hypercalcaemia, lead to a limitation of treatment. Therefore, combination therapies with differentiation-enhancing agents at non-toxic concentrations of ATRA may overcome its side effects. Here, we investigated the effect of plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone compounds and their underlying mechanisms in ATRA-induced differentiation of human leukaemia HL-60 cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: HL-60 cells were treated with four sesquiterpene lactones (helenalin, costunolide, parthenolide and sclareolide) and cell differentiation was determined by NBT reduction, Giemsa and cytofluorometric analyses. Signalling pathways were assessed by western blotting, gel-shift assay and kinase activity determinations and intracellular calcium levels were determined using a calcium-specific fluorescent probe. KEY RESULTS: Helenalin, costunolide and parthenolide, but not sclareolide, increased ATRA-induced HL-60 cell differentiation into a granulocytic lineage. Signalling kinases PKC and ERK were involved in the ATRA-induced differentiation enhanced by all of the effective sesquiterpene lactones, but JNK and PI3-K were involved in the ATRA-induced differentiation enhanced by costunolide and parthenolide. Enhancement of cell differentiation closely correlated with inhibition of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity by all three effective compounds. Importantly, enhancement of differentiation induced by 50 nM ATRA by the sesquiterpene lactones was not accompanied by elevation of basal intracellular calcium concentrations. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results indicate that plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones may enhance ATRA-mediated cell differentiation through distinct pathways.
Project description:Leishmaniases are neglected infectious diseases caused by parasites of the 'protozoan' genus Leishmania. Depending on the parasite species, different clinical forms are known as cutaneous, muco-cutaneous, and the visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL is particularly fatal and the therapy presents limitations. In the search for new anti-leishmanial hit compounds, seven natural sesquiterpene lactones were evaluated against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, a pathogen causing VL. The pseudoguaianolides mexicanin I and helenalin acetate demonstrated the highest selectivity and potency against intracellular amastigotes. In addition, promastigotes treated with helenalin acetate were subject to an ultrastructural and biochemical investigation. The lethal action of the compound was investigated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and related techniques to detect alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, plasma membrane permeability, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Helenalin acetate significantly reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and the mitochondrial structural damage was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, displaying an intense organelle swelling. No alteration of plasma membrane permeability or ROS content could be detected. Additionally, helenalin acetate significantly increased the production of nitric oxide in peritoneal macrophages, probably potentiating the activity against the intracellular amastigotes. Helenalin acetate could hence be a useful anti-leishmanial scaffold for further optimization studies.
Project description:Triazole derivatives of melampomagnolide B (MMB) have been synthesized via click chemistry methodologies and screened against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. Several derivatives showed promising anti-cancer activity, affording growth inhibition (GI50) values in the nanomolar range (GI50?=?0.02-0.99??M). Lead compound 7h exhibited EC50 values of 400?nM and 700?nM, respectively, against two AML clinical specimens. Compound 7h was significantly more potent than parthenolide as an inhibitor of p65 phosphorylation in both hematological and solid tumor cell lines, indicating its ability to inhibit the NF-?B pathway. In TMD-231 breast cancer cells, treatment with 7h reduced DNA binding activity of NF-?B through inhibition of IKK-? mediated p65 phosphorylation and caused elevation of basal I?B? levels through inhibition of constitutive I?B? turnover and NF-?B activation. Molecular docking and dynamic modeling studies indicated that 7h interacts with the kinase domain of the monomeric IKK? subunit, leading to inhibition of IKK? activation, and compromising phosphorylation of downstream targets of the NF-?B pathway; dynamic modeling studies show that this interaction also causes unwinding of the ?-helix of the NEMO binding site on IKK?. Molecular docking studies with 10, a water-soluble analog of 7h, demonstrate that this analog interacts with the dimerization/oligomerization domain of monomeric IKK? and may inhibit oligomer formation and subsequent autophosphorylation. Sesquiterpene lactones 7h and 10 are considered ideal candidates for potential clinical development.
Project description:Six new (1-6) and eight known germacranolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, along with several known phenylpropanol coumarates and methylated flavonoids, were isolated from the leaves of Piptocoma rufescens, collected in the Dominican Republic. The new compounds were identified by analysis of their spectroscopic data, with the molecular structure of 3 being established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The absolute configurations of the sesquiterpene lactones isolated were determined from their CD and NOESY NMR spectra, together with the analysis of Mosher ester reactions. Bioassay screening results showed the majority of the sesquiterpene lactones isolated (1-13) to be highly cytotoxic toward the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line, with the most potent compound being 15-deoxygoyazensolide (10, IC(50), 0.26 µM). In addition, several of the sesquiterpene lactones exhibited NF-?B (p65) inhibitory activity.
Project description:The synthesis of novel pyrazolylnucleosides 3a-e, 4a-e, 5a-e, and 6a-e are described. The structures of the regioisomers were elucidated by using extensive NMR studies. The pyrazolylnucleosides 5a-e and 6a-e were screened for anticancer activities on sixty human tumor cell lines. The compound 6e showed good activity against 39 cancer cell lines. In particular, it showed significant inhibition against the lung cancer cell line Hop-92 (GI50 9.3 µM) and breast cancer cell line HS 578T (GI50 3.0 µM).
Project description:A series of novel, heteroaryl carboxylic acid conjugates of the sesquiterpene melampomagnolide-B (MMB, 3) has been evaluated as antitumor agents against an NCI panel of 64 human hematopoetic and solid tumor cell lines. The indole-3-acrylic acid conjugate 7j and the indole-3-carboxylic acid conjugate 7k were found to be the most potent analogs in the series. Compounds 7j and 7k exhibited remarkable growth inhibition, with GI50 values in the range 0.03-0.30 ?M and 0.04-0.28 ?M, respectively, against the cell lines in the leukemia sub-panel, and GI50 values of 0.05-0.40 ?M and 0.04-0.61 ?M, respectively, against 90% of the solid tumor cell lines in the NCI panel. Compound 7a was particularly effective against the sub-panel of breast cancer cell lines with GI50 values in the range <0.01-0.30 ?M. Compounds 7j, 7a and its water soluble analog 7p also exhibited potent anticancer activity against rat 9L-SF gliosarcoma cells in culture. Compound 7j was the most potent compound in the series in the M9-ENL1 AML cell assay with a lethal dose concentration EC50 value of 720 nM, and exhibited the greatest cytotoxicity against a collection of primary AML stem cell specimens, which included a specimen that was unresponsive to PTL, affording EC50 values in the range 0.33-1.0 ?M in three out of four specimens. The results from this study provide further evidence that analogs of the sesquiterpene MMB can be designed to afford molecules with significantly improved anticancer activity. Thus, both 7j and 7k are considered potential lead molecules in the search for new anticancer agents that can be used as treatments for both hematopoetic and solid tumors.
Project description:Bolinaquinone is a natural product that is a structurally complex, cytotoxic sesquiterpene quinone. A scaffold simplification and focused library approach using a microwave-assisted Suzuki coupling gave 32 bolinaquinone analogues with good-to-excellent cytotoxicity profiles. Mono-arylbenzoquinones, Library A, were preferentially toxic towards BE2-C (neuroblastoma) cells with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 4-12?µM; only the 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl 23 and 3-biphenyl 28 variants were broad-spectrum active-HT29 (colon carcinoma), U87 and SJ-G2 (glioblastoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), H460 (lung carcinoma), A431 (skin carcinoma), Du145 (prostate carcinoma), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MIA (pancreatic carcinoma) and SMA (spontaneous murine astrocytoma). Library B with a second aryl moiety exhibited broad-spectrum cytotoxicity with MCF-7 cells' GI50 values of 5.6?±?0.7 and 5.1?±?0.5?µM for 2,5-dimethoxy-3-(naphthalene-1-yl)-6-(naphthalene-3-yl) 33 and 2,5-dimethoxy-3-(biaryl-2-yl)-6-(naphthalene-3-yl) 36, respectively. Similar potencies were also noted with 2,5-dimethoxy-3,6-diphenyl 30 against A2780 (GI50?=?5.9?±?0.0?µM) and with 2,5-dimethoxy-3-(biaryl-3-yl)-6-(naphthalene-3-yl) 37 against HT29 (GI50?=?5.4?±?0.4?µM), while the 3,4-dimethoxy mono-aryl analogue 23 exhibited good levels of activity against A2780 (GI50?=?3.8?±?0.75?µM), the neuroblastoma cell line BE2-C (GI50?=?3?±?0.35?µM) and SMA (GI50?=?3.9?±?0.54?µM). Introduction of the amino-substituted Library C gave 2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-5-(naphthalen-3-yl)-3,6-bis(propylamino) 43, with excellent activity against HT29 (0.08?±?0.0?µM), MCF-7 (0.17?±?0.1?µM), A2780 (0.14?±?0.1?µM), A431 (0.11?±?0.0?µM), Du145 (0.16?±?0.1?µM), BE2-C (0.08?±?0.0?µM) and MIA (0.1?±?0.0?µM).
Project description:A series of novel tetrazole analogues of resveratrol were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-leukemic activity against an extensive panel of human cancer cell lines and against the MV4-11 AML cell line. These molecules were designed as drug-like derivatives of the resveratrol analogue DMU-212 and its cyano derivatives. Four compounds 8g, 8h, 10a and 10b exhibited LD50 values of 4.60?µM, 0.02?µM, 1.46?µM, and 1.08?µM, respectively, against MV4-11 leukemia cells. The most potent compounds, 8h and 10b, were also found to be active against an extensive panel of human hematological and solid tumor cell lines; compound 8h was the most potent compound with GI50 values <10?nM against more than 90% of the human cancer cell lines in the 60-cell panel. Analogues 8g, 8h, 10a and 10b were also tested for their ability to inhibit the polymerization of tubulin, and compound 8h was found to be the most potent analogue. Molecular modeling studies demonstrated that 8h binds to the colchicine binding site on tubulin. Thus, compound 8h is considered to be a lead druglike molecule from this tetrazole series of compounds.
Project description:trans-Cyanocombretastatin A-4 (trans-CA-4) analogues have been structurally modified to afford their more stable CA-4-(2H)-1,2,3-triazole analogues. Fifteen novel, stable 4-heteroaryl-5-aryl-(2H)-1,2,3-triazole CA-4 analogues (8a-i, 9 and 11a-e) were evaluated for anti-cancer activity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. These analogues displayed potent cytotoxic activity against both hematological and solid tumor cell lines with GI50 values in the low nanomolar range. The most potent compound, 8a, was a benzothiophen-2-yl analogue that incorporated a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl moiety connected to the (2H)-1,2,3-triazole ring system. Compound 8a exhibited GI50 values of <10 nM against 80% of the cancer cell lines in the panel. Three triazole analogues, 8a, 8b and 8g, showed particularly potent growth inhibition against the triple negative Hs578T breast cancer cell line with GI50 values of 10.3 nM, 66.5 nM and 20.3 nM, respectively. Molecular docking studies suggest that these compounds bind to the same hydrophobic pocket at the interface of ?- and ?-tubulin that is occupied by colchicine and cis-CA-4, and are stabilized by Van der Waals' interactions with surrounding amino acid residues. Compound 8a was found to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro with an IC50 value of 1.7 µM. The potent cytotoxicity of these novel compounds and their inhibition of tubulin dynamics make these triazole analogues promising candidates for development as anti-cancer drugs.
Project description:In the endeavor to obtain new antitrypanosomal agents, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, from Kenyan plants of the family Asteraceae, Vernonia cinerascens Sch. Bip. was investigated. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation in conjunction with LC/MS-based dereplication has led to the identification of vernodalol (1) and isolation of vernodalin (2), 11?,13-dihydrovernodalin (3), 11?,13-dihydrovernolide (4), vernolide (5), 11?,13-dihydrohydroxyvernolide (6), hydroxyvernolide (7), and a new germacrolide type sesquiterpene lactone vernocinerascolide (8) from the dichloromethane extract of V. cinerascens leaves. Compounds 3-8 were characterized by extensive analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and HR/MS spectrometric data. All the compounds were evaluated for their in vitro biological activity against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and for cytotoxicity against the mammalian cell line L6. Vernodalin (2) was the most active compound with an IC50 value of 0.16 µM and a selectivity index of 35. Its closely related congener 11?,13-dihydrovernodalin (3) registered an IC50 value of 1.1 µM and a selectivity index of 4.2.