Constitutional 763.3 Kb chromosome 1q43 duplication encompassing only CHRM3 gene identified by next generation sequencing (NGS) in a child with intellectual disability.
ABSTRACT: Background:Deletion or duplication on the distal portion of the long arm of chromosome 1 result in complex and highly variable clinical phenotype including.intellectual disability and autism. Case presentation:We report on a patient with intellectual disability and a 763.3 Kb duplication on 1q43 that includes only CHRM3, which was detected by next generation sequencing (NGS). The patient presented with intellectual disability, developmental delay, autistic behavior, limited or no speech, social withdrawal, self-injurious, feeding difficulties, strabismus, short stature, hand anomalie, and no seizures, anxiety, or mood swings, and clinodactyly. Conclusions:We propose that CHRM3 is the critical gene responsible for the common characteristics in the cases with 1q43 duplication and deletion.
Project description:Background:1q43-q44 deletion syndrome is a well-defined chromosomal disorder which is characterized by moderate to severe mental retardation, and variable but characteristic facial features determined by the size of the segment and the number of genes involved. However, patients with 1q43-q44 duplication with a clinical phenotype comparable to that of 1q43-q44 deletion are rarely reported. Moreover, pure 1q43-q44 deletions and duplications derived from balanced insertional translocation within the same family with precisely identified breakpoints have not been reported. Case presentation:The proband is a 6-year-old girl with profound developmental delay, mental retardation, microcephaly, epilepsy, agenesis of the corpus callosum and hearing impairment. Her younger brother is a 3-month-old boy with macrocephaly and mild developmental delay in gross motor functions. G-banding analysis of the subjects at the 400-band level did not reveal any subtle structural changes in their karyotypes. However, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis showed a deletion and a duplication of approximately 6.0 Mb at 1q43-q44 in the proband and her younger brother, respectively. The Levicare analysis pipeline of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) further demonstrated that a segment of 1q43-q44 was inserted at 14q23.1 in the unaffected mother, which indicated that the mother was a carrier of a 46,XX,ins(14;1)(q23.1;q43q44) insertional translocation. Moreover, Sanger sequencing was used to assist the mapping of the breakpoints and the final validation of those breakpoints. The breakpoint on chromosome 1 disrupted the EFCAB2 gene in the first intron, and the breakpoint on chromosome 14 disrupted the PRKCH gene within the 12th intron. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) further confirmed that the unaffected older sister of the proband carried the same karyotype as the mother. Conclusion:Here, we describe a rare family exhibiting pure 1q43-q44 deletion and duplication in two siblings caused by a maternal balanced insertional translocation. Our study demonstrates that WGS with a carefully designed analysis pipeline is a powerful tool for identifying cryptic genomic balanced translocations and mapping the breakpoints at the nucleotide level and could be an effective method for explaining the relationship between karyotype and phenotype.
Project description:Microdeletions at 1q43-q44 have been described as resulting in a clinically recognizable phenotype of intellectual disability (ID), facial dysmorphisms and microcephaly (MIC). In contrast, the reciprocal microduplications of 1q43-q44 region have been less frequently reported and patients showed a variable phenotype, including macrocephaly. Reports of a large number of patients with copy number variations involving this region highlighted the <i>AKT3</i> gene as a likely key player in head size anomalies. We report four novel patients with copy number variations in the 1q43-q44 region: one with a larger deletion (3.7Mb), two with smaller deletions affecting <i>AKT3</i> and <i>SDCCAG8</i> genes (0.16 and 0.18Mb) and one with a quadruplication (1Mb) that affects the entire <i>AKT3</i> gene. All patients with deletions presented MIC without structural brain abnormalities, whereas the patient with quadruplication had macrocephaly, but his carrier father had normal head circumference. Our report also includes a comparison of phenotypes in cases with 1q43-q44 duplications to assist future genotype-phenotype correlations. Our observations implicate <i>AKT3</i> as a contributor to ID/development delay (DD) and head size but raise doubts about its straightforward impact on the latter aspect of the phenotype in patients with 1q43-q44 deletion/duplication syndrome.
Project description:Variations in MYT1L, a gene encoding a transcription factor expressed in the brain, have been associated with autism, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. Here we provide an updated review of published reports of neuropsychiatric correlates of loss of function and duplication of MYT1L. Of 27 duplications all were partial; 33% were associated exclusively with schizophrenia, and the chromosomal locations of schizophrenia-associated duplications exhibited a distinct difference in pattern-of-location from those associated with autism and/or intellectual disability. Of 51 published heterozygous loss of function variants, all but one were associated with intellectual disability, autism, or both, and one resulted in no neuropsychiatric diagnosis. There were no reports of schizophrenia associated with loss of function variants of MYT1L (Fisher's exact p < .00001, for contrast with all reported duplications). Although the precise function of the various mutations remains unspecified, these data collectively establish the candidacy of MYT1L as a reciprocal mutation, in which schizophrenia may be engendered by partial duplications, typically involving the 3' end of the gene, while developmental disability-notably autism-is associated with both loss of function and partial duplication. Future research on the specific effects of contrasting mutations in MYT1L may provide insight into the causal origins of autism and schizophrenia.
Project description:Partial duplication of chromosome 3q - dup(3q) - is a recognizable syndrome with dysmorphic facial features, microcephaly, digital anomalies, and genitourinary and cardiac defects, as well as growth retardation and developmental delay. Most cases of dup(3q) result from unbalanced translocations or inversions and are accompanied by additional chromosomal imbalances. Pure dup(3q) is rare, and only 31 cases have been reported so far. We report a new case of a girl with a pure 2-Mb duplication at 3q26.2 not encompassing the known critical region 3q26.3q27. After an extensive review, to the best of our knowledge, the case herein presented harbors the shortest 3q duplication of this region. The clinical phenotype of this patient resembles previously reported cases of pure dup(3q) syndrome, including intellectual disability, synophrys, a wide nasal bridge, dysmorphic ears, clinodactyly, and cardiac defects. We suggest that the 3q26.2 duplication is a candidate copy number alteration explaining our patient's clinical phenotype.
Project description:Background:Disruption of the cholinergic neurotransmitter pathway which is important for cognition, memory and learning abilities has been reported in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. The receptors involved include the Cholinergic Receptors Muscarinic (CHRM). CHRM2 gene has been associated with intelligence, personality traits, substance dependence and depression. CHRM3 has been found to heterodimerize with CHRM2. Methods:DNA samples from 240 AD patients with SNPs rs6962027 of CHRM2 gene and rs7511970 of CHRM3 gene were amplified using PCR and genotyped using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). Chi-squared test was done to check if the genes are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Results and Conclusion:Although the results did not show significant associations, these data denote plausible interaction between TT in SNP rs6962027 in CHRM2 gene and TT in SNP rs7511970 in CHRM3 gene affecting AD risk. SNP rs7511970 of CHRM3 gene may also exert an influence on late-onset AD.
Project description:Background:Previous GWAS studies have shown that there is a relationship between M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM3) rs2165870 polymorphism and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) incidence. However, no Chinese studies have addressed this issue. Methods:To explore the relationship between CHRM3 rs2165870 polymorphism and PONV incidence in a Chinese Han population, we enrolled 512 patients receiving elective surgery in this study. CHRM3 rs2165870 polymorphism was genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. Results:We found that AA genotype or A allele of CHRM3 rs2165870 polymorphism elevated the risk of PONV (AA versus GG; OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.51-5.47; P = 0.001; A versus G; OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07-1.81; P = 0.013). In addition, CHRM3 rs2165870 polymorphism was related to the risk of PONV among the males, smokers, and those individuals with Apfel Score 3-4 or ASA classification 2-3. Last, we assessed the effects of CHRM3 rs2165870 polymorphism on the treatment efficacy of ondansetron for PONV. Data uncovered that 103 of 209 patients (49.3%) showed response to ondansetron treatment for PONV. The PONV incidence was significantly higher in AA genotype carriers compared with GG genotype carriers during the first 2 h after surgery, but not from 2 to 24 h after surgery. Conclusion:To sum up, this study reveals that CHRM3 rs2165870 polymorphism is related to the incidence of PONV and treatment effects of ondansetron for preventing PONV in this Chinese Han population.
Project description:Bladder cancer is one of the major cancer types and both environmental factors and genetic background play important roles in its pathology. Kaohsiung is a high industrialized city in Taiwan, and here we focused on this region to evaluate the genetic effects on bladder cancer. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3) was reported as a key receptor in different cancer types. CHRM3 is located at 1q42-43 which was reported to associate with bladder cancer. Our study attempted to delineate whether genetic variants of CHRM3 contribute to bladder cancer in Chinese Han population in south Taiwan. Five selected SNPs (rs2165870, rs10802789, rs685550, rs7520974, and rs3738435) were genotyped for 30 bladder cancer patients and 60 control individuals and genetic association studies were performed. Five haplotypes (GTTAT, ATTGT, GCTAC, ACTAC, and ACCAC) were found significantly associated with low CHRM3 mRNA level and contributed to increased susceptibility of bladder cancer in Kaohsiung city after rigid 10000 consecutive permutation tests. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic association study that reveals the genetic contribution of CHRM3 gene in bladder cancer etiology.
Project description:Cannabis, the most widely used illicit drug, can induce hallucinations. Our understanding of the biology of cannabis-induced hallucinations (Ca-HL) is limited. We used the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA) to identify cannabis-induced hallucinations (Ca-HL) among long-term cannabis users (used cannabis ?1 year and ?100 times). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted by analyzing European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs) in Yale-Penn 1 and 2 cohorts individually, then meta-analyzing the two cohorts within population. In the meta-analysis of Yale-Penn EAs (n?=?1917), one genome-wide significant (GWS) signal emerged at the CHRM3 locus, represented by rs115455482 (P?=?1.66?×?10-10), rs74722579 (P?=?2.81?×?10-9), and rs1938228 (P?=?1.57?×?10-8); signals were GWS in Yale-Penn 1 EAs (n?=?1092) and nominally significant in Yale-Penn 2 EAs (n?=?825). Two SNPs, rs115455482 and rs74722579, were available from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism data (COGA; 3630 long-term cannabis users). The signals did not replicate, but when meta-analyzing Yale-Penn and COGA EAs, the two SNPs' association signals were increased (meta-P-values 1.32?×?10-10 and 2.60?×?10-9, respectively; n?=?4291). There were no significant findings in AAs, but in the AA meta-analysis (n?=?3624), nominal significance was seen for rs74722579. The rs115455482*T risk allele was associated with lower CHRM3 expression in the thalamus. CHRM3 was co-expressed with three psychosis risk genes (GABAG2, CHRNA4, and HRH3) in the thalamus and other human brain tissues and mouse GABAergic neurons. This work provides strong evidence for the association of CHRM3 with Ca-HL and provides insight into the potential involvement of thalamus for this trait.
Project description:Copy number variations associated with abnormal gene dosage have an important role in the genetic etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability (ID) and autism. We hypothesize that the chromosome 2q23.1 region encompassing MBD5 is a dosage-dependent region, wherein deletion or duplication results in altered gene dosage. We previously established the 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome and report herein 23 individuals with 2q23.1 duplications, thus establishing a complementary duplication syndrome. The observed phenotype includes ID, language impairments, infantile hypotonia and gross motor delay, behavioral problems, autistic features, dysmorphic facial features (pinnae anomalies, arched eyebrows, prominent nose, small chin, thin upper lip), and minor digital anomalies (fifth finger clinodactyly and large broad first toe). The microduplication size varies among all cases and ranges from 68 kb to 53.7 Mb, encompassing a region that includes MBD5, an important factor in methylation patterning and epigenetic regulation. We previously reported that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 is the primary causal factor in 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome and that mutations in MBD5 are associated with autism. In this study, we demonstrate that MBD5 is the only gene in common among all duplication cases and that overexpression of MBD5 is likely responsible for the core clinical features present in 2q23.1 microduplication syndrome. Phenotypic analyses suggest that 2q23.1 duplication results in a slightly less severe phenotype than the reciprocal deletion. The features associated with a deletion, mutation or duplication of MBD5 and the gene expression changes observed support MBD5 as a dosage-sensitive gene critical for normal development.
Project description:Copy number variants of the X-chromosome are a common cause of X-linked intellectual disability in males. Duplication of the Xq28 band has been known for over a decade to be the cause of the Lubs X-linked Mental Retardation Syndrome (OMIM 300620) in males and this duplication has been narrowed to a critical region containing only the genes MECP2 and IRAK1. In 2009, four families with a distal duplication of Xq28 not including MECP2 and mediated by low-copy repeats (LCRs) designated "K" and "L" were reported with intellectual disability and epilepsy. Duplication of a second more distal region has been described as the cause of the Int22h-1/Int22h-2 Mediated Xq28 Duplication Syndrome, characterized by intellectual disability, psychiatric problems, and recurrent infections. We report two additional families possessing the K/L-mediated Xq28 duplication with affected males having intellectual disability and epilepsy similar to the previously reported phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the second cohort of individuals to be reported with this duplication and therefore supports K/L-mediated Xq28 duplications as a distinct syndrome.